Qin [Chin] Dynasty, 221- 206 B.C.E. Established Chinas first empire Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings targeted Confucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall
Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. People of the Han original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.] Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia
Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. Japan, Korea, Persia
Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. New technologies: Printing moveable print Porcelain Gunpowder Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.
Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 The only female Empress in Chinas history who ruled alone. Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. Construction of new irrigation systems. Buddhism was the favored state religion. Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. BUT… She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies.
Foot-Binding in Tang China Broken toes by 3 years of age. Size 5 ½ shoe on the right
Foot-Binding in Tang China Mothers bound their daughters feet.
Foot-Binding in Tang China For upper-class girls, it became a new custom.
Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power!
The MONGOLS [Golden Horde] Temujin --> Genghis Khan [Universal Ruler] 1162 - 1227 from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia]
The MONGOLS [Golden Horde] Genghis Khans Tax Laws: If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity. If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children. If you do not have children, we will take your wife. If you do not have a wife, we will take your head. Used cruelty as a weapon some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E. Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294] Pax Mongolica [Mongol Peace] Tolerated Chinese culture but lived apart from them. No Chinese in top govt. posts. Believed foreigners were more trustworthy. Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China. Marco Polo
Marco Polo (1254- 1324) A Venetian merchant. Traveled through Yuan China: 1271-1295 Black Stones [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles.
Yuan Dynasty, 1279- 1368 C.E. The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan. 1281 150,000 warriors Defeated by kamikazi [winds of the gods] Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life.
Ming Cultural Revolution Printing & Literacy Cheap, popular books: woodblock printing. cheap paper. Examination system. Leads to explosion in literacy. Leads to further popularization of the commercial market. Culture & Art Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera.
Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver Convoys Triangle route: Philippines to China to Japan. Silver floods Chinese Market: Causes devaluation of currency & recession Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe. Helps fund conquest of New World Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness Three different schools of painting developed. Hundreds of thousands of workers constructed the Forbidden City.
Admiral Zheng Hes Voyages First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didnt go on this trip]. Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419 Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422 Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work. Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433 Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip.
1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas favorite port.
Imperial Chinas Impact on History Removed religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history The Dynastic Cycle