3Warm UpI’m going to show you a triangle with 25 letters in it. With pencils down, I want you to try to remember the letters that you see in the exact order that you see them. When 10 seconds is up, I’m going to ask you to recreate this triangle with all the letters in the right place.Ready?
4How did you do? Divide tables in half – groups of 4 Tally first the individual scores – an average for the 4 people involvedNow tally a group score. The number correct with all of your letters involved, counting each correct letter only once
5Try AgainMake a PlanAgain you get 10 seconds – time have a team plan ready to go.
6How did you do? Divide tables in half – groups of 4 Tally first the individual scores – an average for the 4 people involvedNow tally a group score. The number correct with all of your letters involved, counting each correct letter only once
7Anyone too busy to reflect on one’s practice is also too busy to improve. Anyone too busy to reflect on one’s practice is also too busy to improve.Robert GarmstonRobert Garmston
8Shared KnowledgeCollaborative teams always attempt to answer critical questions by building shared knowledge.If people make decisions based upon access to the same pool of information, they increase the likelihood that they will arrive at the same conclusion.
9What is congeniality? Avoiding the Mary Poppins Principle…. “Congeniality has to do with the extent to which teachers and principals share common work values, engage in specific conversation about their work, and help each other engage in the work of the school.”“ The emphasis on human relations management has resulted in the value of congeniality becoming very strong in the way schools are managed and led. Congeniality has to do with the climate of interpersonal relationships within an enterprise. When this climate is friendly, agreeable, and sympathetic, congeniality is high. Though congeniality is pleasant and often desirable, it is not independently linked to better performance and quality schooling.”Thomas Sergiovanni, 2004
10The Focus of Collaboration Collaborative cultures, which by definition have close relationships, are indeed powerful, but unless they are focusing on the right things they may end up being powerfully wrong.Michael Fullan
11Critical Corollary Questions If the mission is focused on learning,what is it we expect them to learn?how do we know they have learned it?how will we respond when they don’t learn?how will we respond when they already know it?
12Getting Started – Creating a Collaborative Culture
13What makes an effective meeting?/Team Protocols Team normsMethod of ConsensusVisionAgenda with assigned minutes per topicTime keeperCritical Questions for TeamsSMART GoalInterventionsProduct orientation
14Essential Question:How can we create common assessments to monitor and promote student learning?Standard found on your agenda -- High quality assessments are collaboratively developed and collectively used to monitor, measure, and promote high levels of students achievement.Teacher self survey HO p. 67Student Survey HO p
15“You can enhance or destroy students’ desire to succeed in school more quickly and permanently through your use of assessment than with any other tools you have at your disposal.”Assessment done poorly can be a dangerous tool. Think of a time when you experienced a poor assessment. What did that do for your learning? (table buzz)Rick StigginsAssessment Trainers Institute
16Common AssessmentsAny assessment given by 2 or more instructors with the intention of collaboratively examining the results forshared learning,instructional planning for individual students, and/orcurriculum, instruction, and/or assessment modifications.Look at two definitions - this slide and the next one.Identify and discuss similarities and differences… elements from both needed to complete definition.
17Common Assessments Created collaboratively by teams of teachers FrequentFormativeConnected to the essential outcomesGiven to all students enrolled in the same class, course, or grade levelLook at two definitions - this slide and the previous one.Identify and discuss similarities and differences.
18How do common assessments assist everyone (students, teachers, schools) in achieving more? Find tennis partner and talk about this….Call out in a large group….
19Why Common Assessments? EfficiencyFairnessEffective MonitoringInformed practiceAssessment literacyRaised expectationsTeam capacityCollective ResponseLink this list to the participant list and/or ask each table to take one idea from the list and describe why/how that might be so. Why is that idea on this list?Why Common Assessments• Efficiency - by sharing the load teachers save time• Fairness - promotes common goals, similar pacing, andconsistent standards for assessing student proficiency• Effective monitoring - provides timely evidence ofwhether the guaranteed and viable curriculum is beingtaught and learned• Informs individual teacher practice - provides teacherswith a basis of comparison regarding the achievement oftheir students so they can see strengths and weaknesses oftheir teaching• Team capacity - collaborative teacher teams are able toidentify and address problem areas in their program• Collective Response - helps teams and the school createtimely, systematic interventions for studentsModified from R. DuFour keynote address at PLC Institutes
20Summative / Formative Assessment Assessment of Learning (Summative Assessment):How much have students learned as of aparticular point in time?Assessment for Learning (Formative Assessment):How can we use assessments to help studentslearn more?There are two different assessments that we are going to talk about—Assessment OF Learning and Assessment FOR Learning. It is important to understand the difference in the two. They are sometimes referred to as summative and formative assessments. This is partially true, but we are going to be using the terms Assessment of Learning and Assessment for Learning.
21A Balanced Assessment Program “OF”SummativeNorm Referenced / StandardizedA snapshot in timeEssential Question:What have students already learned?Assessment“FOR”FormativeOften teacher-madeA moving pictureEssential Question:How can we help students learn more?There is a need for Balance in our assessment system. Not only OF and FOR but also in type of assessment (selected response, constructed response, performance, or personal communication).Just as all students have a preferred learning style they also have a preferred assessment style. However, not all assessments in life will be in there preferred style so we need to insure they are familiar with all styles.
22Which is which?It isn’t the method that determines whether the assessment is summative or formative it is how the results are used.Think of the Penny assessment - it could be either OF or FOR depending on the way I use the results.Provide examples
23Dr. Tom Many As we look at assessment they move from Most OF to Most FORDaily to AnnualClassroom to ExternalWe will be focusing on Common Assessments which tend to be by unitDr. Tom Many
24Pyramid of Intervention Strategies Least RestrictiveMost Restrictive
25INTERVENTION PYRAMID Problem Solving Team Special Education Placement Screening and Evaluationfor Special EducationProblem Solving TeamSystematic School InterventionsHow does the school respond when students don’t get it?Grade Level / Department/Classroom Interventions - SMART GoalsEarly Interventions – What do we need to know prior to the start of school?
26InterventionsAs a school – How do you respond when a student doesn’t learn?As a department – How do you respond when a student doesn’t learn?As a teacher – How do you respond when a student doesn’t learn?
27Dr. Tom Many As we look at assessment they move from Most OF to Most FORDaily to AnnualClassroom to ExternalWe will be focusing on Common Assessments which tend to be by unitDr. Tom Many
28TEAM ReflectionIdentify 2-3 assessments (formative and summative) that are currently being used in your schools.DiscussionWhere are interventions implemented?One or two interventions associated with each assessment
29Value of Common Assessments Focused instructionCommon core curriculumFocused, common learningBetter testsIdentification of curricular areas needing attentionProvision of objective indicators of effectiveness for teachersPromotes collaborationReemphasis
30Research consistently shows that use of regular, high-quality Formative Assessments increases student achievement.The purpose of this presentation is not to look at the research but rather at what it says.This comes from the Black & William work.We need to define High Quality - next slides
31Research on Effects S.D. Gains Study 1.0 to 2.0 * Bloom (1984) * Rivals one-on-one tutorial instruction.5 to 1.0**Black and Wiliam (1998)** Largest gains for low achievers.7 to 1.5Meisels, et al. (2003).5 to 1.8**Rodriguez (2004)
321.0 Standard Deviation Equals 35 Percentile Points2-4 Grade Equivalents100 SAT Score Points5 ACT Composite Score PointsU.S. TIMSS scores from 22nd of 41 nations to the top 5
33Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment Accurate AssessmentClear PurposesWhy Assess?What’s the purpose?Who will use results?Clear TargetsAssess What?What are the learning targets?Are they clear?Are they good?Good DesignAssess How?What method?Sampled how?Avoid bias how?Effectively UsedSound CommunicationCommunicate How?How manage information?How report?Keys to Quality AssessmentProvide brief overview of each.Participants may be seeing “Keys” for the first time… let them know they will be seeing them through out the presentation.Student InvolvementStudents are users, too.Students need to understand learning targets, too.Students can participate in the assessment process, too.Students can track progress and communicate, too.
34The Challenge…How can we use assessment to help the student believe that the target is within reach?The assessment challengeThe assessment process should help the student realize the target is within reach.The first step is to have ‘accurate assessments’, top half of the “Keys”To truly make sure we meet this challenge the bottom half, ‘effectively used’ must be in placeAn interesting question, “When was the last time you gave an assessment students did not want to miss?”
35“Teachers who truly understand what they want their students to accomplish will almost surely be more instructionally successful than teachers whose understanding of hoped-for student accomplishments are murky.”W. James PophamStaging QuoteTeachers and students must know and understand the targets of instructionUse this to set up the activity which follows
36In the pattern to the left locate and outline the five-pointed star. We are going to start our session today with an activity.Find the star activityFind five-pointed star in patternYou will be given 1 Minuteafter one minute ask “how many have located the star?” - record the numberMove to the next slide
37If I provide additional information (block out part of the picture) does that help you identify the target?Reduce pattern 50%Does more information help?Allow 45 secondsafter 45 seconds ask “how many have located the star?” - record the numberMove to the next slide
38If I provide even more information (block out more of the picture) does it help you identify the target?Reduce pattern by 50% againDoes even more information help?Allow 30 secondsafter 30 seconds ask “how many have located the star?” - record the numberMove to the next slide which show s the star.
39Rick Stiggins points out that “Teachers and students can hit any target they can see and will hold still.”What is the relationship between this statement and the activity you just participated in?Show answer and debrief using questions on slideHow many got the correct answer? Record by group (while looking at the full pattern, 1/2 of the pattern, 1/4 of the pattern).What happened to the number of correct responses when I provided more information?Have participants, in pairs discuss the question and share thoughts with group.Additional questions:What does this activity have to do with ‘clear targets’?What happens when the targets is not share (clarified)?What are the implications for teachers?
40Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment Accurate AssessmentClear PurposesWhy Assess?What’s the purpose?Who will use results?Clear TargetsAssess What?What are the learning targets?Are they clear?Are they good?Good DesignAssess How?What method?Sampled how?Avoid bias how?Effectively UsedSound CommunicationCommunicate How?How manage information?How report?Keys to Quality AssessmentThis section will focus on the “Clear Targets” keyPose and briefly discuss the question, “How do targets impact quality assessment?”Student InvolvementStudents are users, too.Students need to understand learning targets, too.Students can participate in the assessment process, too.Students can track progress and communicate, too.
41Learning/Achievement Targets Statements of what we want students to learn and be able to do.Operational DefinitionTo talk about targets we need to know what they are
42The single most common barrier to sound classroom assessment is the teachers’ lack of vision of appropriate achievement targets within the subjects they are supposed to teach.”Rick StigginsSetting stage for clear targets in student friendly language.If this is true then it is imperative that we understand the different kinds of targets and that we be able to put them in ‘student friendly’ language.Next slide will start a ‘mini-lecture’ on types of targets.
43Knowledge“Mastery of substantive subject content where mastery includes knowing it, understanding it, and knowing how to find it.”Mini lecture on types of targetsKnowledgeThere are two aspects to knowledgeKnowing facts - processes, units, etc. (multiplication facts, branches of government, parts of an insect)Knowing how to find information
44Reasoning“The ability to use knowledge and understanding to figure things out and to solve problems”Mini lecture on types of targetsReasoningReasoning targets build on the knowledge base - there is not such thing as ‘knowledge-free’ reasoning.Examples: (Refer to Examples of Kinds of Targets Handout for content specific examples)Critical thinkingProblem solvingDecision makingAnalytical, comparative inferential and/or evaluative reasoning
45Skills“The development of proficiency in doing something where it is the process that is important such as playing a musical instrument, reading aloud, speaking in a second language, or using a psychomotor skills”Mini lecture on types of targetsSkillsSkill learning targets build on and require a base of knowledge and reasoning.Using involves demonstration.For example, in reading students must learn how to read certain words by sight (knowledge), how to generalize from specific instances to a broader context (reasoning), and also how to read aloud with expression (a skill).Examples: (Refer to Examples of Kinds of Targets Handout for content specific examples)Speaking a second languageGiving an oral presentationWorking effectively on a teamScience process skills
46Products“The ability to create tangible products, such as term papers, science fair models, and art products, that meet certain standards of quality and that present concrete evidence of academic proficiency”Mini lecture on types of targetsProductsProduct targets build on knowledge and reasoning targets and often on skill targets as well.The product itself is important to the practice of the subject in life beyond school.Examples: (Refer to Examples of Kinds of Targets Handout for content specific examples)Writing samplesTerm projectsArtistic productsResearch productsShop projects
47Creating Targets For “Driving A Car With Skill” What knowledge will students need to demonstrate the intended learning?What patterns of reasoning will they need to master?What skills are required if any?What product development capabilities must they acquire, if any?Introduce the idea of ‘Deconstructing Targets’ using the standard “Driving a Car With Skill”.Have group provide targets that underpin the standardAs participants to identify the targets (knowledge, reasoning, skills, product)Do not chart the responses - a time factor
48Driving a Car With Skill KnowledgeKnow the lawRead signs and understand what they meanReasoningEvaluate ‘am I safe’ and synthesize information to take action if neededSkillsSteering, shifting, parallel parking…Products(not appropriate target)Use slide to illustrate targets of each typeDriving a car with skill is the ‘capstone’ target of many others and it is important that both teachers and students know and understand the underlying targets.That is, we need to be able to ‘deconstruct’ a target/standard.
49Deconstructing Standards/Outcomes Determine standard typeknowledge, reasoning, skill, or productIdentify its underpinning learning targetsIdentify the deconstructing standards two step process;Determine standard/outcomeIdentify the types of underpinning targets for the standard/outcome
50Standard (target) Type Underpinning Learning Targets ProductProduct + S + R + KSkillSkill + R + KReasoningReasoning + KIdentify the types of underpinning targets for types of standardsIn general:Knowledge level targets will have no reasoning, skill, or product components.Reasoning targets will have knowledge components, but will not require skill or product components.Skills targets require underlying knowledge and reasoning, but not products.Product targets will require knowledge and reasoning, and might be underpinned by skill targets.KnowledgeKnowledge
51Type: Product Skill Reasoning Knowledge Standard/Outcome:Produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.Type: Product Skill Reasoning KnowledgeLearning TargetsWhat are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning the standard or benchmark?Product TargetsSkill TargetsReasoning TargetsKnowledge TargetsWrite sentences with varied beginningsHold a pencil correctlyPrint letters correctly according to DN methodsSpace wordsUse lines and margins correctlyStretch out sounds in words to create a temporary spelling of a word…Distinguish the uses or meanings of a variety of words (word choice)Know what a sentence isUnderstand concept of word choiceWork through an exampleProduce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.Walk participants through the example.Strategy for teachers: if this is done they have identified the ‘underpinning’ targetsUnderline verbsCircle key concepts
52DECONSTRUCTING STANDARDS/OUTCOME Standard/Outcome: The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the nation.(Standard, § Social Studies, Grade 8 )Type: Product Skill Reasoning KnowledgeLearning TargetsWhat are the knowledge, reasoning, skill or product targets underpinning the standard or benchmark?Product TargetsSkill TargetsReasoning TargetsKnowledge TargetsDebrief activity - have one or two groups report out and asking for questions/comments.(Put on screen during debriefing.)Emphasize the point that there are two parts to clear targetsFirst standards need to be stated as single concept targets – deconstructingSecond the targets need to be put in student friendly language
53Rick Stiggins points out that “Teachers and students can hit any target they can see and will hold still.”Use this to remind participants why we need to put targets in “student friendly” language (by reducing the size of the rectangle we made the ‘target’ more understandabl)e.
54Clear (Student-friendly) Statement of Learning Target Target: Be able to summarize text.Word to be defined: SUMMARIZEto give a brief statement of the main points, main events, or important ideas.Student-friendly language:I can make a short statement of the main points or the big ideas of what I read.Student friendly language examplesTwo examples providedSummarizePredictionEmphasize there are two parts to having ‘clear targets’First students and teachers must know what the target are - deconstructing the standardsSecond they must be able to understand the targets - student friendly languageThis slide provides example of making targets student friendly.As we look at standards and targets it is important to keep in mind that students are the consumer and they must understand “where they are going.”
55Clear (Student-friendly) Statement of Learning Target Target: Be able to make predictions.Word to be defined: PREDICTIONA statement saying something will happen in the future.Student-friendly language:I can use information from what I read to guess at what will happen next.Emphasize there are two parts to having ‘clear targets’First students and teachers must know what the target are - deconstructing the standardsSecond they must be able to understand the targets - student friendly languageThis slide provides example of making targets student friendly.As we look at standards and targets it is important to keep in mind that students are the consumer and they must understand “where they are going.”
56Standard/Outcome:Produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.Product TargetsSkill TargetsReasoning TargetsKnowledge TargetsI can write sentences with different beginningsI can hold a pencil the right wayI can print my letters correctlyI can put spaces between wordsI can write on the lines and I can stay within the marginsI can tell that words mean different things and know when these words add or take away from what I am trying to say in my writing or when they make my writing more interesting.I know what a sentence isI know that words have different meanings and tell different thingsWalk group through student friendly language of deconstruction standard, ‘Produce writing to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.Ask for comments.
57(Standard, §113.24. Social Studies, Grade 8 ) Standard/Outcome: The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the nation.(Standard, § Social Studies, Grade 8 )Product TargetsSkill TargetsReasoning TargetsKnowledge TargetsDebrief by having one or two groups report out and asking for questions/comments.
58The key is to use assessment to help the student answer the question… Where am I now?
59Assessment for Learning Strategies Provide an understandable vision of the learning target.Use models of strong and weak work.Offer regular descriptive feedback.Teach students to self-assess and set goals for learning.Design lessons to focus on one aspect of quality at a time.Teach students focused revision.Engage students in self-reflection. Let them keep track of and share what they know.Do quick overview of the seven strategies – they connect to the three guiding questions . Do activity in handout (next slide) - which strategy answers which question?
60The most important instructional decisions (that is, the decisions that contribute the most to student learning) are made, not by the adults working in the system, but by students themselves.Rick Stiggins
61You Be George Student Involvement in Assessment for Learning – Self-Reflection and Goal Setting.Spend a little time to set up the activity… link it back to the 4th strategy they just looked at.
62You Be George The process Learning targets Identifying Strengths and Areas for ImprovementStrengths, Review, and Further StudyGoal-SettingWalk them through the process described in the handout. Let them know there is no need to take notes on the process since it is in the handout.
63Learning TargetsHave participants look at the forms in the handout rather than on the screen.Point out that the learning targets are established prior to teaching the unit and that they are shared with the students. You could also talk briefly about a test planning chart at this point.The next step would be for the team to develop the assessment.Once the assessment is developed the Strengths & Areas for Improvement Form is created with the first two columns completed.
64Strengths & Areas for Improvement Have participants look at the forms in the handout rather than on the screen.Administer, score, and return the assessment to the students. The students will then complete the final four columns of the Strengths & Areas for Improvement Form. Next slide shows this step completed.
65Strengths & Areas for Improvement Have participants look at the forms in the handout rather than on the screen.George has completed his the form based on his analysis of his assessment.
66Strengths, Review and Further Study Using the Strengths & Areas for Improvement Form the student will complete the Strengths, Review, and Further Study Form.Have the Tennis partners complete this form for George.
67Student Goal SettingUsing the Strengths, Review, and Further Study Form the student will complete the Student Goal Setting Form.Have the Tennis partners complete this form for George.
68Rick StigginsStudents can hit any target that they can see and that holds still for them.
69“I still don’t have all the answers, but I’m beginning to ask the right questions.” Which are: Where am I going?Where am I now?How do I close the gap?
70Rick DuFour, 2002When teachers (working in collaborative teams) clarify essential outcomes, develop common assessments, and set standards they want all students to achieve by test and by essential outcomes, they are in a position to establish goals that can only be achieved if each member contributes.
71The Keys to Assessment in PLC Collaborative teams of teachers analyzing learning dataTranslating data into information (i.e. attaching “meaning” to the data)Targeting specific areas for improvementCollaboratively engaging in collective inquiry (i.e. seeking out best practices)
72The Keys to Assessment in PLC Experimenting with “best practice” in classrooms (i.e. action research)Collaboratively analyzing the results of interventionsDeveloping a culture where this process is cyclical, internalized, and part of how business is done every dayEmphasize the cyclical nature of the process
73Our job is to help kids believe they are capable learners A Proper BeliefOur job is to help kids believe they are capable learners
74We must help kids find the gifts they didn’t know they had
75not make yesterday wrong, it makes tomorrow better. What we know today doesnot make yesterday wrong,it makes tomorrow better.Carol Commodore