Presentation on theme: "effective / ɪˈ f ɛ kt ɪ v/ - producing a result that is wanted : having an intended effect - efikasan, sposoban drugs effective in the treatment of a."— Presentation transcript:
effective / ɪˈ f ɛ kt ɪ v/ - producing a result that is wanted : having an intended effect - efikasan, sposoban drugs effective in the treatment of a disease = drugs effective in treating a disease = drugs effective against a disease It's a simple but effective technique. He gave an effective speech. executive / ɪ g ˈ z ɛ kj ə t ɪ v/ - a person who manages or directs other people in a company or organization – rukovodilac, direktor a sales executive The television network's executives decided not to air the controversial show. a phone company executive CEO: Chief Executive Officer – izvršni direktor well-known / ˈ w ɛ l ˈ no ʊ n/ - known by many people – dobro poznat, svjetski poznat a well-known writer/fact
consultant /k ə n ˈ s ʌ ltn ̩ t/ - a person who gives professional advice or services to companies for a fee – savjetnik, stručnjak an advertising/management consultant They've hired a computer consultant to assess how the company can upgrade its system. give an interview effectiveness – djelotvornost, efikasnost, sposobnost The effectiveness of the drug was questioned.
habit / ˈ hæb ə t/ - a usual way of behaving : something that a person does often in a regular and repeated way – navika It was his habit to take a nap after dinner every evening. It's important that parents teach their children good study/eating habits. He fell/got into some bad habits after graduating from college. It's never easy to break/kick a bad habit. Old habits die hard. [=it is hard to stop doing things that you have been doing for a long time] enlarge / ɪ n ˈ l ɑɚʤ / - to make (something) larger or to become larger - uvećati, proširiti We had the photograph enlarged. The company is in the process of enlarging [=expanding] its offices. enlarge on/upon something (formal): to give more information about something Would you kindly enlarge [=elaborate] on that point?
make sure - to find out or do something so that you have no doubt about whether something is true, correct, will happen, etc. – znati sasvim pouzdano, biti siguran, obezbjediti Make sure (that) you turn the oven off. Remember to make sure (that) all the doors are locked. They made sure everyone knew where they were supposed to be. Make sure it doesn't happen again. time consuming / ˈ ta ɪ mk ə n ˈ su : m ɪ ŋ/ - using or needing a large amount of time time-consuming chores a very expensive and time-consuming process Can we try to make this less time-consuming?
ingredient / ɪ n ˈ gri : dij ə nt/ - one of the things that are used to make a food, product, etc.; a quality or characteristic that makes something possible – sastojak, sastavni dio, primjesa Honesty is an essential ingredient of/for a successful marriage. The show has all the ingredients needed to attract a large audience. recipe / ˈ r ɛ s ə pi/ - a way of doing something that will produce a particular result – recept He says he has an infallible recipe for success. She's planning to do the plumbing herself. That's a recipe for disaster. [=that will result in disaster]
build on/upon (something) - to use (something that has been done in the past) as a basis for further work, development, etc. Each president builds on/upon the success of each past president. These classes will help students build on what they already know. building upon past experiences/successes area / ˈ erij ə / - a field of activity or study - oblast The discovery has opened up new areas of/for research. The budget continues to be a major area of concern. a problem area the whole area of foreign policy
decision making - the act or process of deciding something especially with a group of people The project will require some difficult decision-making. All members of the organization have a role in decision-making. the company's decision-making process interdependent / ˌɪ nt ɚ d ɪˈ p ɛ nd ə nt/ - related in such a way that each needs or depends on the other : mutually dependent – me đ usobno zavistan The two nations are politically independent but economically interdependent.
long-term - lasting for, relating to, or involving a long period of time The long-term effects of the medication are not known. The company has a long-term plan/strategy for success. short-term - a short period of time at the beginning of something It will meet our needs, at least for the short term. His plan has advantages over the short term.
acquisition / ˌ ækw ə ˈ z ɪʃ ə n/ - the act of getting or acquiring something: such as a : the act or process of gaining skill, knowledge, etc. – akvizicija, usvajanje, sticanje the acquisition of knowledge foreign language acquisition manpower / ˈ mæn ˌ paw ɚ / - the number of people who are available to work – radna snaga, radnici Currently we are experiencing a shortage of manpower. military manpower incentive / ɪ n ˈ s ɛ nt ɪ v/ - something that encourages a person to do something or to work harder – impuls, inicijativa, podsticaj, pobuda, podstrek Our salespeople are given financial incentives for reaching their quotas. [=if they reach their quotas they are paid more money] The rising cost of electricity provides a strong/powerful incentive to conserve energy. The government offers special tax incentives for entrepreneurs. The company is offering a special low price as an added incentive for new customers.
decide on something - to choose (something) after thinking about the possible choices He decided on blue rather than green. We looked at all the cats in the pet store and finally decided on a little black-and-white one. I am having trouble deciding on a gift for them. fundamental / ˌ f ʌ nd ə ˈ m ɛ ntl ̟ / - forming or relating to the most important part of something – fundamentalni, osnovni, izvorni, glavni, bitni The Constitution ensures our fundamental rights. There's a fundamental difference between these two political parties. a fundamental truth/concept/belief beliefs that are fundamental to our society neat / ˈ ni : t/ - simple and clever – jednostavan,sažet, prikladan a neat trick He's got a neat way of memorizing information. There is, unfortunately, no neat solution to the problem.
I was playing tennis all this afternoon. What were you doing? was/were + present participle (V-ing) AffirmativeQuestionNegative I was workingWas I working? I wasnt working You were working Were you working? You werent working
Past Continuous Tense se koristi da izrazi radnju koja je trajala odre đ eno, duže vrijeme u prošlosti. I was painting all day yesterday. They were quarrelling the whole time.
Koristi se da izrazi radnju koja se doga đ ala u prošlosti (background) u vrijeme kada se dogodila neka druga, značajnija, radnja (foreground) (ova druga radnja se izražava Simple Past Tense-om): While the man was looking at the picture, the thief stole his watch. As I was walking down the road, I saw Bill. The phone rang while I was having dinner. Mozart died while he was composing Requiem.
Me đ utim, ako se izražavaju dvije radnje koje su se desile u prošlosti a uz to se izražava njihova podudarnost, nije jedna značajnija od druge, u oba dijela rečenice se koristi Past Continuous. The thieves took precautions against surprise; while one was working on the safe, the other was keeping watch for policemen.
Come here. Be quiet. Have a drink. Dont worry about it. Imperativ, u potvrdnom obliku, ima isti oblik kao infinitive bez to. U negativnom obliku, imperative se gradi na sljedeći način: do not (dont) + infinitiv.
Imperative koristimo kada želimo reći nekome ili ga zamoliti da nešto uradi, da načinimo sugestiju, da damo savjet ili uputstvo, da nekoga ohrabrimo ili da nešto ponudimo. Look in the mirror before you drive off. Please do not lean out of the window. Tell him youre not free this evening. Try again – you nearly did it. Have some more tea. Enjoy your holiday.
Let me – koristi se da damo instrukcije sami sebi Let me see. Let me think. Let me just get my coat and Ill be with you. Let us / Lets – koristimo ga kada nešto sugerišemo ili kada izdajemo naredbu grupi koja obuhvata i osobu koja govori Let us pray. Lets have a drink. OK, lets all get moving.
Simple PastPast Progressive irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs I spoke regular verbs: verb + ed I worked past form of 'be' + ing form of verb I was speaking you were speaking he / she / it was speaking we were speaking they were speaking Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed' : when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - he worried but: play - he played Exceptions when adding 'ing' : silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: come - coming but: agree - agreeing after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: sit - sitting final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelling final ie becomes y. Example: lie - lying
After another or at the same time? Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time? Simple PastPast Progressive after another She came home, switched on the computer and checked her s. at the same time Simon was playing on the computer while his brother was watching TV.
New action or already in progress? If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress. Simple PastPast Progressive new action My mobile rang (when I was sitting in a meeting.) action already in progress While I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile suddenly rang.)
Only mentioning or emphasizing progress? Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time? Simple PastPast Progressive just mentioning Colin played football yesterday. emphasizing progress Yesterday at six o'clock, Colin was playing football.
Certain Verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Past (not in the progressive form). state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit Example: We were on holiday. possession: belong, have Example: Sam had a cat. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He felt the cold. feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish Example: Jane loved pizza. brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I did not understand him. introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say Example: I am watching TV, he said.
Simple PastPast Progressive first then If-conditional II (If I talked, …) when while as long as