Presentation on theme: "April 19, 1775 to October 1781 (when troops surrender)"— Presentation transcript:
1April 19, 1775 to October 1781 (when troops surrender)
2The Players Patriots-people who supported the war -Tended to be located in the New England and VA (40-45% pop)-Never more than troops at one time-Offered freedom to slaves who fought-Continental Army and militias-CA was disciplined sector and militias were not—often left to tend farms or families when so desiredLoyalists-Tories-people who supported Britain-Tended to be located in NY, NJ, GA (15-20% pop.)British Army Strenths: Strong, well-trained navy and armyStrong central gov’t with moneySupport of colonial Loyalists and Am. IndiansGreat Britain’s Weaknesses:Large distance separating British from battlefieldsTroops unfamiliar with terrainWeak military leadersUnited States’ Strengths:Familiarity of home groundLeadership of George WashingtonInspiring Cause-independence!United States’ Weaknesses:Most soldiers untrained and undisciplinedShortage of food and ammoInferior navyNo central governmentApproximately 25,000 American men died in this war
4Weapons Flintlock musket -astounding 3 shots per minute! Rifle-good at long distancesPistol-good at short rangeCanonsBayonets, tomahawks, pitchforks, swordsCurrency was issued by each state
5Major BattlesBunker Hill-misnamed because it occurred at Breed’s Hill. Americans lost, but British had high casualties; King George rejected Olive Branch Petition. June 17, 1775.Siege of Boston-Washington and “militia” (later C.Army) forced British evacuation. 11 month siege (April 1775-March 1776). Opening phase of Revolution.New York-Washington led militia forces, they lost. As a result, British generals (Howe brothers) wanted a repeal of the Declaration. Fighting ensued and the British won control of harbor. Americans forced to retreat to NJ-whole companies of American militias deserted. WinterTrenton-To boost morale and ensure victory, Washington planned a surprise attack on German mercenaries from Hesse (Hessians) by crossing the Delarware River on Christmas night. It was successful and pushed the British back to NYC and saved American moraleSaratoga-September-October TURNING point of American Revolution. British General Burgoyne forced to surrender. France formally assisted America.Valley Forge-national symbol of endurance. NW of Philadelphia. Deplorable conditions, 2500 died. Resulted from defeat of Germantown. Washington kept army’s spirits alive to fight another day! WinterYorktown-Washington and French General Rochambeau marched men in 1 month. Bombarded by French and American canon; last major land battle of the war. Articles of Capitulation were signed October 19, 1781.
6Famous Persons and Role of Women Benedict Arnold-famous traitor, spy for BritishGeneral Burgoyne-British general who surrenders at SaratogaGeneral Cornwallis-British general who surrendered, but didn’t attend surrender.George Washington-leader of Continental ArmyFrederich von Steuben-Prussian military leader who assisted Washington in training the army at Valley ForgeEthan Allen-war hero, leader of Vermont, Ticonderoga, “Green Mountain Boys”General Rochambeau-French general who assisted Washington at YorktownMercy Otis Warren-1st female playwright, wrote about Rev. WarMolly Pitcher-represents women’s involvement-worked as volunteers, nurses, seamstresses, ran water for soldiers, took up arms during battles from fallen spouses, traveled with armies
7Important Facts that helped us WIN! US received financial assistance from France and Spain—France joined after Saratoga (Oct. 1777) in June 1778Spain declared war against GB in 1779GB attempted to pull fighting to South where many Loyalists livedKing George III grants independence March 1782Treaty of Paris of 1783-US officially recognized as independent-Miss. R. was western boundary-fishing rights off of Canada-Americans would pay debt to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims to property
9Becoming a NationStates had individual constitutions that largely included rights, separation of powers, voting stipulations and office holding parametersArticles of Confederation passed in 1781:-One body of government=Congress-Powers=wage war, make treaties, diplomatic reps, borrow money-Accomplishments=-Land Ordinance of 1785-NW Ordinance of 1787