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Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to summarize procedures and guidelines for rescue operations and perform.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to summarize procedures and guidelines for rescue operations and perform."— Presentation transcript:

0 Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition
Chapter 8 — Rescue and Extrication Firefighter I

1 Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to summarize procedures and guidelines for rescue operations and perform basic victim removal following the policies and procedures set forth by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). Firefighter I

2 Specific Objectives 1. Distinguish between rescue and extrication operations. 2. Summarize safety guidelines for search and rescue personnel operating within a burning building 3. Explain the objectives of a building search. (Continued) Firefighter I

3 Specific Objectives 4. Describe primary search and secondary search.
5. Discuss conducting search operations. 6. Explain what actions a firefighter should take when in distress. (Continued) Firefighter I

4 Specific Objectives 7. Describe actions that should be taken by a rapid intervention crew (RIC) when a firefighter is in distress. 8. Discuss victim removal methods. 9. Discuss emergency power and lighting equipment. (Continued) Firefighter I

5 Specific Objectives 10. Conduct a primary and secondary search. (Skill Sheet 8-I-1) 11. Exit a hazardous area. (Skill Sheet 8-I-2) 12. Demonstrate the incline drag. (Skill Sheet 8-I-3) (Continued) Firefighter I

6 Specific Objectives 13. Demonstrate the blanket drag. (Skill Sheet 8-I-4) 14. Demonstrate the webbing drag. (Skill Sheet 8-I-5) 15. Demonstrate the cradle-in-arms lift/carry — One-rescuer method. (Skill Sheet 8-I-6) (Continued) Firefighter I

7 Specific Objectives 16. Demonstrate the seat lift/carry — Two-rescuer method. (Skill Sheet 8-I-7) 17. Demonstrate the extremities lift/carry — Two-rescuer method. (Skill Sheet 8-I-8) (Continued) Firefighter I

8 Specific Objectives 18. Demonstrate the chair lift/carry method 1 — Two rescuers. (Skill Sheet 8-I-9) 19. Demonstrate the chair lift/carry method 2 — Two rescuers. (Skill Sheet 8-I-10) 20. Illuminate the emergency scene. (Skill Sheet 8-I-11) Firefighter I

9 Rescue and Extrication Operations
Rescue — Involves removal of victims from entrapment by Fires Terrain features Structural collapse Elevation differences Confined spaces Non-extrication situations (Continued) Firefighter I

10 Rescue and Extrication Operations
Extrication — Involves disentanglement, removal of victims from vehicles Differences between rescue and body recovery operation Rescues involve risk to life Body recoveries should not involve risk to life Firefighter I

11 Safety Guidelines for Search and Rescue Personnel
Do not enter building in which fire has progressed to point where viable victims are unlikely to be found If backdraft conditions are apparent, attempt entry only after ventilation Work according to IAP (Continued) Firefighter I

12 Safety Guidelines for Search and Rescue Personnel
Maintain radio contact with supervisor; monitor radio contact Continuously monitor fire conditions that might affect search team safety Use established personnel accountability system (Continued) Firefighter I

13 Safety Guidelines for Search and Rescue Personnel
Be aware of secondary means of egress Wear full PPE, including SCBA, PASS device Work in teams of two or more, stay in contact with each other Search systematically (Continued) Firefighter I

14 Safety Guidelines for Search and Rescue Personnel
Stay low, move cautiously Stay alert Continuously monitor structure’s integrity Check doors for excessive heat before opening (Continued) Firefighter I

15 Safety Guidelines for Search and Rescue Personnel
Mark entry doors into rooms Maintain contact with wall, hoseline, or tagline Have charged hoseline at hand Coordinate with ventilation teams before opening windows (Continued) Firefighter I

16 Safety Guidelines for Search and Rescue Personnel
Close door, report condition, follow supervisor’s orders if fire encountered Inform supervisor of inability to search any rooms Report to supervisor when search complete Firefighter I

17 Building Search Objectives
Locating victims Primary search Secondary search Rapid intervention Obtaining information about location/ extent of fire Firefighter I

18 Primary Search Rapid but thorough search performed before or during fire suppression Often carried out under extremely adverse conditions Check known/likely locations of victims Confirm fire conditions Firefighter I

19 Secondary Search Conducted after fire under control
Conducted by personnel other than primary search personnel Slower, more thorough search to ensure no occupants overlooked during primary search Firefighter I

20 Primary Search Operations
Standard search priorities Use buddy system Appropriate equipment Radio TIC Flashlight Forcible entry tools Search rope (Continued) Firefighter I

21 Primary Search Operations
Search may be conducted by Walking upright Crawling on hands/knees (Continued) Firefighter I

22 Primary Search Operations
When searching Move systematically Search each room completely Listen for sounds from victims Start as close to fire as possible Proceed as directly as possible from entry and pay out tagline (Continued) Firefighter I

23 Primary Search Operations
When searching Search bathrooms, bathtubs, etc. Search perimeter of rooms Extend arms/legs or use handle of tool to reach under furniture After perimeter searched, search middle of room (Continued) Firefighter I

24 Primary Search Operations
Visibility May be limited; use TIC May be obscured by smoke; report to IC (Continued) Firefighter I

25 Primary Search Operations
Making reports Report essentials to supervisor/Command Maintain radio contact with supervisor Negative information also important Inform IC of unsearched areas (Continued) Firefighter I

26 Primary Search Operations
Search line system Consists of 200 feet (60 m) of ⅜-inch (10 mm) rope with Kevlar™ sheath Every 20 feet (6 m) along length, 2-inch (50 mm) steel ring tied into line (Continued) Courtesy of Jeff Seaton Firefighter I

27 Primary Search Operations
Search line system Rings also provide anchor point for lateral tethers Implementing search line system May become necessary to search areas perpendicular to search line Navigator keeps Command informed of progress Firefighter I

28 Secondary Search Operations
Assigned to personnel other than primary search personnel Speed not as important as thoroughness Conducted as systematically as primary search to ensure no spaces missed (Continued) Firefighter I

29 Secondary Search Operations
Conducted more slowly, carefully than primary search Any negative information should be reported immediately Firefighter I

30 Searching Multistory Buildings
Most critical areas are fire floor, floor directly above fire, and topmost floor Once critical areas searched, intervening floors should be checked (Continued) Firefighter I

31 Searching Multistory Buildings
During primary search, unless a part of ventilation, doors to uninvolved rooms should be closed Exits, hallways, stairs should be kept clear as possible Firefighter I

32 Search Methods When rooms, offices, apartments extend from center hallway, search line system can be used (Continued) Firefighter I

33 Search Methods If search line system cannot be used
Teams should be assigned to search both sides of hallway Critically important to control access/egress Entering first room, searchers turn right or left and follow walls around room (Continued) Firefighter I

34 Search Methods If search line system cannot be used
As rescuers leave room, turn in same direction used to enter room When removing victims to safety or exiting, rescuers must turn opposite direction used to enter Important that rescuers exit through same doorway entered (Continued) Firefighter I

35 Search Methods In some departments, small rooms are searched by using a thermal imaging camera (TIC) Firefighter I

36 If No TIC Available One member stays at door while other searches
Searcher remains oriented by maintaining constant dialogue with member at door Searcher keeps member at door informed of progress (Continued) Firefighter I

37 If No TIC Available When search completed, two rejoin at doorway, close and mark door, proceed to next room When searching next room, exchange roles Firefighter I

38 Marking Systems Several methods used
Latch straps serve function of preventing other rescuers from being locked out of room Departmental SOPs usually dictate accepted method (Continued) Firefighter I

39 Marking Systems Marks should be placed on lower third of door
Some departments train teams to use a two-part system Firefighter I

40 Building Search Safety
Search initiated on arrival Guidelines for rescuers Work quickly, operate safely Always be alert for weakened/hazardous structural conditions Feel floor to be sure intact (Continued) Firefighter I

41 Building Search Safety
Firefighters on or directly below fire floor should be alert for sagging floors, etc. to indicate floor/ceiling above or below has weakened Firefighter I

42 When Searching Within A Burning Building
Open doors cautiously Feel top of door and door knob to determine heat level Do not remain in front of door while being opened (Continued) Firefighter I

43 When Searching Within A Burning Building
Stay on hinge side of outward-opening doors If inward-opening door difficult to open, do not kick door; place strap behind knob to maintain control while opening Firefighter I

44 If in Imminent Life-Threatening Danger
Transmit Mayday! Activate PASS device Communicate situation to supervisor/Command Actions when contact made Firefighter I

45 If Hoseline Can Be Located
Crawl along and feel for couplings Female – Toward nozzle, has smaller lugs Male – Toward water source, has lungs on shank Follow hoseline to exit or nozzle team Firefighter I

46 If Unable to Retrace Steps
Look for exit from building Search by locating wall and crawling along while sweeping floor with one hand and sweeping wall as high as possible without standing up (Continued) Firefighter I

47 If Unable to Retrace Steps
Sweeping hand back and forth on floor will help avoid holes, other openings into which fall may be possible Sweep walls while crawling to help locate window Take appropriate actions if outside window found Firefighter I

48 If Possible to Escape Without Assistance
Take appropriate action if equipped with escape rope If not equipped with escape rope, safely drop from second story window by removing SCBA and hanging from windowsill by hands Firefighter I

49 If Door Can Be Found Secure door with rope/strap attached to knob so can be closed quickly Check door for heat before opening If cool to touch, open slowly, carefully If door leads to closet or fire on other side, continue along wall in same direction Firefighter I

50 If Exit Through Door/Window Not Possible
Break through interior or exterior wall Follow guidelines for attempting to breach interior wall Firefighter I

51 If Unable to Exit Activate PASS device and move close to wall
If exhausted, sit on floor and lean against wall If unable to reach wall, position flashlight toward ceiling Firefighter I

52 When Trapped Suffering Injury
Find place of relative safety and activate PASS device If against wall, tap or pound on wall with tool or hard object Try to maintain composure to maximize air supply Firefighter I

53 Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
Must be standing by when firefighters are in hazard zone inside burning building Composed of at least two firefighters equipped to enter hazard zone to locate/rescue firefighter in distress IC may decide RIC needs more than two firefighters (Continued) Firefighter I

54 Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
Members may be assigned nonessential duties as long as they can be abandoned Other allowable assignments Location relatively close to hazard zone Must not require much physical exertion (Continued) Firefighter I

55 Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
May be more than one at a given fire, especially if interior crews entered building at different points Firefighter I

56 Actions by Rescuers Searching for Firefighter in Distress
Remember firefighter will probably be wearing SCBA Try to establish radio contact IC may order noise-producing devices be shut down (Continued) Firefighter I

57 Actions by Rescuers Searching for Firefighter in Distress
If actions unsuccessful, attempt to determine last known location TIC should be used RIC should stop frequently to listen Crew members may hold breath for complete silence Firefighter I

58 Actions Once Downed Firefighter Located
Air supply should be checked Firefighter should be medically evaluated Level of consciousness, vital signs should be checked If unable to walk, use any safe means possible to move (Continued) Firefighter I

59 Actions Once Downed Firefighter Located
Need to exit hostile atmosphere usually overrides need to stabilize injuries prior to moving If firefighter has functioning SCBA, carefully move him/her so as not to dislodge mask (Continued) Firefighter I

60 Actions Once Downed Firefighter Located
If no functioning SCBA, connect mask to functioning SCBA from RIC kit or quickly remove victim from hazardous atmosphere Firefighter I

61 Tracking Devices Some departments equip firefighters with digital radio transceivers Approximately same size as PASS device and mounted on SCBA harness Courtesy of Exit Technologies (Continued) Firefighter I

62 Tracking Devices Have range of approximately 100 feet (30 m) and do not interfere with radios Operate on 457 kHz Always turned on when entering burning building (Continued) Firefighter I

63 Tracking Devices Signal allows fellow team members or RIC to locate downed firefighter If firefighter becomes separated from team, his/her transceiver can be switched from standby to search mode Firefighter I

64 Removing Located Firefighters
Even though a two-firefighter RIC can locate a firefighter in distress, unlikely to be able to remove him/her from hazard zone (Continued) Firefighter I

65 Removing Located Firefighters
If firefighter in distress waited until low-air alarm sounded before calling Mayday, firefighter will almost certainly be out of air RIC must take specific actions when searching for missing firefighters Firefighter I

66 Victim Removal Injured victims should not be moved unless in immediate danger Situations where emergency moves are necessary Firefighter I

67 Remember During Victim Removal
Chief danger is possibly aggravating spinal injury If necessary to perform emergency move, pull victim in direction of long axis of body Better to have two or more rescuers when lifting/carrying adult (Continued) Firefighter I

68 Remember During Victim Removal
Unconscious victim always more difficult to lift Rescuers helping carry victim should guard against losing balance Lifting incorrectly is one of the most common causes of injury to rescuers Firefighter I

69 Carries and Drags Incline drag Blanket drag Webbing drag
Cradle-in-arms lift/carry Seat lift/carry (Continued) Firefighter I

70 Carries and Drags Three-person lift/carry
Moving victim onto long backboard or litter Extremities lift/carry Chair lift/carry Firefighter I

71 Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
Many rescue/extrication incidents occur in poor lighting conditions Conditions create need to artificially light scene Firefighters must know how to operate available emergency power/lighting equipment Firefighter I

72 Power Plants Inverter Step-up transformer
Used on emergency vehicles when small amounts of power needed Advantages/disadvantages (Continued) Firefighter I

73 Power Plants Generators
Most common power source for emergency services Portable Vehicle-mounted Firefighter I

74 Portable Lighting Equipment
Can be carried to/used in areas where vehicle-mounted lights cannot illuminate Range from 300 to 1,000 watts (Continued) Firefighter I

75 Portable Lighting Equipment
Supplied with power by cord from vehicle-mounted or portable power plant Usually have handles and large bases Mounted on telescoping stands Firefighter I

76 Fixed Lighting Equipment
Mounted to vehicle Usually mounted so it can be raised, lowered, turned Often mounted on telescoping poles (Continued) Firefighter I

77 Fixed Lighting Equipment
Some larger units include hydraulically operated boom with bank of lights Amount of lighting should be matched with amount of power available Overtaxing power plant has consequences Firefighter I

78 Auxiliary Electrical Equipment
Electrical cables or extension cords Junction boxes Adapters Firefighter I

79 Summary Firefighters must be capable of performing basic rescue and extrication operations as a member of a team. (Continued) Firefighter I

80 Summary As firefighters progress in their careers, they must be willing to pursue specialized training in each of the rescue areas, including fireground search and rescue operations, vehicle extrication operations, and a variety of technical rescue operations. Firefighter I

81 Review Questions 1. List four guidelines that should be used by search and rescue personnel operating within a building. 2. What is a primary search? 3. What should primary search teams carry with them? (Continued) Firefighter I

82 Review Questions 4. How can firefighters help operate safely while conducting building searches? 5. What should a firefighter in distress do? Firefighter I

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