Presentation on theme: "PSYC550 Biological Bases of Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1PSYC550 Biological Bases of Behavior Sense or Senseless?
2The Stimulus sensory receptors sensory transduction receptor potential A specialized neuron that detects a particular category of physical events.sensory transductionThe process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials.receptor potentialA slow, graded electrical potential produced by a receptor cell in response to a physical stimulus.
4The Stimulus hue brightness saturation One of the perceptual dimensions of color; the dominant wavelength.brightnessOne of the perceptual dimensions of color; intensity.saturationOne of the perceptual dimension of color; purity.
6Anatomy of the Visual System vergence movementThe cooperative movement of the eyes, which ensures that the image of an object falls on identical portions of both retinas.saccadic movementThe rapid, jerky movements of the eyes used in scanning a visual scene.pursuit movementThe movement that the eyes make to maintain an image of a moving object on the fovea.
8Anatomy of the Visual System accommodationChanges in the thickness of the lens of the eye, accomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of near or far objects on the retina.retinaThe neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye.rodOne of the receptor cells of the retina; sensitive to light of low intensity.coneOne of the receptor cells of the retina; maximally sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision.
9Anatomy of the Visual System photoreceptorOne of the receptor cells of the retina; transduces photic energy into electrical potentials.foveaThe region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals. Color-sensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found in the fovea.optic diskThe location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot.
11Anatomy of the Visual System bipolar cellA bipolar neuron located in the middle layer of the retina, conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells.ganglion cellA neuron located in the retina that receives visual information from bipolar cells; its axon give rise to the optic nerve.horizontal cellA neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent photoreceptors and the outer processes of the bipolar cells.amacrine cellA neuron in the retina that interconnects adjacent ganglion cells and the inner processes of the bipolar cells.
13Anatomy of the Visual System dorsal lateral geniculate nucleusA group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus; receives inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex.magnocellular layerOne of the inner two layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits information necessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small differences in brightness to the primary visual cortex.
14Anatomy of the Visual System parvocellular layerOne of the four outer layers of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; transmits information necessary for perception of color and fine details to the primary visual cortex.
16Anatomy of the Visual System calcarine fissureA horizontal fissure on the inner surface of the posterior cerebral cortex; the location of the primary visual cortex.striate cortexThe primary visual cortex.optic chiasmA cross-shaped connection between the optic nerves, located below the base of the brain, just anterior to the pituitary gland.
19Coding of Visual Information in the Retina receptive fieldThe portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in the firing rate of a particular neuron.
22Coding of Visual Information in the Retina negative afterimageThe image seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimulus; consists of colors complementary to those of the physical stimulus.
25Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex simple cellAn orientation-sensitive neuron in the striate cortex whose receptive field is organized in an opponent fashion.complex cellA neuron in the visual cortex that responds to the presence of a line segment with a particular orientation located within its receptive field, especially when the line moves perpendicular to its orientation.hypercomplex cellA neuron in the visual cortex that responds to the presence of a line segment with a particular orientation that ends at a particular point within the cell’s receptive field.
29Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex cytochrome oxidase (CO) blobThe central region of a module of primary visual cortex, revealed by a stain for cytochrome oxidase; contains wavelength-sensitive neurons; part of the parvocellular system.ocular dominanceThe extent to which a particular neuron receives more input from one eye than from the other.
31Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex extrastriate cortexA region of visual association cortex; receives fibers from the striate cortex and from the superior colliculi and projects to the inferior temporal cortex.dorsal streamA system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of spatial location, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the posterior parietal cortex.
32Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex ventral streamA system of interconnected regions of visual cortex involved in the perception of form, beginning with the striate cortex and ending with the inferior temporal cortex.inferior temporal cortexIn primates the highest level of the ventral stream of the visual association cortex; located on the inferior portion of the temporal lobe.
33From the retina to other parts of the brain Superior colliculusHead orientation to movements in peripheral fieldAccessory optic nucleusEye movements to compensate for head movementsSuprachiasmatic nucleusControls circadian rhythmsPineal bodyControls circannual rhythms
35Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex visual agnosiaDeficits in visual perception in the absence of blindness; caused by brain damage.apperceptive visual agnosiaFailure to perceive objects, even though visual acuity is relatively normal.associative visual agnosiaInability to identify objects that are perceived visually, even though the form of the perceived object can be drawn or matched with similar objects.prosopagnosiaFailure to recognize particular people by the sight of their faces.
36Damage to the parietal lobe Critical for spacial perception and locating objects in spaceocular apraxiaDifficulty in visual scanning.simultanagnosiaDifficulty in perceiving more than one object at a time.Optic ataxiaDeficit in reaching for objects under visual guidance
39Audition tympanic membrane The eardrum. ossicle One of the three bones of the middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes).malleusThe “hammer”; the first of the three ossicles.incusThe “anvil”; the second of the three ossicles.stapesThe “stirrup”; the last of the three ossicles.
40AuditioncochleaThe snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transducing mechanisms.oval windowAn opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea that reveals a membrane, against which the baseplate of the stapes presses, transmitting sound vibrations into the fluid within the cochlea.organ of CortiThe sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells.hair cellThe receptive cell of the auditory apparatus.
44Audition basilar membrane tectorial membrane A membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; contains the organ of Corti.tectorial membraneA membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move.
45Audition cilium tip link A hair-like appendage of a cell involved in movement or in transducing sensory information; found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular system.tip linkAn elastic filament that attaches the tip of one cilium to the side of the adjacent cilium.
49From the ear to… Medulla To inferior colliculus To medial geniculate Cochlear nucleiSuperior olivary nucleiLateral lemniscusTo inferior colliculusTo medial geniculateTo auditory cortex
50Audition cochlear nerve superior olivary complex The branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea to the brain.superior olivary complexOne of a group of nuclei in the medulla; involved with auditory functions, including localization of the source of sounds.
51Audition lateral lemniscus tonotopic representation A band of fibers running rostrally through the medulla and pons; carries fibers of the auditory system.tonotopic representationA topographically organized mapping of different frequencies of sound that are represented in a particular region of the brain.
53Audition place code cochlear implant The system by which information about the different frequencies is coded by different locations on the basilar membrane.cochlear implantAn electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that can enable a deaf person to hear.
55What happens if we give a bilateral lesion of the auditory cortex? Can detect pitch and intensity, but not “melodies”Can hear, but can’t detect pitch or intensityWill be completely deaf10
56What happens if we lesion the inferior colliculus? Can detect pitch and intensity, but not “melodies”Can hear, but can’t detect pitch or intensityWill be completely deaf10
57What happens if we lesion the lateral lemniscus? Can detect pitch and intensity, but not “melodies”Can hear, but can’t detect pitch or intensityWill be completely deaf10
58Somatosenses cutaneous sense kinesthesia organic sense One of the somatosenses; includes sensitivity to stimuli that involve the skin.kinesthesiaPerception of the body’s own movement.organic senseA sense modality that arises from receptors located within the inner organs of the body.
59Somatosenses glabrous skin Ruffini corpuscle Pacinian corpuscle Skin that does not contain hair; found on the palms and soles of the feet.Ruffini corpuscleA vibration-sensitive organ located in hairy skin.Pacinian corpuscleA specialized, encapsulated somatosensory nerve ending that detects mechanical stimuli, especially vibrations.
60Somatosenses Meissner’s corpuscle Merkel’s disk The touch-sensitive end organs located in the papillae, small elevations of the dermis that project up into the epidermis.Merkel’s diskThe touch-sensitive end organs found at the base of the epidermis, adjacent to sweat ducts.
62Somatosenses phantom limb nucleus raphe magnus Sensations that appear to originate in a limb that has been amputated.nucleus raphe magnusA nucleus of the raphe that contains serotonin-secreting neurons that project to the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord and is involved in analgesia produced by opiates.