2Unit 5: The Effective Executive effective /ɪˈfɛktɪv/ - producing a result that is wanted : having an intended effect - efikasan, sposoban drugs effective in the treatment of a disease = drugs effective in treating a disease = drugs effective against a diseaseIt's a simple but effective technique.He gave an effective speech.executive /ɪgˈzɛkjətɪv/ - a person who manages or directs other people in a company or organization – rukovodilac, direktora sales executiveThe television network's executives decided not to air the controversial show.a phone company executiveCEO: Chief Executive Officer – izvršni direktorwell-known /ˈwɛlˈnoʊn/ - known by many people – dobro poznat, svjetski poznat a well-known writer/fact
3Unit 5consultant /kənˈsʌltn̩t/ - a person who gives professional advice or services to companies for a fee – savjetnik, stručnjak an advertising/management consultantThey've hired a computer consultant to assess how the company can upgrade its system.give an intervieweffectiveness – djelotvornost, efikasnost, sposobnostThe effectiveness of the drug was questioned.
4Unit 5habit /ˈhæbət/ - a usual way of behaving : something that a person does often in a regular and repeated way – navikaIt was his habit to take a nap after dinner every evening.It's important that parents teach their children good study/eating habits.He fell/got into some bad habits after graduating from college.It's never easy to break/kick a bad habit.Old habits die hard. [=it is hard to stop doing things that you have been doing for a long time]enlarge /ɪnˈlɑɚʤ/ - to make (something) larger or to become larger - uvećati, proširitiWe had the photograph enlarged.The company is in the process of enlarging [=expanding] its offices.enlarge on/upon something (formal): to give more information about somethingWould you kindly enlarge [=elaborate] on that point?
5Unit 5make sure - to find out or do something so that you have no doubt about whether something is true, correct, will happen, etc. – znati sasvim pouzdano, biti siguran, obezbjediti Make sure (that) you turn the oven off.Remember to make sure (that) all the doors are locked. They made sure everyone knew where they were supposed to be.Make sure it doesn't happen again.time consuming /ˈtaɪmkənˈsu:mɪŋ/ - using or needing a large amount of time time-consuming choresa very expensive and time-consuming processCan we try to make this less time-consuming?
6Unit 5ingredient /ɪnˈgri:dijənt/ - one of the things that are used to make a food, product, etc.; a quality or characteristic that makes something possible – sastojak, sastavni dio, primjesaHonesty is an essential ingredient of/for a successful marriage.The show has all the ingredients needed to attract a large audience.recipe /ˈrɛsəpi/ - a way of doing something that will produce a particular result – receptHe says he has an infallible recipe for success.“She's planning to do the plumbing herself.” “That's a recipe for disaster.” [=that will result in disaster]
7Unit 5build on/upon (something) - to use (something that has been done in the past) as a basis for further work, development, etc. Each president builds on/upon the success of each past president.These classes will help students build on what they already know.building upon past experiences/successesarea /ˈerijə/ - a field of activity or study - oblast The discovery has opened up new areas of/for research.The budget continues to be a major area of concern.a problem areathe whole area of foreign policy
8Unit 5decision making - the act or process of deciding something especially with a group of people The project will require some difficult decision-making.All members of the organization have a role in decision-making.the company's decision-making processinterdependent /ˌɪntɚdɪˈpɛndənt/ - related in such a way that each needs or depends on the other : mutually dependent – međusobno zavistan The two nations are politically independent but economically interdependent.
9Unit 5long-term - lasting for, relating to, or involving a long period of time The long-term effects of the medication are not known.The company has a long-term plan/strategy for success.short-term - a short period of time at the beginning of something It will meet our needs, at least for the short term.His plan has advantages over the short term.
10Unit 5acquisition /ˌækwəˈzɪʃən/ - the act of getting or acquiring something: such as a : the act or process of gaining skill, knowledge, etc. – akvizicija, usvajanje, sticanje the acquisition of knowledgeforeign language acquisitionmanpower /ˈmænˌpawɚ/ - the number of people who are available to work – radna snaga, radnici Currently we are experiencing a shortage of manpower.military manpowerincentive /ɪnˈsɛntɪv/ - something that encourages a person to do something or to work harder – impuls, inicijativa, podsticaj, pobuda, podstrekOur salespeople are given financial incentives for reaching their quotas. [=if they reach their quotas they are paid more money]The rising cost of electricity provides a strong/powerful incentive to conserve energy.The government offers special tax incentives for entrepreneurs.The company is offering a special low price as an added incentive for new customers.
11Unit 5decide on something - to choose (something) after thinking about the possible choices He decided on blue rather than green.We looked at all the cats in the pet store and finally decided on a little black-and-white one.I am having trouble deciding on a gift for them.fundamental /ˌfʌndəˈmɛntl̟/ - forming or relating to the most important part of something – fundamentalni, osnovni, izvorni, glavni, bitni The Constitution ensures our fundamental rights.There's a fundamental difference between these two political parties.a fundamental truth/concept/beliefbeliefs that are fundamental to our societyneat /ˈni:t/ - simple and clever – jednostavan,sažet, prikladan a neat trickHe's got a neat way of memorizing information.There is, unfortunately, no neat solution to the problem.
12was/were + present participle (V-ing) Past Continuous TenseI was playing tennis all this afternoon. What were you doing?was/were + present participle (V-ing)AffirmativeQuestionNegativeI was workingWas I working?I wasn’t workingYou were workingWere you working?You weren’t working
13Past Continuous TensePast Continuous Tense se koristi da izrazi radnju koja je trajala određeno, duže vrijeme u prošlosti.I was painting all day yesterday.They were quarrelling the whole time.
14Past Continuous TenseKoristi se da izrazi radnju koja se događala u prošlosti (background) u vrijeme kada se dogodila neka druga, značajnija, radnja (foreground) (ova druga radnja se izražava Simple Past Tense-om):While the man was looking at the picture, the thief stole his watch.As I was walking down the road, I saw Bill.The phone rang while I was having dinner.Mozart died while he was composing Requiem.
15Past Continuous TenseMeđutim, ako se izražavaju dvije radnje koje su se desile u prošlosti a uz to se izražava njihova podudarnost, nije jedna značajnija od druge, u oba dijela rečenice se koristi Past Continuous.The thieves took precautions against surprise; while one was working on the safe, the other was keeping watch for policemen.
16Imperative mood Come here. Be quiet. Have a drink. Don’t worry about it.Imperativ, u potvrdnom obliku, ima isti oblik kao infinitive bez “to”.U negativnom obliku, imperative se gradi na sljedeći način: do not (don’t) + infinitiv.
17ImperativeImperative koristimo kada želimo reći nekome ili ga zamoliti da nešto uradi, da načinimo sugestiju, da damo savjet ili uputstvo, da nekoga ohrabrimo ili da nešto ponudimo.Look in the mirror before you drive off.Please do not lean out of the window.Tell him you’re not free this evening.Try again – you nearly did it.Have some more tea.Enjoy your holiday.
18Imperative Let me – koristi se da “damo instrukcije sami sebi” Let me see.Let me think.Let me just get my coat and I’ll be with you.Let us / Let’s – koristimo ga kada nešto sugerišemo ili kada “izdajemo naredbu” grupi koja obuhvata i osobu koja govoriLet us pray.Let’s have a drink.OK, let’s all get moving.
19Revision: Simple Past vs. Past Continuous Form Past Progressiveirregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbsI spokeregular verbs: verb + edI workedpast form of 'be' + ing form of verb I was speaking you were speaking he / she / it was speaking we were speaking they were speakingExceptionsExceptions when adding 'ed' :when the final letter is e, only add d.Example: love - lovedafter a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubledExample: admit - admittedfinal l is always doubled in British English (not in American English)Example: travel - travelledafter a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not after a vowel)Example: worry - he worried but: play - he playedExceptions when adding 'ing' :silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee)Example: come - coming but: agree - agreeingExample: sit - sittingExample: travel - travellingfinal ie becomes y.Example: lie - lying
20Revision: Simple Past vs. Past Continuous Use After another or at the same time?Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time?Simple PastPast Progressiveafter anotherShe came home, switched on the computer and checked her s.at the same timeSimon was playing on the computer while his brother was watching TV.
21Revision: Simple Past vs. Past Continuous Use New action or already in progress?If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress.Simple PastPast Progressivenew actionMy mobile rang (when I was sitting in a meeting.)action already in progressWhile I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile suddenly rang.)
22Revision: Simple Past vs. Past Continuous Use Only mentioning or emphasizing progress?Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time?Simple PastPast Progressivejust mentioningColin played football yesterday.emphasizing progressYesterday at six o'clock, Colin was playing football.
23Revision: Simple Past vs. Past Continuous Use Certain VerbsThe following verbs are usually only used in Simple Past (not in the progressive form).state: be, cost, fit, mean, suitExample: We were on holiday.possession: belong, haveExample: Sam had a cat.senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touchExample: He felt the cold.feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wishExample: Jane loved pizza.brain work: believe, know, think, understandExample: I did not understand him.introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, sayExample: “I am watching TV,“ he said.
24Revision: Simple Past vs. Past Continuous Signal Words Past ProgressivefirstthenIf-conditional II (If I talked, …)whenwhileas long as