5Tactical, Operational, Strategic Levels Tactical- on the ground execution, most narrowly definedOperational- looking at the bigger picture, more broad perspectiveStrategic- “extrapolates the possible futures from the present strategic circumstances”- (Yarger, 13)
6“Strategy seeks to influence and shape the future environment as opposed simply to reacting to it.” Harry R. Yarger, Strategic Theory for the 21st Century: The Little Book on Big Strategy, (65)
7VUCA The contemporary strategic environment is: Volatile Uncertain ComplexAmbiguousNote the interplay of the tactical and the strategic levels which is fostered by, e.g., the strategic factor on instantaneous, international communication due to internet and prevalence of cell phones.
8Interests (Goals) Expressed as a desired-end state- e.g.- a) U.S.- security, economic well-being, democratic values, a stable and secure world order (RSA,2)“Interests are expressed as general or particular desired end states or conditions.”H. Richard Yarger (55)
9Interests, Cont’d.INTERESTS ARE STATED WITHOUT VERBS OR OTHER ACTION MODIFIERS.What is the level of intensity of each interest?(Survival, Vital, Important, Peripheral)
10Temple Chai’s Interest= Financial Strength and ViabilityMulti-Generational Community ConnectednessPhysical Property to Support Community NeedsYouth Engagement Through High School Age“Specificity in interests lends clarity to policy’s true intent.”H. Richard Yarger (56)
11Levels of IntensitySurvival- If unfulfilled, will result in immediate massive destruction of one or more major core aspects of the core national interests.Vital- If unfulfilled, will have immediate consequence for core national interests.Important- If unfulfilled, will result in damage that will eventually affect core national interests.Peripheral- If unfulfilled, will result in damage that is unlikely to affect core national interests.(c.f.- U.S. relationship with Israel???)
12Yarger on StrategyStrategy is proactive and anticipatory but not predictiveStrategy is subordinate to policy- Policy ensures that strategy pursues appropriate aims, and strategy informs policy of the art of the possible.Strategy is subordinate to the nature of the environment (cf strategic factors)
13Yarger Cont’d.Strategy maintains a holistic perspective (1st, 2nd, 3rd order effects)Strategy is founded in what is to be accomplished and why it is to be accomplishedStrategy is hierarchicalStrategy is cumulative
14Yarger Cont’d. Efficiency is subordinate to effectiveness in strategy The ends, ways, and means are part of an integral whole and work syngergisticallyRisk is inherent to all strategy
15Strategic FactorsStrategic Factors are “the things that can potentially contribute to or detract from the realization of the interest.” (Yarger,59)Temple Chai- e.g.’sDemographic shift of the Jewish community towards the northeastSocial environment of constrained resources impacting discretionary incomeIncreased number of synagogue options for prospective members
16Strategic Factors, Cont’d. “Factors are defined as pertinent facts, trends, threats, conditions, or inferences that imply an effect on the realization of the interest.” (Yarger, 60)Consider strategic factors from your own perspective as well as that of other actors(i.e.- adversaries, interested parties)
17KEY Strategic Factors Not all strategic factors are created equal! The factors that have the GREATEST POTENTIAL to help/hurt realization of an interest are the KEY strategic factors.Identification of key strategic factors is critical to developing ends-ways-means.
18KEY Strategic Factors, Cont’d. WHAT MUST BE:IMPACTEDCHANGEDREDUCEDIN ORDER TO REALIZE THE INTEREST.
19“IF YOU DON’T LIKE CHANGE, YOU’RE GOING TO LIKE IRRELEVANCE EVEN LESS” ON CHANGE. . .“IF YOU DON’T LIKE CHANGE,YOU’RE GOING TO LIKEIRRELEVANCE EVEN LESS”General Eric Shinseki
20ENDS, WAYS, MEANS ENDS- what is the objective? WAYS- how will the objective be achieved?MEANS- what are the resources necessary to implement this strategy?
21ENDS Should be explicit and frequently include leading verbs. Ends/Objectives are bounded by policy guidance, higher strategy, the nature of the strategic environment, the capabilities and limitations of the organization (instruments of national power), and resources made available
22WAYS Available instruments of power Available resources Is the objective short/medium/long term?What are 2d and 3d order effects?
23WAYS Cont’d.“Must be explicit enough to provide planning guidance, but not SO detailed as to eliminate creativity and initiative at subordinate strategy and planning levels.”(Yarger, 69)
24MEANSCan be tangible (equipment, people, money) or intangible (will, courage, intellect)Should be expressed succinctly“. . the realization that not all priorities will be funded is critical to strategy development, especially when budgets are tight.”MAJ Matthew M. McCreary
25BOTTOM LINE“IF YOUR PLAN DOES NOT INCLUDE ANY DIRECTIONS AS TO HOW TO CARRY IT OUT, AND HOW TO OBTAIN RESOURCES FOR IT, THEN YOU DO NOT HAVE A STRATEGY. YOU HAVE AN ASPIRATION”Jim Lacey
263 ConsiderationsSUSTAINABILITY- can we actually do it? FEASIBILITY- will it work? ACCEPTABILITY- do the ends justify the means?
27RISKEvery strategy has some element of risk associated with it (RSA, 16)What is the risk?Decision makers determine what is an acceptable level of risk.
28What are the alternatives? CAPABILITIES BASEDWhat capabilities are required?Is it a materiel or a non-materiel solution?Materiel= StuffNon-Materiel- change in thinking (doctrine), training, personnel, policyWhat are the alternatives?
29How Soon Do We Need It? Deliberate Requirements- 2-6+ years Emergent Requirements yearsUrgent Requirements- 0-2 years
30Capabilities based planning is a way to identify program needs, allocateresources, and track activities andoutcomes.How does Temple Chai conduct ongoing assessment of its efforts?
313 CautionsBEWARE OF: Premature Closure- (keep the good idea window open) Polarization Groupthink
32“CULTURE EATS STRATEGY IN OTHER WORDS. . .“CULTURE EATS STRATEGYFOR LUNCH EVERY DAY.”CH (COL) Jonathan Shaw
33Continuous Assessment R- REFINE A- ADAPT T- TERMINATE E- EXECUTEThe Plan is a living process!
34“WHEN THE MEMBERS OF AN EFFECTIVE DECISION TEAM ALSO HAVE SYSTEM WIDE-INFLUENCE, THE LIKELIHOOD OF SYSTEM-WIDE UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE OF DIFFICULT DECISIONS INCREASES” T.O. Jacobs
35IN OTHER WORDS: Your support of this process is vital to its success IN OTHER WORDS: Your support of this process is vital to its success! THANK YOU!