Presentation on theme: "PSYC550 Biological Bases of Behavior Sense or Senseless?"— Presentation transcript:
PSYC550 Biological Bases of Behavior Sense or Senseless?
The Stimulus sensory receptors –A specialized neuron that detects a particular category of physical events. sensory transduction –The process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials. receptor potential –A slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus.
The Stimulus hue –One of the perceptual dimensions of color; the dominant wavelength. brightness –One of the perceptual dimensions of color; intensity. saturation –One of the perceptual dimension of color; purity.
Anatomy of the Visual System vergence movement –The cooperative movement of the eyes, which ensures that the image of an object falls on identical portions of both retinas. saccadic movement –The rapid, jerky movements of the eyes used in scanning a visual scene. pursuit movement –The movement that the eyes make to maintain an image of a moving object on the fovea.
Anatomy of the Visual System accommodation –Changes in the thickness of the lens of the eye, accomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of near or far objects on the retina. retina –The neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye. rod –One of the receptor cells of the retina; sensitive to light of low intensity. cone –One of the receptor cells of the retina; maximally sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision.
Anatomy of the Visual System photoreceptor –One of the receptor cells of the retina; transduces photic energy into electrical potentials. fovea –The region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals. Color-sensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found in the fovea. optic disk –The location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot.
Anatomy of the Visual System bipolar cell –A bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina, conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. ganglion cell –A neuron located in the retina that receives visual information from bipolar cells; its axon give rise to the optic nerve. horizontal cell –A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer processes of the bipolar cells. amacrine cell –A neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the inner processes of the bipolar cells.
Anatomy of the Visual System dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus –A group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus; receives inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex. magnocellular layer –One of the inner two layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits information necessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small differences in brightness to the primary visual cortex.
Anatomy of the Visual System parvocellular layer –One of the four outer layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits information necessary for perception of color and fine details to the primary visual cortex.
Anatomy of the Visual System calcarine fissure –A horizontal fissure on the inner surface of the posterior cerebral cortex; the location of the primary visual cortex. striate cortex –The primary visual cortex. optic chiasm –A cross-shaped connection between the optic nerves, located below the base of the brain, just anterior to the pituitary gland.
Coding of Visual Information in the Retina receptive field –The portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in the firing rate of a particular neuron.
Coding of Visual Information in the Retina negative afterimage –The image seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimulus; consists of colors complementary to those of the physical stimulus.
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex simple cell –An orientation-sensitive neuron in the striate cortex whose receptive field is organized in an opponent fashion. complex cell –A neuron in the visual cortex that responds to the presence of a line segment with a particular orientation located within its receptive field, especially when the line moves perpendicular to its orientation. hypercomplex cell –A neuron in the visual cortex that responds to the presence of a line segment with a particular orientation that ends at a particular point within the cells receptive field.
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex cytochrome oxidase (CO) blob –The central region of a module of primary visual cortex, revealed by a stain for cytochrome oxidase; contains wavelength-sensitive neurons; part of the parvocellular system. ocular dominance –The extent to which a particular neuron receives more input from one eye than from the other.
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex extrastriate cortex –A region of visual association cortex; receives fibers from the striate cortex and from the superior colliculi and projects to the inferior temporal cortex. dorsal stream –A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of spatial location, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the posterior parietal cortex.
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex ventral stream –A system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of form, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the inferior temporal cortex. inferior temporal cortex –In primates the highest level of the ventral stream of the visual association cortex; located on the inferior portion of the temporal lobe.
From the retina to other parts of the brain Superior colliculus –Head orientation to movements in peripheral field Accessory optic nucleus –Eye movements to compensate for head movements Suprachiasmatic nucleus –Controls circadian rhythms Pineal body –Controls circannual rhythms
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex visual agnosia –Deficits in visual perception in the absence of blindness; caused by brain damage. apperceptive visual agnosia –Failure to perceive objects, even though visual acuity is relatively normal. associative visual agnosia –Inability to identify objects that are perceived visually, even though the form of the perceived object can be drawn or matched with similar objects. prosopagnosia –Failure to recognize particular people by the sight of their faces.
Damage to the parietal lobe Critical for spacial perception and locating objects in space ocular apraxia –Difficulty in visual scanning. simultanagnosia –Difficulty in perceiving more than one object at a time. Optic ataxia –Deficit in reaching for objects under visual guidance
Audition tympanic membrane –The eardrum. ossicle –One of the three bones of the middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes). malleus –The hammer; the first of the three ossicles. incus –The anvil; the second of the three ossicles. stapes –The stirrup; the last of the three ossicles.
Audition cochlea –The snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transducing mechanisms. oval window –An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea that reveals a membrane, against which the baseplate of the stapes presses, transmitting sound vibrations into the fluid within the cochlea. organ of Corti –The sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells. hair cell –The receptive cell of the auditory apparatus.
Audition basilar membrane –A membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; contains the organ of Corti. tectorial membrane –A membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move.
Audition cilium –A hair-like appendage of a cell involved in movement or in transducing sensory information; found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular system. tip link –An elastic filament that attaches the tip of one cilium to the side of the adjacent cilium.
From the ear to… Medulla –Cochlear nuclei –Superior olivary nuclei –Lateral lemniscus To inferior colliculus To medial geniculate To auditory cortex
Audition cochlear nerve –The branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea to the brain. superior olivary complex –One of a group of nuclei in the medulla; involved with auditory functions, including localization of the source of sounds.
Audition lateral lemniscus –A band of fibers running rostrally through the medulla and pons; carries fibers of the auditory system. tonotopic representation –A topographically organized mapping of different frequencies of sound that are represented in a particular region of the brain.
Audition place code –The system by which information about the different frequencies is coded by different locations on the basilar membrane. cochlear implant –An electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that can enable a deaf person to hear.
What happens if we give a bilateral lesion of the auditory cortex? 1.Can detect pitch and intensity, but not melodies 2.Can hear, but cant detect pitch or intensity 3.Will be completely deaf 10
What happens if we lesion the inferior colliculus? 1.Can detect pitch and intensity, but not melodies 2.Can hear, but cant detect pitch or intensity 3.Will be completely deaf 10
What happens if we lesion the lateral lemniscus? 1.Can detect pitch and intensity, but not melodies 2.Can hear, but cant detect pitch or intensity 3.Will be completely deaf 10
Somatosenses cutaneous sense –One of the somatosenses; includes sensitivity to stimuli that involve the skin. kinesthesia –Perception of the bodys own movement. organic sense –A sense modality that arises from receptors located within the inner organs of the body.
Somatosenses glabrous skin –Skin that does not contain hair; found on the palms and soles of the feet. Ruffini corpuscle –A vibration-sensitive organ located in hairy skin. Pacinian corpuscle –A specialized, encapsulated somatosensory nerve ending that detects mechanical stimuli, especially vibrations.
Somatosenses Meissners corpuscle –The touch-sensitive end organs located in the papillae, small elevations of the dermis that project up into the epidermis. Merkels disk –The touch-sensitive end organs found at the base of the epidermis, adjacent to sweat ducts.
Somatosenses phantom limb –Sensations that appear to originate in a limb that has been amputated. nucleus raphe magnus –A nucleus of the raphe that contains serotonin-secreting neurons that project to the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord and is involved in analgesia produced by opiates.