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Presentation on theme: "This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including."— Presentation transcript:

1 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language and Thinking: What Humans Do Best

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Essentials: What Makes Language Language? Language production Language production Generative Generative Language comprehension Language comprehension

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Four Aspects of Language

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Aspects of Language: Phonology The structure of sounds that can be used to produce words in a language Phonemes Phonemes Basic building blocks of speech sounds Basic building blocks of speech sounds Humans can produce about 100 Humans can produce about 100 Different languages use different phonemes Different languages use different phonemes French soft rs do not exist in English French soft rs do not exist in English Japanese has no rs at all Japanese has no rs at all

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Aspects of Language: Syntax The rules for combining different types of words in sentences

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Aspects of Language: Syntax Aphasia: a disruption of language due to brain damage Aphasia: a disruption of language due to brain damage Brocas aphasia Brocas aphasia Wernickes aphasia Wernickes aphasia

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Aspects of Language: Semantics The meaning of a word or sentence Morphemes Morphemes Smallest units of meaning in a language Smallest units of meaning in a language Propositional representations Propositional representations Mental sentences that represent the unambiguous meaning of assertions Mental sentences that represent the unambiguous meaning of assertions

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Aspects of Language: Pragmatics The way that language conveys meaning indirectly, by implying rather than asserting Is your mommy home? Yes The basis of metaphors and some humor The basis of metaphors and some humor

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development Empiricism Empiricism Language is entirely learned Language is entirely learned Championed by B. F. Skinner Championed by B. F. Skinner Nativism Nativism Some aspects of language are innate Some aspects of language are innate Language acquisition device (LAD) Language acquisition device (LAD) Championed by Noam Chomsky Championed by Noam Chomsky

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development Overextension Overextension Underextension Underextension Kitty –Animal Kitty

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development Enriching Environments Enriching Environments Hart & Risley (1995/2002, 1999) Hart & Risley (1995/2002, 1999) Studied children of professionals, working-class parents, and families receiving welfare Studied children of professionals, working-class parents, and families receiving welfare Vocabulary size at age 3 Vocabulary size at age Children of professionals 1100Children of professionals 750Children of working-class 750Children of working-class 500Children of parents on welfare 500Children of parents on welfare

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development Grammar Grammar The rules that are used to build acceptable sentences The rules that are used to build acceptable sentences Telegraphic speech Telegraphic speech Go sleep. Give juice. Go sleep. Give juice. Overregularization errors Overregularization errors Errors in which newly learned rules are misapplied Errors in which newly learned rules are misapplied Examples: runned, foots, goed Examples: runned, foots, goed

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development Biological Basis Biological Basis Phases of language acquisition Phases of language acquisition Critical and sensitive periods Critical and sensitive periods Cases of feral children Cases of feral children There appears to be a critical period for grammar acquisition There appears to be a critical period for grammar acquisition There may not be a critical period for language comprehension There may not be a critical period for language comprehension Is there a language gene? Is there a language gene? Families who share specific language impairment Families who share specific language impairment

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Ways to Communicate: Are They Language? Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication Sign language Sign language Gesture Gesture Animal communication Animal communication

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Bilingualism Learning a second language Learning a second language Critical period or sensitive period? Critical period or sensitive period? Bilingualism and the brain Bilingualism and the brain

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Means of Thought What is thinking? What is thinking? Words? Words? Images? Images? Concepts? Concepts? Something else? Something else?

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Thoughts and Words Linguistic relativity hypothesis Linguistic relativity hypothesis Thoughts are shaped by language Thoughts are shaped by language The language you speak limits your thoughts The language you speak limits your thoughts Inuit have many words for the different types of snow Inuit have many words for the different types of snow Not entirely true BUT there is a relationship between language, memory, and perception Not entirely true BUT there is a relationship between language, memory, and perception

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Mental Imagery Internal representations like those from perception but from stored information rather than immediate sensory input Visual mental images Visual mental images How many windows are in your home? How many windows are in your home? Mental images occur with all five senses: visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and tactile Mental images occur with all five senses: visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, and tactile

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Visual Imagery Mental space Mental space Spatial extent Spatial extent Limited size Limited size Grain Grain Manipulation of mental objects Manipulation of mental objects

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Mental Rotation

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Concepts: Neither Images nor Words Category Category Fruit Fruit Prototype Prototype Apple Apple Typicality Typicality Apple: high Apple: high Avocado: low Avocado: low

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are These? The basic level

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Problem Solving

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Problem Solving Representation problem Representation problem Functional fixedness Functional fixedness Ill-defined problems Ill-defined problems Well-defined problems Well-defined problems

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Algorithms and Heuristics Strategy Strategy Algorithm Algorithm Set of steps guaranteed to reach a solution Set of steps guaranteed to reach a solution Heuristic Heuristic Rule of thumb that may offer a shortcut but is not guaranteed to reach a solution Rule of thumb that may offer a shortcut but is not guaranteed to reach a solution

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Solving Problems by Analogy Using knowledge about similar problems to solve new problems Using knowledge about similar problems to solve new problems Solving Dunckers X ray problem Solving Dunckers X ray problem Without analogy: 10% Without analogy: 10% With analogy: 75% With analogy: 75%

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sudden Solutions Insight Insight The aha experience The aha experience People have difficulty predicting their ability to solve insight problems People have difficulty predicting their ability to solve insight problems Incubation Incubation

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Problem Solving Cognitive control Cognitive control Expertise Expertise 10 years in the making! 10 years in the making! Deliberate practice Deliberate practice Chase & Simon (1973) Chase & Simon (1973) Memory of masters vs. novices Memory of masters vs. novices Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence Neural networks Neural networks

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Are People Logical? Logic Logic Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Mental models Mental models Inductive reasoning Inductive reasoning

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Are People Logical? Logical errors Logical errors Affirming the consequent Affirming the consequent Confirmation bias Confirmation bias

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Meet Linda… A 31-year-old, single, outspoken, very bright woman, majored in philosophy, participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations Linda is most likely… 1. A bank teller 2. An insurance salesperson 3. A bank teller active in the feminist movement

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Representativeness Heuristic The more similar something is to a prototype stored in memory, the more likely it is to belong to that category

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Judgments Which occurs more frequently: Which occurs more frequently: English words with the letter k in the first or third position? English words with the letter k in the first or third position? Which is more common: Which is more common: Dying from a car accident or plane crash? Dying from a car accident or plane crash? What percentage of the chores: What percentage of the chores: Do you do? Do you do? Does your roommate/partner do? Does your roommate/partner do?

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Availability Heuristic The easier events or objects are brought to mind, the more likely, common, or frequent they are judged to be How long will it take you to complete your next paper? How long will it take you to complete your next paper? The planning fallacy The planning fallacy

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Emotions and Intuition in Decision Making Is Mr. Spock correct? Do emotions cloud good judgment? Is Mr. Spock correct? Do emotions cloud good judgment? Emotional state can affect decision making Emotional state can affect decision making Positive Positive Negative Negative Intuition Intuition


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