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The Positive AACtion Kit: An evidence-based information package for parents, teachers and others supporting school-aged children to use AAC Emma J Harris,

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Presentation on theme: "The Positive AACtion Kit: An evidence-based information package for parents, teachers and others supporting school-aged children to use AAC Emma J Harris,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Positive AACtion Kit: An evidence-based information package for parents, teachers and others supporting school-aged children to use AAC Emma J Harris, Sharon Ryder and Lisa Totten Speech Pathologists Rocky Bay

2 Outline Background All About AAC Working Together Selecting a Communication Device Trialing a Communication Device Funding for AAC Supporting Communication Device Use

3 What is AAC? Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assists people with complex communication needs (CCN) to be understood by others Unaided methods (eg gesture, signs, facial expression) Aided methods: –Low tech (eg alphabet or picture boards, communication books) –High tech (eg speech generating devices-SGDs)

4 Reported Positive Outcomes Positive outcomes in some young children using a variety of AAC methods have been reported by caregivers and include: –Improved communication –More social opportunities –Improved quality of life –More educational opportunities –Increased independence (Angelo, 2000; Bailey et al, 2006; reviewed in Light & Drager, 2007)

5 AAC Device Return and Abandonment Estimated 75% of high-tech devices are abandoned by the people who use them (Stevens [Becta] 2006, as cited in Scope, 2007) Impact: –Child may not have an effective means of communication –Effect of past negative experience (Pendergrass & Vestal, 2002) –Costs (finance & otherwise)

6 Commonly Reported Supports and Barriers SupportsBarriers Ease of AAC device use Technological barriers, eg Break down Resultant frustration Effective teaming and services Ineffective teaming Family involvement Belief user understood without device Inadequate training Sources: Ford, 2000 as cited in Scope, 2007; McNaughton et al, 2008; Allaire et al, 1991; Bailey et al, 2006; Johnson et al, 2006; Lund and Light, 2007.

7 Supporting AAC Device Users Best practice includes: Working as a team Integration into everyday routines Providing meaningful opportunities to use device Training and supporting communication partners Ongoing device programming Providing extensive and long-term support (Speech Pathology Australia, 2004; Pendergrass and Vestal, 2002)

8 Perspectives of WA Caregivers Qualitative interview of 12 Western Australian caregivers of school-aged children who had trialed or used SGDs (Totten and Ryder, 2009) To identify caregiver perceptions on: –supports and barriers for positive outcomes –roles and responsibilities of team members

9 Considerations for Service Delivery Assessment Family centred Ask about and respect family values Clear articulation of whats involved Clearly negotiate roles and responsibilities with all stakeholders Show families a range of devices (Totten and Ryder, 2009)

10 Considerations for Service Delivery Collaboration Sharing information – a responsibility for all stakeholders –Regular meetings –Sharing how child uses SGD in different environments –Working towards common goals (Totten and Ryder, 2009)

11 Developing the Positive AACtion Kit Goals: Increase knowledge about AAC systems Provide information in choosing, trialling and/or supporting the use of a SGD Promote evidence-based strategies Emphasise the importance of teamwork

12 Developing the Positive AACtion Kit Received NGCS Funding Contracted a speechie with extensive AAC experience to implement project Invited stakeholders experienced in AAC to provide feedback before finalising Stakeholders advised of kit availability Final copies distributed Positive AACtion Kit available on Rocky Bay website

13 Feedback Forms All respondents agreed or strongly agreed: They now knew more about AAC They now knew more about communication devices Their understanding of strategies to increase communication device success had improved Using the Kit would improve their work with children who use AAC They would recommend the Kit to others

14 Online Feedback Positive AACtion Kit was also accessed through the Rocky Bay website Informal feedback was received from 6 individuals via email Feedback was unanimously positive What an amazing resource. As a special ed teacher and mum of ASD children using AAC devices it will prove invaluable.

15 Use and Layout Part of a collaborative team model Information sheets given as needed Provide basis for further discussion/planning Information sheets: –Link to other info sheets and templates –Include a summary of key points –Have links to Find Out More

16 1. All About AAC 1.1AAC – An Introduction 1.2Communication Development 1.3AAC Does Not Hinder Natural Speech Development 1.4Types of AAC

17 1. All About AAC Low-tech AAC increased speech production for 89% of subjects (Millar et al, 2006) SGD intervention didnt hinder and often aided speech development (Romski et al, 2010) Preschoolers used a variety of AAC systems (Binger and Light, 2006)

18 2. Working Together 2.1A Family Centred Approach to AAC 2.2What Families Need to Know 2.3What Schools Need to Know 2.4What Service Providers Need to Know

19 2. Working Together Team collaboration was shown to have positive effects in many areas (Hunt et al, 2002) Lack of team collaboration and lack of home support (Kent-Walsh and Light, 2003) Parents often seemed to feel that they ought to have known more than they did (Goldbart and Marshall, 2004)

20 2. Working Together

21 3. Selecting a Communication Device 3.1Communication Devices 3.2Assessment in AAC 3.3Words and Messages on a Communication Device 3.4Operating a Communication Device

22 3. Selecting a Communication Device Many parents reported no input (McNaughton et al, 2008) Parents wanted increased knowledge (Angelo et al, 1996; Angelo et al, 1995) Caregivers wanted more information (Goldbart and Marshall, 2004)

23 3. Selecting a Communication Device

24 4. Trialling a Communication Device 4.1Trialling a Communication Device 4.2Planning for a Communication Device Trial 4.3Setting Goals in AAC – The Basics 4.4Setting Specific Goals for Communication Device Trials

25 4. Trialling a Communication Device Lund and Light (2006) noted: –AAC is not an outcome –A good outcome needs to be individually defined Many parents key measure of success was independent communication using AAC device (McNaughton et al, 2008)

26 4. Trialling a Communication Device Templates: Roles and Responsibilities Checklist AAC Goal Setting Communication Inventory AAC Goal Routine Matrix Communication Device Trial Diary

27 5. Funding for AAC 5.1Funding for AAC in Western Australia Government Funding Non Government Funding (Fundraising and Charities) Self Funding Combinations Questions to Ask About Funding and Ownership of a Communication Device

28 6. Supporting Communication Device Use 6.1Valuing ALL Forms of Communication 6.2Teaching Strategies – Modelling in Everyday Activities 6.3Creating Opportunities for Communication 6.4Prompting Techniques to Support AAC Use

29 6. Supporting Communication Device Use AAC modelling assisted preschoolers to produce multi-symbol messages (Binger and Light, 2007) Aided AAC intervention: – can teach students to become more effective communicators –may have a positive effect on speech (Binger et al, 2008)

30 Appendices 1.Literacy and AAC 2.Transitions and AAC 3.AAC and Children with Autism 4.Core Vocabulary – Australian Word Frequency List 5.AAC Websites

31 Conclusion The Positive AACtion Kit for AAC teams is now available Feedback has been positive If you use the Kit, please provide feedback

32 Acknowledgements Thank you to … Linda Chiu, Director Clinical Services, Rocky Bay The many people who provided feedback in the planning and development stages of the project The parents from our 2009 research project who inspired this Kit NGCS for funding support

33 Contact Details Rocky Bay Sharon Ryder Senior Speech Pathologist sharonr@rockybay.org.au Ph: 9383 5157 Postal address: PO BOX 53, Mosman Park WA 6912 Website: www.rockybay.org.auwww.rockybay.org.au Kit: Rocky Bay Website Services Clinical Services Directorate scroll down to Resources AAC Action Pack

34 References Allaire, J.H., Gressaard, R.P., Blackman, J.A., Hostler, S.L. (1991) Children with severe speech impairments: Caregiver survey of AAC use. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 7 (4), 248-255. Angelo, D.H. (2000). Impact of augmentative and alternative communication devices on families. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 16, 37-47. Angelo, D.H., Jones, S.D., Kokoska, S.M. (1995) Family perspective on augmentative and alternative communication: Families of young children. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 11, 193-201. Angelo, D.H., Kokoska, S.M., Jones, S.D. (1996) Family perspective on augmentative and alternative communication: Families of adolescents and young adults. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 12, 13-20. Bailey, R.L., Parette,H.P., Stoner,J.B., Angell,M.E., & Carroll, K. ( 2006). Family members perceptions of augmentative and alternative communication device use. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 37 (1), 50-60. Binger, C. & Light, J. (2006) Demographics of preschoolers who require AAC. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 37 (3), 200-208. Binger, C. & Light, J. (2007) The effect of aided AAC modeling on the expression of multi-symbol messages by preschoolers who use AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23 (1), 30-43. Binger, C., Berens, J., Kent-Walsh, J. & Taylor, S. (2008) The effects of aided AAC interventions on AAC use, speech and symbolic gestures. Seminars in Speech and Language, 29 (2), 101-111. Bloomberg, K. & Johnson, H. (1990) A statewide demographic survey of people with severe communication impairments. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 6 (1), 50-60. Goldbart, J., & Marshall, J. (2004). Pushes and pulls on the parents of children who use AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20 (4), 194-208.

35 References Hunt, P., Soto, G., Maier, J., Müller, E. & Goetz, L. (2002) Collaborative teaming to support students with augmentative communication needs in general education classrooms. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 18, 20-35. Johnson, J.M., Inglebret, E., Jones, C., & Jayanti, R. (2006) Perspectives of speech language pathologists regarding success versus abandonment of ACC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 22 (2), 85- 99. Kent-Walsh, J.E. & Light, J.C. (2003) General education teachers experiences with inclusion of students who use augmentative and alternative communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 19 (2), 104- 124. Light, J. & Drager, K. (2007) AAC technologies for young children with complex communication needs: State of the science and future research directions. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23 (3), 204-216. Lund, S.K., & Light, J. (2007). Long-term outcomes for individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication: Part III – contributing factors. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23 (4), 323- 335. Lund, S.K. & Light, J. (2006). Long-term outcomes for individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication: Part I – what is a good outcome? Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 22 (4), 284-299. McNaughton, D., Rackensperger, T., Benedek-Wood, E., Krezman, C., Williams, M.B., Light, J. (2008) A child needs to be given a chance to succeed: Parents of individuals who use AAC describe the benefits and challenges of learning AAC technologies. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 24 (1), 43-55.

36 References Millar, D.C., Light, J.C. & Schlosser, R.W. (2006) The impact of augmentative and alternative communication intervention on the speech production of individuals with developmental disabilities: A research review. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 49 (2), 248-264. Pendergrass, M., & Vestal, J.C. (2002) Making the most of augmentative communication devices. The Case Manager, 13 (1), 44-49. Romski, MA, Sevcik, R.A., Adamson, L.B., Cheslock, M., Smith, A., Barker, R.M., Bakeman, R. (2010) Randomized comparison of augmented and nonaugmented language interventions for toddlers with developmental delays and their parents. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 53, 350- 364. SCOPE. (August 2007). Communication Aids Provision: Review of the Literature. Policy and Government Affairs. Retrieved (04.08.09) from http://www.scope.org.uk/disablism/downloads/scope-commaidprov- litreview07.pdfhttp://www.scope.org.uk/disablism/downloads/scope-commaidprov- litreview07.pdf Speech Pathology Australia (2004). Augmentative and Alternative Communication-Position Paper. Melbourne, Victoria. Retrieved (17.08.09 ) from http://www.speechpathologyaustralia.org.au/library/AAC_PositionPaper.pdf Totten, L., & Ryder, S. (2009). Parental perspectives on the responsibilities of team members involved in supporting AAC devices for school aged children. Research findings presented at the 2009 More than Gadgets Conference, Perth, WA.


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