Presentation on theme: "April 8, 2013 – WNA Singapore Meeting The International Regulatory Setting for Safe Class 7 Transport for Safe Class 7 Transport Paul Gray Nordion Inc."— Presentation transcript:
April 8, 2013 – WNA Singapore Meeting The International Regulatory Setting for Safe Class 7 Transport for Safe Class 7 Transport Paul Gray Nordion Inc. Chairman, ISSPA
2 Comprehensive Regulatory framework for Transport Safety Land transport Road, Rail and Inland Waterway Air Sea All 9 Classes All modes Class 7 All modes The implementation of IAEA Regs into the Model and Modal Regulations Regional: MERCOSUR/MERCOSUL (4) ADR (47), RID (45), ADN (17) Mail (159) (190) (192)
Strict (and complex!) Regulatory Framework IAEA issues specific regulations for RAM transport (SSR 6) These are incorporated into the UN Orange Book, a set of transport regulations for all Dangerous Goods (Classes 1- 9) Contents of Orange Book are interpreted into the modal regulations for each mode of transport: road, rail, air, sea, inland waterways e.g. the (mandatory) IMDG Code Regulations must be implemented in national laws, (often with slight variations)
UN Orange Book Model regulation IAEA SSR 6 ICAO-TI Mandatory for Safety Recommendation Air Transport Regulator Transport Industry (?) Mainly package design approval regulator / some transport regulator IMO-IMDG Minimum requirement for facilitation (?) UNECE-ADR, AND, RID MS with accession, ratification, etc to Convention Sea Transport Regulator Expert of TDG/GHS TRANSSC IATA-DGR Input from MS / Development of International Regulations
6 Sea Transport United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (adopted in 1982) Safety Of Life At Sea Convention (SOLAS) SOLAS Convention 1974, entered into force on 25 May 1980 Carriage of Dangerous Goods in packaged form (by sea) shall be in compliance the relevant provisions of the IMDG Code (Reg. 3 of Part A of Chapter VII of SOLAS Convention) International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code Mandatory for the 159 contracting parties to SOLAS Convention Amendment includes the requirements of TS-R-1 (2005 edition) and security provisions (and the recommendations) of 15 th edition of UN Model Regulations.
7 Sea Transport (continued) Code for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks on board Ships (INF Code) Mandatory since 2001 through Reg. 15 in Part D of Chapter VII of SOLAS Convention Ship carrying INF cargo complies with the INF Code requirements International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS Convention Security provisions, not specifically on security of dangerous goods Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Marine Navigation (SUA) The 2005 Protocol to the 1988 SUA Convention expanded the scope to include provisions on nuclear material. Adopted in October 2005, entered into force on 28 July 2010.
8 Air Transport Chicago Convention On International Civil Aviation, Binding instrument (1947) Annex 18 = international standards and recommended practices for the safe transport of dangerous goods by air Technical Instructions of ICAO Mandatory for the 190 contracting parties to Chicago Convention edition of the Technical Instructions of ICAO include TS-R-1 (2009 edition) and security provisions (and the recommendations) of 16 th edition of UN Model Regulations Dangerous Goods Regulations of IATA Not mandatory In practice, airlines continue to require compliance with IATAs current DGR (Updated every two years)
Basic Safety Concepts – SSR-6 Goal is to protect persons, property and the environment through: Containment of the radioactive contents. Control of external radiation levels. Prevention of criticality. Prevention of damage caused by heat.
Basic Safety Concepts (continued) Safety in Depth principle prescribed for transport of RAM: package performance, compliance with requirements, emergency response Where necessary, multiple barriers are engineered between the material and the environment IAEA performs audits to verify implementation in volunteer member States. Such TranSAS missions in Panama, Brazil, Turkey, United Kingdom, France, Japan have shown high levels of excellence.
Packaging and Package are Terms of vital importance in SSR-6 Package - The packaging with its radioactive contents as presented for transport Packaging - The assembly of components necessary to enclose the radioactive contents completely + = PACKAGING PACKAGE RADIOACTIVE CONTENTS
Why Regularly Review Regulations? Need to review technical basis Shipment of large objects from decommissioning Extreme hot and extreme cold increasing in frequency Resources such as copper Digital image recording Cultural diversity
Package Options for Transporting Radioactive Material Unpackaged Excepted packages Industrial packages Types IP-1, IP-2, IP-3 Type A packages Type B packages Type C packages Other According to the activity, physical state and fissile nature of the radioactive material, several types of package are prescribed by IAEA regulations:
Graded Approach Graded approach to transport: Routine conditions – incident free Normal conditions – minor mishaps Accident conditions Excepted Package Type A Package Type B Package
Type A Packages Have Design and Performance Testing Criteria Design Requirements Design Requirements excepted package requirements minimum external dimensions tamper proof / security seal Withstand temperatures -40°C to +70°C recognized design standards positive closing devices containment system considerations environmental pressure differentials radiation shielding considerations physical state of contents
Type B Packaging Functions These are to: - Remove heat -Protect against impact -Seal the container -Provide gamma shielding -Neutron shielding -Hold the assemblies in place -Help with handling and tie-down
Testing – Normal Conditions Package tests for normal conditions: Water Spray: simulates the effect of rain at the rate of 5 cm / hour for an hour Stacking: simulates a compressive load equivalent to five times its own weight Free Drop: simulates minor mishandling by being dropped from 1.2 m Penetration: Simulates the penetration effect of a 6 kg steel bar dropped from 1 m, or from loading hooks or forklifts.
Testing – Accident Conditions Type B and Type C packages are designed to withstand severe accident conditions. Type B package tests for accident conditions: Mechanical: A drop of 9 m onto an inflexible surface and a drop of 1 m onto a steel pin Thermal: Immersion for 30 minutes in a 800 C fire in a 800 C fire Water: Immersion at 15 m underwater for 8 hours
Segregation, CSI, and TI Class 7 packages must be segregated from other packages, from other dangerous goods, from undeveloped films, from passengers etc. Transport Index (TI) is used to mitigate radiation exposure and keep dose rates within allowable regulatory limits; it appears on a label affixed to the package or container Criticality Safety Index (CSI) is used to prevent any unsafe accumulation of fissile packages. It appears on a label affixed to the package (or the container).
Segregation in ICAO Technical Instructions Provides minimum segregation distance guidelines Based on sums of TI and distances / locations of inner passenger cabin floors and flight decks Based on duration of flight
Correct Categorization of Packages
Correct Labelling (on the package) and Placarding (on the vehicle)
contamination checks 4 Bq/cm² βγ RAM Transport: Inspection Before Departure, in Transit, and on Arrival