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Christopher J. Khalil IMPACT Research Group,

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Presentation on theme: "Christopher J. Khalil IMPACT Research Group,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Architecture of the AMEBICA Agent Based Adaptive Process Control Interface
Christopher J. Khalil IMPACT Research Group, Dept. of Computer Science, Loughborough University, UK AMEBICA Homepage:

2 Introduction Presentation Order: 1: What is Amebica? 2:AMEBICA Background. 3: Why AMEBICA is useful for an Operator/Designer. 4: AMEBICA System Details 5: AMEBICA and Multi-Media. 6: Research Issues 7: Conclusion

3 What Is AMEBICA? A System to dynamically select the best media and adapt representation for a certain context within a Process Control Environment. ESPRIT Basic Research Project with partners around Europe. Alcatel (FRANCE), Elsag (ITALY), Iberdrola (SPAIN), Institutt for Energiteknikk (NORWAY), LABEIN Technological Research (SPAIN), Association pour la Recherche et le Dévelopment des Méthodes et Process Indusriels (FRANCE), IMPACT Research Group - Loughborough University (UNITED KINGDOM), Softeco (ITALY)

4 AMEBICA Background AMEBICA: Auto-Adaptive Multi-Media Environment Based on Intelligent Collaborating Agents. CONTEXT: PROCESS CONTROL, such as IBERDROLA.

5 AMEBICA Background In Process Control there has been a general move away from the Hard-Desk approach to the Soft-Desk. This has led to the operator often experiencing information overload when the process is in a disturbed condition. Objective: To develop the conceptual and technological foundation for Auto-Adaptive Multimedia Interfaces, using as a basis the Multi-Agent architecture paradigm, with industrial process control as the target domain

6 Why is AMEBICA useful to the Operator
Complex Systems must be monitored in low bandwidth displays. Often operator is confronted with Information Overload, hard to disseminate useful information from spurious information. Use of different Media and ways of presenting information can make Operators job easier. Bad Interface design can cause major disasters or expensive shutdowns.

7 Factors Affecting Human Performance
Organisational Context Input Error Working Environment Not Detected Slow Response Human Task Equipment Poor Diagnosis Incorrect Maintenance

8 Examples of Human Error.
Channel Tunnel Fire 1996: Mistakes and Delays occurred configuring power system and dampers. Inquiry reported management system needed to be modified, so that Operator not faced with unmanageable workload in future incidents. Texas Oil Refinery Explosion: Team failed to diagnose correctly the problems. Inability to appreciate mass flows blamed on control system which provided no clear overview of mass balances. Flood of alarms hampered operation. Recommendation: Improve display of plant data, and alarm handling system These incidents highlight problems interfaces can provide. Costs millions of dollars.

9 How AMEBICA Helps the Operator.
Combats Interface Rigidity: A rigid Interface often creates additional and unnecessary tasks for the operators. Provides Flexibile Mapping System: Adapts the interface to best suit the current task/problem/operator. Improves Interface Effectivness: AMEBICA will ease the task of the operator, and reinforce effectivenesss during system disturbances. Manages Informtion Overload: Will filter information according to criteria such as urgency and operator condition. Will ensure that the main presentation parameters of form, location, and modality correspond to the contents and nature of the information.

10 Why is AMEBICA useful for a Designer?
Interface Designer Information: Will provide future Interface designers with valuable information and guidelines on usefulness of Adaptive Systems. Domain Independent: The adaptive framework is process/interface independent. It therefore provides a generic architecture which can be plugged into other process domains and other interface rendering engines. Reduces Design Time: Since system captures a whole range of possible mappings, the interface can be updated very simply by varying the range of possible mappings or adding new ones.

11 AMEBICA Adaptation Foundation
Process state Process state Process state Operator Disturbed, high info rate Disturbed low info rate response Normal Normal OK, no action Check with Operator Check with Operator Delayed (relative (1) Inattentive: (4) Overloaded. (7) “Frozen”. Accentuate Filter information, Repeat recent to expected presentation simplify presentation representation responses) Erratic (2) Inattentive. (5) Overloaded. (8) Partial loss of (occasionally comprehension. Accentuate Simplify displays, wrong display Go one level up, presentation remove information commands) (specific) Switch modality Disorganised (3) Confused loss (6) Severe loss (9) Complete loss of of control. (constantly comprehension. of control. wrong display Alert Domain Specialists Alert other Assistance Go to overview commends) presentation

12 AMEBICA System Context
AMEBICA lies between the UIMS system and the Interface. AMEBICA operates on information flow between these two systems. AMEBICA endeavours to make the interface renderings more suitable for the operator. Process S&C system HMI UIMS Supervision & Control System Human-Machine Interface Auto- adaptive enhancement AMEBICA functionality

13 AMEBICA Process/Interface Independence
AMEBICA acts on streams of information that run from the Process to the Interface. AMEBICA does not affect the streams, merely the way the streams are represented at the Interface. The AMEBICA framework is generic and can be applied to other processes/Interfaces.

14 AMEBICA Process/Interface Independence
ABSTRACT RENDERING INTERFACE PROCESS Process data streams Process Model Agent manipulation MULTI AGENT SYSTEM AMEBICA Framework

15 AMEBICA Process/Interface Independence
The Process Model Agent (PMA) monitors the state of the process, and maintains an updated view of process conditions. If certain, discrete conditions are met (say an alarm condition), the PMA recognise adaptation is required. It then translates these conditions to process independent terms that the AMEBICA framework can understand. Upon the required adaptation being completed the framework passes the appropriate information to the Abstract Rendering Interface (ARI). The ARI is responsible for translating the requisite adaptation to renderings at the Interface.

16 AMEBICA Basic Principles
Each software agent represents a particular actor within the System (Operator, Environment). The total system intelligence will therefore be the result of the collective intelligence and communication capacities of the agents. All system rules should be simple/straightforward AMEBICA should attempt to operate as quickly as possible.

17 Roles of the Media Allocator and Rendering Resolution Agent
Operator Agent Human Factors Database Environment Agent Process Model Agent Set of media Agents Rendering Resolution Agent Rendering system Media Allocator Agent Presentation Agent PROCESS

18 Advantages of Multi-Media
Use of Multi-Media can: Increase the bandwidth of Communication. Facilitate Multitasking. Improve Attention-Getting. Facilitate Representations at Multiple Levels of Abstraction in the Interface. Provide Vivid and Engaging Presentations

19 Definitions of Multi-Media
Modality: Output modality refers to the human sensory system through which physical artefacts are perceived. Artefacts include visual, auditory or perhaps haptic. Channel: Line of information transfer. Table = visual/verbal channel, Picture = visual/spatial channel. Perceptual Dimension: Within a channel several perceptual dimensions can be used to encode information. A graphic symbol, for example, may have a given shape and colour which represent meaningful attributes. Medium: Is an artefact which renders information and has structural and functional properties.

20 Definitions Of Multi-Media
Medium: Has higher level functional characteristics such as syntax and semantics. Multi-Media: Describes a computing system which employs multiple media. Term is often misused, for example some writers in the popular press claim a system must have live video and audio in synchronisation to qualify as a multi- media system. This is not true, a word processor which allows drawings and text to be integrated into a document is a multi-media system

21 The Power of Multi-Media
A more natural way to communicate information. Allows exploitation of the “whole” human mind both perceptually and cognitively. Representations must be designed to exploit our perceptual capabilities. Use of metaphors is difficult in a Process Control system, as they event displayed do not lend themselves naturally to everyday items. Excessive use of multi-media can be dangerous in a Process Control situation, can detract from the main task of not carefully used.

22 SPATIAL Modality/Code Abstracted Stylistic Realistic (abstracted)
SPATIAL VERBAL Modality/Code Abstracted Stylistic Realistic (abstracted) Static Abstract Graphics Mimics Pictures Alphanumerics VISUAL Semi-Dynamic Animated Graphics Animated Mimics Slide Show Time-Varying Alphanumerics Dynamic Data Visualisation Cartoons Video Motif Generated Auditory AUDITORY Earcons Auditory Icons Icons Spoken Word Data Audiolisation (3D Binaural) Continuous Everyday Sounds Spoken Passage

23 AMEBICA Flexible Mappings
In traditional systems the designer must pick the best ALL PURPOSE representation and discard the others (The broken-line arrows). The other representations could possibly be better under a different set of conditions. AMEBICA captures these possible representations within a Media Agent . At run time AMEBICA will consider the current dynamic run-time conditions, if another representation is more appropriate it will select it

24 AMEBICA Flexible Mappings
Output class 1 MMI media (UIMS / MMI) Medium 1 Medium 2 Medium ... Medium n Output class 2 Output class ... Input class 1 Output class n Input class ... Process S&C system Design defined mapping Output from process Input to process

25 AMEBICA Flexible Mappings and Affordances
Process Events Dynamic Text Dynamic Images 5 Trends

26 AMEBICA Operations AMEBICA Adaptive Actions:
A: Switch from different states (Overview, Detail) B: Select MOST appropriate Representation C: Select MOST appropriate characteristics (colour, flashing, text size, behaviour) D: Select MOST appropriate Location and Size. E: Adapt interface to accommodate important Representations. (Move, Resize, Overlap, Layer Windows) MEDIA USED: Auditory: Speech recognition, Speech Output, Alarm Sounds. Graphic: Mimics, Animations, Pictures, Video,Animated Graphics

27 Bounding Interface Adaptation
No active moving of windows allowed. The user has a spatial understanding of where unserviced renderings are, if windows are moved around the screen it disrupts user effectivness. Window re-sizing allowed: Re-sizing a window only partially affects the users spatial map, and they still have a understanding of where that rendering is, even if it is smaller. Run Time Selection: Any Representation can be selected an run-time as long as it fits interface resources. Layer Use: Use of layers permitted (foreground, background)

28 What Does AMEBICA Interface Look Like

29 Research Issues Set up Process Simulator using real apparatus. Simulate certain scenarios and observe user’s responses. Ascertain effectiveness of AMEBICA architecture and interface. Possible collaboration with Clausthal Technical University, with Interface remotely connected to their process simulation apparatus.

30 Conclusion AMEBICA will attempt to provide Interface designers with guidelines on using adaptive systems. AMEBICA attempts to present the Operator with the most salient information in a timely fashion. AMEBICA attempts to investigate the usefulness of Adaptive Interfaces in a Process Control Environment.

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