2Definition of PhonemeA minimal class of phones which possess shared features that clearly contrast to those of other phonemes and form the basis of distinguishing one utterance from another.
3Most Languages have 50 or fewer phonemes. No language uses all possible phonemesThe phones contained in corresponding phonenemes in different languages may vary significantly.
4Phonemic Categories Differ from One Language to Another In English, trilled and untrilled r’s are in the same phoneme.In English b and v are in different phonemes.berry vs. veryIn English r and l anre in different phonemesriver vs. liverIn Spanish, trilled and untrilled r’s are in different phonemes.pero vs. perroIn Spanish, b and v are in the same phoneme.In Chinese r and l are in the same phoneme
5AllophonesDefinition: Phones that occupy the same phoneme are called allophones.
6Goals of a Phonemic Analysis 1. To identify a minimal set of phonemes for the languageTo identify which phones from the language are classified together in a given phoneme as allophonesTo identify the contexts in which a given allophone will be used instead of others in the same phoneme
7Kinds of Allophones Free variation allophones Complementary distribution allophones
8Free Variation Allophones Where the use of a particular allophone overlaps with the use of othersTwo sounds are used indiscriminately in different phonetic contexts
9Complementary Distribution Allophones Two allophones are in complementary distribution if the contexts in which they appear do not overlap.Two sounds are never used in the same phonetic context.
10Kinds of Phonetic Context Some Examples Immediate context = the sounds which immediately precede and follow the allophoneThe stress of the sounds that follow or precede the allophoneWhether the allophone begins or ends a wordWhen the allophone begins a word, the sound with which the word preceding the allophone endsWhen the allophone ends a word, the sound with which the word following the allophone begins
11Immediate Context Example She vs. ShoeThe vowel following the “sh” sound changes the way the sound is made. The two “sh” sounds are allophones of the same phoneme, but are used in different contexts, one following the “oo” and one following the “ee” sound.