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Native Functional Groups, Seeding Methods, and Maintenance Methods Determine Native Establishment in Trait-Based Restoration Sarah Kimball, Megan Lulow,

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Presentation on theme: "Native Functional Groups, Seeding Methods, and Maintenance Methods Determine Native Establishment in Trait-Based Restoration Sarah Kimball, Megan Lulow,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Functional Groups, Seeding Methods, and Maintenance Methods Determine Native Establishment in Trait-Based Restoration Sarah Kimball, Megan Lulow, Quinn Sorenson

2 Functional Groups ( species grouped by their traits) Ruderals: early seral, colonizers, annuals, high relative growth rate Perennials: late seral, competitors or stress tolerators, slower growth rate

3 Plant Traits and Restoration Select plants based on traits ( Pywell et al. 03 ) Select plants based on traits ( Pywell et al. 03 ) Communities resistant to invasion contain natives with traits similar to invasives (limiting similarity hypothesis, Emery 07 ) Communities resistant to invasion contain natives with traits similar to invasives (limiting similarity hypothesis, Emery 07 ) Plant natives with a range of traits and esp. with traits similar to invasives ( Funk et al. 08 ) Plant natives with a range of traits and esp. with traits similar to invasives ( Funk et al. 08 )

4 Research Questions What native functional group (ruderals, perennials, or a mix) results in the best native establishment? What native functional group (ruderals, perennials, or a mix) results in the best native establishment? Mechanics of restoration (Seeding Method? Weed removal methods?) Mechanics of restoration (Seeding Method? Weed removal methods?)

5 Grow and kill cycle: Mow Nov 2009 Spray Feb2010 Mow June 2010 Spray Nov 2010 Seed Dec 2010 West Loma Ridge

6 Seed Mixes Drill Seeding Hand Seeding & Tamping Ruderals Perennials Manual & Mowing Wick Herbicide Weed Removal Techniques Seeding Methods

7 Seed Mixes Ruderals Perennials Species PLS lb/ac Species PLS lb/ac Malacothrix saxatilisMASA0.25Artemesia californicaARCA2 Deinandra fasciculataDEFA0.75Eriogonum fasciculatumERFA3 Calandrinia ciliataCACI0.75Encelia californicaENCA3 Phacelia cicutariaPHCI2Salvia apianaSAAP2 Eschscholzia californicaESCA1Lotus scopariusLOSC3 Lupinus succulentusLUSU2Leymus condensatusLECO2 Total 6.75Total 15

8 Maintenance Treatments Every 4 weeks-standardized time/plot 1. Man/Mow : Hand Weeding (Manual) & weed-eating (Mow) 2. Wick : Herbicide-Wicking First hand weeding, later weed eating to height of natives

9 Experimental Design 6 replicates of all treatment combinations

10 Data Collection & Analysis Emergent Seedlings- One month post-seeding Number of individuals- Late spring Cover- Late spring (point intercepts) Seed set & height - Summer Mixed-model ANOVAs with block as a random factor and seeding method, maintenance treatment, and seed mix as fixed factors

11 Emergent Seedlings in Feb. Hand seeding resulted in greater emergence than drill seeding (F 1,102 =24.03, P<0.0001). Hand seeding resulted in greater emergence than drill seeding (F 1,102 =24.03, P<0.0001). More perennial seedlings than ruderals (F 1,102 =5.9, P=0.004). More perennial seedlings than ruderals (F 1,102 =5.9, P=0.004).

12 Emergent Seedlings: Seed Mixes More perennials when seeded alone than in mixed group (F 1,63 =5.87, P=0.0183). More perennials when seeded alone than in mixed group (F 1,63 =5.87, P=0.0183).

13 Emergent Non-Native Seedlings in Feb. Hand seeding resulted in greater germination of BRNI (F 1,97 =55.37, P<0.001). Hand seeding resulted in greater germination of BRNI (F 1,97 =55.37, P<0.001). Drill seeding resulted in greater germination of invasive grasses (F 1,97 =11.58, P=0.01). Drill seeding resulted in greater germination of invasive grasses (F 1,97 =11.58, P=0.01).

14 Cover in Late Spring: Maintenance Techniques Wick was most effective at reducing non-natives. Wick was most effective at reducing non-natives. Native Cover increased with weed removal (F 2,85 =42.06, P<0.0001). Native Cover increased with weed removal (F 2,85 =42.06, P<0.0001).

15 Late Spring Cover: Seed Mixes Ruderals had greater overall cover during first growing season Ruderals had greater overall cover during first growing season Each functional group had greater cover when planted alone (Perennials F 1,55 =36.31, P<0.0001, Ruderals F 1,55 =10.38, P=0.002) Each functional group had greater cover when planted alone (Perennials F 1,55 =36.31, P<0.0001, Ruderals F 1,55 =10.38, P=0.002)

16 Late Spring Density: Seed Mixes Perennials had greater overall density during first growing season Perennials had greater overall density during first growing season Each group had greater density when planted alone (Perennials F 1,55 =29.67, P<0.0001, Ruderals F 1,60 =8.62, P=0.005) Each group had greater density when planted alone (Perennials F 1,55 =29.67, P<0.0001, Ruderals F 1,60 =8.62, P=0.005)

17 Late Spring: Ordination of Plots in Species Space Salvia apiana correlated with axis 1 (r=0.962) Salvia apiana correlated with axis 1 (r=0.962) Phacelia ciliata negatively correlated with axis 1 (r=-0.72) Phacelia ciliata negatively correlated with axis 1 (r=-0.72)

18 Native Species Seed Production Phacelia had reduced seed production when grown with perennials (F 1,40 =6.68, P=0.014) Malacothrix had reduced seed production when grown with perennials (F 1,40 =11.9, P=0.002).

19 Reproduction & Size of Perennials Eriogonum only reproduced in the wick treatment plots without ruderals. ERFA individuals were taller in plots without ruderals (F 1,32 =9.21, P=0.005). Lemus was larger in plots without ruderals (F 1,23 =4.63, P=0.04).

20 Conclusions Each native functional group did best alone Each native functional group did best alone Hand Seeding resulted in more native seedlings (and more BRNI) Hand Seeding resulted in more native seedlings (and more BRNI) Wick herbicide removed more non-natives and resulted in higher reproduction of native species, but man/mow resulted in higher cover and density of natives Wick herbicide removed more non-natives and resulted in higher reproduction of native species, but man/mow resulted in higher cover and density of natives

21 Implications for Trait-based Restoration Importance of considering interactions among native functional groups (not just between natives and invasives) Importance of considering interactions among native functional groups (not just between natives and invasives) Contrary to coexistence theory, greater trait diversity increased competition Contrary to coexistence theory, greater trait diversity increased competition Seeding methods Seeding methods

22 Next Steps Collecting data this year on germination in plots. Collecting data this year on germination in plots. Return to marked perennials to measure survivorship, size, & fecundity Return to marked perennials to measure survivorship, size, & fecundity Seeded much larger area surrounding initial experiment. Seeded much larger area surrounding initial experiment.

23 West Loma Restoration

24 Acknowledgements Irvine Ranch Conservancy Staff: Isaac Oliva, Isaac Ostmann, Yi-Chin Fang UCI CEB Faculty UC Irvine student interns: Rosemary Garcia, Roxanne Murillo, Ashley Brutto Funding: Orange County Parks, Donald Bren Foundation


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