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Chemistry 2100 Lecture 13. Metabolism digestion: hydrolysis degradation: nutrients acetyl CoA TCA Cycle: acetyl CoA CO 2 + NADH / FADH 2 oxidative phosphorylation:

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry 2100 Lecture 13. Metabolism digestion: hydrolysis degradation: nutrients acetyl CoA TCA Cycle: acetyl CoA CO 2 + NADH / FADH 2 oxidative phosphorylation:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry 2100 Lecture 13

2 Metabolism

3 digestion: hydrolysis degradation: nutrients acetyl CoA TCA Cycle: acetyl CoA CO 2 + NADH / FADH 2 oxidative phosphorylation: NADH / FADH 2 ATP Stages of Catabolism

4 Catabolic Pathways Two principal types of compounds participating in the common catabolic pathway are: –AMP, ADP, and ATP: agents for the storage and transfer of phosphate groups. –NAD + /NADH and FAD/FADH 2 : agents for the transfer of electrons in biological oxidation-reduction reactions

5 Ad Adenosine Triphosphate

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9 H 2 O 31.4 kJ/mol OPOPOPO O O O O O O Ad OPO O O OPOPO O O O O ++

10 Coupled Reactions (and why we need them)

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13 +++RC O OHHOR'RC O O 16.7 kJ/molH 2 O

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17 RC O OH+10.5 kJ/molOPOPOPO O O O O O O Ad RC O O O O OPOPOPO O O O O + +

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21 RC O O O O OP O O O OP+ + + 25.1 kJ/mol HOR' RC O O

22 RC O O HO RC O OH+ATP +AMP +PP +14.6 kJ/mol +

23 NAD + /NADH –NAD + is a two-electron oxidizing agent, and is reduced to NADH. –NADH is a two-electron reducing agent, and is oxidized to NAD +. The structures shown here are the nicotinamide portions of NAD + and NADH. –NADH is an electron and hydrogen ion transporting molecule.

24 FAD/FADH 2 –FAD is a two-electron oxidizing agent, and is reduced to FADH 2. –FADH 2 is a two-electron reducing agent, and is oxidized to FAD. –Only the flavin moiety is shown in the structures below.

25 Carbohydrate Catabolism glycolysis: glucose pyruvate acetyl CoA TCA Cycle: acetyl CoA CO 2 + NADH / FADH 2 oxidative phosphorylation: NADH / FADH 2 ATP

26 Glycolysis

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31 H phosphofructokinase

32 H

33 H

34 H H

35 H H

36 H H

37 H H

38 H H

39 N H C O NH 2 AD dehydrogenase 1,3-bisphospho glycerate NADH NAD + glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + HPO 4 -2 + C CH 2 O OHH O PO 3 3 O N C O NH 2 HH AD C CH 2 O OHH H PO 3 O -2

40 1,3 bisphospho glycerate

41 1,3 bisphospho glycerate

42 1,3 bisphospho glycerate 3-phospho glycerate

43 1,3 bisphospho glycerate 3-phospho glycerate 2-phospho glycerate

44 H O 2-phospho glycerate

45 H O 2-phospho glycerate

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49 pyruvate

50 pyruvic acid(–)-lactic acid Anaerobic Glycolysis pyruvatelactic acid

51 pyruvic acidacetaldehydeethanol Fermentation pyruvateacetaldehydeethanol

52 TriCarboxylic Acid Cycle Prep pyruvate

53 Acetyl-CoA production

54 Acetyl-CoA Oxidation

55 Electron Transfer and Oxidative Phosphorylation

56 Where does this all happen?

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58 Net Effect of the Citric Acid Cycle Acetyl-CoA + 3NAD + + FAD + GDP + P i + 2 H 2 O 2CO 2 +3NADH + FADH 2 + GTP + CoA + 3H + carbons of acetyl groups in acetyl-CoA are oxidized to CO 2 electrons from this process reduce NAD + and FAD one GTP is formed per cycle, this can be converted to ATP intermediates in the cycle are not depleted

59 Energy Yield

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61 Oxidative Phosphorylation


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