2A Single Language Varies According to: Idiolect = the unique characteristics of how a given individual speaks the language.Dialect = a version of a language that is systemmatically different from other versions of the languageStandard = the ideal against which idiolects and dialects are measured
3Language or Dialect? Mutual Intelligibility Communicative Isolation is the criterion used to differentiate between dialects and languagesis a matter of judgement and tradition.Communicative IsolationResults in the divergence of differing forms of a language (linguistic drift)is what creates dialects and new languagesCan be complete or only partialDialect LevelingThe opposite of isolation, this makes a language more uniform in its variants
4Dialects Regional = geographically defined Socioeconomic = defined by social classEthnic = defined by membership in a particular ethnic group
5Aspects of DialectAccents = systematic phonological differences in the use of speech soundsLexical Differences = vocabulary differencesSyntactic Differences = differences in how sentences are constructed and used
6PidginsPidgin is a language that arises from the need for workers and bosses to communicate when they do not speak the same languageLimited vocabularySimplified grammatical elementseg. Slaves and ownersColonial land owners andpeasants who work the landHawaiian Pidgin began as a pidgin that allowed colonists to give orders to indigenous workersCombined Hawaiian and English language elements
7CreolesPidgins that have become complete languages that are learned by children as their first languageEg. Hawaiian Pidgin has become a creole over time and is the local language that is spoken by individuals growing up in Hawaii
8African American English (AAE) Phonological DifferencesR-deletionguard = god, sore = saw, poor = paL-deletionall = awe, help = hepNeutralization of [I ]and [E] before nasals (intermediatesound)pin = pen, ten = tinLoss of interdental fricativesRuth = roofBrother = broverThis = disThat = dat
9Syntactic Differences Double negatives“he don’t know nothing”“he don’t got none”Deletion of the verb “to be”He is nice. = He nice.I am gonna do it. = I gonna do it.Habitual “be”Sarah is happy. = Sarah be happy.( Sarah is a always a happy person)He is late. = He lateHe is always late. = He be late.
10Latino/Hispanic/Chicano English Phonological DifferencesSubstitution of the Spanish 5 vowel system for the English 11 vowel systemship & sheep = sheeprid and read = readInterchangeability of sh and chshow = chocheck = sheckDevoicing some consonantseasy = isiguys = gaisFinal consonant cluster simplificationwar and ward = warstar and start = starConsonant substitutionth = t (thin = tin)th = d (they = dey)Addition of e sound at beginning of s wordsschool = eskoolstart = estart
11Latino/Hispanic/Chicano English Syntactic Differences:Double negatives“he don’t know nothing”“he don’t got none”Use of more for more oftenUse of out from for away from
12RegistersSituational dialects that are used in different roles and in differing social situations.Informal vs formalEG. Tu vs usted in SpanishMotherese with youngchildren
13Slang An informal set of alternative vocabulary and/or meanings Including:Recombining existing words in new ways to create meanings (“spaced out”)Introducing new words (zonked)Attaching new meanings to existing words(“to text”)
14JargonA set of vocabulary that is used in a specified limited technical, professional or occupational context.EG. The vocabulary that you have been learning in this class that is used by specialists in Linguistics: phoneme, morpheme, phonetics, phonemics, morphology, syntax, semantics, grammar, etc.
15Taboo Language vs Euphemisms Taboo = language that should not be used in polite situationsEuphemism = a word that replaces a taboo or unpleasant wordClass ExerciseWhy Use Taboo Language?Why Use Euphemisms?