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Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis Kevin L. Rand Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis.

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Presentation on theme: "Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis Kevin L. Rand Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hope & Optimism: A Synthesis Kevin L. Rand Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis

2 Depressive Symptomsxx Depressive Symptomsxx Anxiety Symptoms xx Anxiety Symptoms xx Positive emotionsxx Positive emotionsxx Positive appraisal of stressx x Positive appraisal of stressx x Adaptive copingxx Adaptive copingxx Academic performancexx Academic performancexx Athletic performancex Athletic performancex Post-illness adjustmentxx Post-illness adjustmentxx Pain tolerancex Pain tolerancex Hope Optimism Hope & Optimism are Good

3 Are Hope & Optimism the Same? Hope & Optimism strongly associated Hope & Optimism strongly associated r ~.50 (Snyder et al., 1991) r ~.50 (Snyder et al., 1991) r ~.80 in latent space (Bryant & Cvengros, 2004) r ~.80 in latent space (Bryant & Cvengros, 2004) Similar patterns of association Similar patterns of association Aspinwall & Leaf (2002) Aspinwall & Leaf (2002) Frequently conflated in literature Frequently conflated in literature Peterson & Seligman (2004) Peterson & Seligman (2004) There is a need to clarify distinctions There is a need to clarify distinctions Tennen, Affleck, & Tennen (2002) Tennen, Affleck, & Tennen (2002)

4 Distinguishing Hope & Optimism Magaletta & Oliver (1999) Magaletta & Oliver (1999) EFA: pathways, agency, optimism, & self-efficacy are distinct EFA: pathways, agency, optimism, & self-efficacy are distinct Hope scores predicted general well-being beyond optimism & self-efficacy Hope scores predicted general well-being beyond optimism & self-efficacy Bryant & Cvengros (2004) Bryant & Cvengros (2004) CFA: hope & optimism are distinct, 2 nd -order constructs CFA: hope & optimism are distinct, 2 nd -order constructs Hope = self-efficacy Hope = self-efficacy Optimism = positive reappraisal Optimism = positive reappraisal

5 AHS12AHS10AHS9 AHS2 AHS8AHS6 AHS4 AHS1 LOT10LOT1LOT4LOT3 LOT7 LOT9 Pathways Agency Hope Optimism Positive Exp. Negative Exp. ? Distinguishing Hope & Optimism Synthesizing Hope & Optimism

6 Study Method Sample Sample 345 students in undergraduate psychology class 345 students in undergraduate psychology class 59.4% female; 78.6% Caucasian 59.4% female; 78.6% Caucasian Mean age = years (SD = 2.29 years) Mean age = years (SD = 2.29 years) Measures Measures Hope (AHS), Optimism (LOT-R) Hope (AHS), Optimism (LOT-R) High School GPA High School GPA Grade Expectancy ( e.g., I predict my final grade = 70%) Grade Expectancy ( e.g., I predict my final grade = 70%) Final Class Grade Final Class Grade Procedure Procedure Start of semester: Self-report questionnaire Start of semester: Self-report questionnaire End of semester: course grade from instructor End of semester: course grade from instructor

7 2 (113, n=312) = ; RMSEA =.052; SRMR=.050; CFI= AHS12AHS10AHS9 AHS2 AHS8AHS6 AHS4 AHS1 LOT10LOT1LOT4LOT3 LOT7 LOT9 Pathways Agency Hope Optimism Positive Exp. Negative Exp * -.81**.24.72*.98* Goal Attitude *.82*.77* 1.0* HS GPA Grade Exp. Class Grade.25

8 Synthesized Model of Hope & Optimism Goal Attitude: Global belief that the act of pursuing goals is worth the effort required to do so Goal Attitude: Global belief that the act of pursuing goals is worth the effort required to do so Goal Attitude has two facets: Goal Attitude has two facets: Hope = Beliefs about the self Hope = Beliefs about the self Pathways = Appraisal of ones abilities Pathways = Appraisal of ones abilities Agency = Appraisal of ones available energy/motivation Agency = Appraisal of ones available energy/motivation Optimism = Beliefs about the world Optimism = Beliefs about the world Positive Expectancy = There are good things in the world to approach Positive Expectancy = There are good things in the world to approach Negative Expectancy = There are bad things in the world to avoid Negative Expectancy = There are bad things in the world to avoid

9 Future Questions Does optimism uniquely influence expectancies for events perceived to be outside of ones control? Does optimism uniquely influence expectancies for events perceived to be outside of ones control? Are hope and optimism influenced by attachment? Are hope and optimism influenced by attachment? Avoidance vs. Anxiety Avoidance vs. Anxiety Do hope and optimism have separate mechanisms for influencing well-being? Do hope and optimism have separate mechanisms for influencing well-being? Appraisals Appraisals Optimism Primary Appraisal Optimism Primary Appraisal Hope Secondary Appraisal Hope Secondary Appraisal Coping Coping Optimism Mental Accommodation Optimism Mental Accommodation Hope Problem Solving Hope Problem Solving

10 Extra Slides

11 ___ 1. I can think of many way to get out of a jam. P ___ 2. There are lots of ways around any problem. P ___ 3. I can think of many ways to get the things in life that are important to me. P ___ 4. Even when others get discouraged, I know I can find a way to solve the problem. P ___ 5. I energetically pursue my goals. A ___ 6. My past experiences have prepared me well for my future. A ___ 7. Ive been pretty successful in life. A ___ 8. I meet the goals that I set for myself. A Adult Hope Scale HOW TRUE IS EACH STATEMENT OF YOU 1= Definitely False 4= Slightly False 5= Slightly True 8= Definitely True

12 ___ 1. In uncertain times, I usually expect the best. O ___ 2. Im always optimistic about my future. O ___ 3. Overall I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. O ___ 4. If something can go wrong for me it will. P ___ 5. I hardly ever expect things to go my way. P ___ 6. I rarely count on good things happening to me. P Life Orientation Test-Revised To what extent is each item generally true for you 1= Not True……………………………………………………5= Very True

13 Cognitively-based traitxx Cognitively-based traitxx Future orientedxx Future orientedxx Expectancy-value modelxx Expectancy-value modelxx Explicit internal influence xx Explicit internal influence xx Explicit external influencex Explicit external influencex Explicit emotional etiologyx Explicit emotional etiologyx Influence appraisalsxx Influence appraisalsxx Influence coping responsesxx Influence coping responsesxx Influence well-beingxx Influence well-beingxx Hope Optimism Theoretical Overlap

14 2 (77, n=360) = ; RMSEA =.12; GFI =.83; NNFI =.86; CFI=.88 LOT1 Future Orientation 1.0* LOT4LOT10LOT3LOT7LOT AHS12AHS10AHS9AHS2AHS8 AHS6 AHS4 AHS

15 2 (71, n=360) = ; RMSEA =.07; GFI =.93; NNFI =.95; CFI=.96 LOT1 1.0* LOT4LOT10 LOT3LOT7LOT AHS12AHS10AHS9AHS2AHS8 AHS6 AHS4 AHS Optimism Pessimism Pathways Agency 1.0*

16 2 (72, n=360) = ; RMSEA =.067; GFI =.98; NNFI =.96; CFI= AHS12AHS10AHS9 AHS2 AHS8AHS6 AHS4 AHS1 LOT10LOT1LOT4LOT3 LOT7 LOT9 Pathways Agency Hope General Optimism Pessimism * -.81** *.77*.84*

17 2 (73, n=360) = ; RMSEA =.075; GFI =.97; NNFI =.94; CFI=.95; 2 (1, n=360) = 30.09, p < AHS12AHS10AHS9 AHS2 AHS8AHS6 AHS4 AHS1 LOT10LOT1LOT4LOT3 LOT7 LOT9 Pathways Agency Hope General Optimism Pessimism * -.77** 1.0*.70*.75*


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