Presentation on theme: "Qin [Chin] Dynasty, 221- 206 B.C.E. Established Chinas first empire Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administration Centralized."— Presentation transcript:
Qin [Chin] Dynasty, B.C.E. Established Chinas first empire Shi Huangdi ( B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings targeted Confucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall
Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Army
Shi Huangdis Terra Cotta Soldiers & Cavalrymen
The Details of an Individual Soldier
The Great Wall with Towers
The Eastern terminus of the Great Wall, Shanhai Pass
Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. People of the Han original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia
Han – Roman Empire Connection
Chang an The Han Capital
Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113 BCE) His jade suit has 2498 pieces!
Emperor Wudi, B.C.E. Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service system bureaucrats Confucian scholar-gentry Revival of Chinese landscape painting.
Han Artifacts Imperial Seal Han Ceramic House
Ceramics, Later Han Period
Trade Routes of the Ancient World
Multi-Cultural Faces -- People Along the Silk Road
Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression. Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia
Sui Dynasty, C.E. Land Equalization System land redistribution. Unified coinage. Grand Canal constructed. Established an army of professional soldiers. People were overworked and overtaxed!
The Grand Canal
The Grand Canal Today
Tang Dynasty, C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. Japan, Korea, Persia
Tang Government Organization
Tang Dynasty, C.E. New technologies: Printing moveable print Porcelain Gunpowder Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.
Empress Wu Zetian, The only female Empress in Chinas history who ruled alone. Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. Construction of new irrigation systems. Buddhism was the favored state religion. Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. BUT… She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies.
Foot-Binding in Tang China Broken toes by 3 years of age. Size 5 ½ shoe on the right
Foot-Binding in Tang China Mothers bound their daughters feet.
Foot-Binding in Tang China For upper-class girls, it became a new custom.
The Results of Foot- Binding
Song [Sung] Dynasty, C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power!
Song Peasant Family
Rice Cultivation Began Under the Song
Song Rice Cultivation
Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] Yurt
Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c
Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c
The MONGOLS [Golden Horde] Temujin --> Genghis Khan [Universal Ruler] from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia]
The MONGOLS [Golden Horde] Genghis Khans Tax Laws: If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity. If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children. If you do not have children, we will take your wife. If you do not have a wife, we will take your head. Used cruelty as a weapon some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!
Mongol Nobleman, late 13c
Robe of a Mongol Nobleman, early 14c
Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c
The Extent of the Mongol Empire
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, C.E. Kublai Khan [r ] Pax Mongolica [Mongol Peace] Tolerated Chinese culture but lived apart from them. No Chinese in top govt. posts. Believed foreigners were more trustworthy. Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China. Marco Polo
Marco Polo ( ) A Venetian merchant. Traveled through Yuan China: Black Stones [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles.
Marco Polos Travels
Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics
Yuan Dynasty, C.E. The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan ,000 warriors Defeated by kamikazi [winds of the gods] Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life.
Chinas last native imperial dynasty!
The Forbidden City: Chinas New Capital
Revived the Civil Service Exam
Ming Cultural Revolution Printing & Literacy Cheap, popular books: woodblock printing. cheap paper. Examination system. Leads to explosion in literacy. Leads to further popularization of the commercial market. Culture & Art Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera.
Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver Convoys Triangle route: Philippines to China to Japan. Silver floods Chinese Market: Causes devaluation of currency & recession Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe. Helps fund conquest of New World Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
Ming Dynasty, C.E. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness Three different schools of painting developed. Hundreds of thousands of workers constructed the Forbidden City.
Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r )
The Tribute System
Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) Ming Treasure Fleet Each ship 400 long & 160 wide
Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) Chinas Columbus?
Admiral Zheng Hes Voyages First Voyage: [62 ships; 27,800 men]. Second Voyage: [Ho didnt go on this trip]. Third Voyage: [48 ships; 30,000 men]. Fourth Voyage: [63 ships; 28,500 men]. Fifth Voyage: Sixth Voyage: Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work. Seventh Voyage: Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.
> Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas favorite port.
Ming Porcelain / Ceramics, 17c– 18c
Ming Vases, 18c
Ming Carved Lacquer Dish 15c
Ming Scroll Painting Travellers in Autumn Mountains
Ming Painting – Taoist Scholar
Ming Painting – Birds and Flowers, 16c
Ming Painting and Calligraphy, early 16c
Imperial Chinas Impact on History Removed religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history The Dynastic Cycle