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Galaxies (From Seeds Ch. 12-14). The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way. We see most of the Milky Way as a faint.

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Presentation on theme: "Galaxies (From Seeds Ch. 12-14). The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way. We see most of the Milky Way as a faint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Galaxies (From Seeds Ch. 12-14)

2 The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way. We see most of the Milky Way as a faint band of light across the sky. From outside, our Milky Way might very much look like our cosmic neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy.

3 First Studies of the Galaxy First attempt to unveil the structure of the galaxy by William Herschel (1785), based on optical observations. The shape of the Milky Way was believed to resemble a grindstone, with the sun close to the center

4 Strategies to explore the structure of our Milky Way I. Select bright objects that you can see throughout the Milky Way and trace their directions and distances. II. Observe objects at wavelengths other than visible (to circumvent the problem of optical obscuration), and catalog their directions and distances. III. Trace the orbital velocities of objects in different directions relative to our position.

5 Determining the Structure of the Milky Way Galactic Plane Galactic Center The structure of our Milky Way is hard to determine because: 1) We are inside. 2) Distance measurements are difficult. 3) Our view towards the center is obscured by gas and dust.

6 Measuring Distances: The Cepheid Method Instability Strip The more luminous a Cepheid variable, the longer its pulsation period. Observing the period yields a measure of its luminosity and thus its distance!

7 The Cepheid Method Allows us to measure the distances to star clusters throughout the Milky Way

8 Exploring the Galaxy Using Clusters of Stars Two types of clusters of stars: 1) Open clusters = young clusters of recently formed stars; within the disk of the Galaxy 2) Globular clusters = old, centrally concentrated clusters of stars; mostly in a halo around the galaxy Globular Cluster M 19 Open clusters h and Persei

9 Globular Clusters Dense clusters of 50,000 – a million stars Approx. 200 globular clusters in our Milky Way Old (~ 11 billion years), lower-main-sequence stars Globular Cluster M80

10 Locating the Center of the Milky Way Distribution of globular clusters is not centered on the sun, but on a location which is heavily obscured from direct (visual) observation.

11 The Structure of the Milky Way 75,000 light years Disk Nuclear Bulge Halo Sun Globular Clusters Open Clusters, O/B Associations

12 Infrared View of the Milky Way Interstellar dust (absorbing optical light) emits mostly infrared. Near-infrared image Infrared emission is not strongly absorbed and provides a clear view throughout the Milky Way Nuclear bulge Galactic plane Far-infrared image

13 Orbital Motions in the Milky Way (I) Disk stars: Nearly circular orbits in the disk of the galaxy Halo stars: Highly elliptical orbits; randomly oriented

14 Orbital Motions in the Milky Way (II) Differential Rotation Sun orbits around galactic center at 220 km/s 1 orbit takes approx. 240 million years. Stars closer to the galactic center orbit faster. Stars farther out orbit more slowly.

15 Mass determination from orbital velocity: The more mass there is inside the orbit, the faster the sun has to orbit around the galactic center. Combined mass: M = 4 billion M sun M = 11 billion M sun M = 25 billion M sun M = 100 billion M sun M = 400 billion M sun

16 The Mass of the Milky Way If all mass was concentrated in the center, Rotation curve would follow a modified version of Keplers 3rd law. Rotation Curve = orbital velocity as function of radius.

17 The Mass of the Milky Way (II) Total mass in the disk of the Milky Way: Approx. 200 billion solar masses Additional mass in an extended halo: Total: Approx. 1 trillion solar masses Most of the mass is not emitting any radiation: dark matter!

18 The History of the Milky Way The traditional theory: Quasi-spherical gas cloud fragments into smaller pieces, forming the first, metal-poor stars (pop. II); Rotating cloud collapses into a disk-like structure Later populations of stars (pop. I) are restricted to the disk of the galaxy

19 Modifications of the Traditional Theory Ages of stellar population may pose a problem to the traditional theory of the history of the Milky Way. Possible solution: Later accumulation of gas, possibly due to mergers with smaller galaxies. Recently discovered ring of stars around the Milky Way may be the remnant of such a merger.

20 Exploring the structure of the Milky Way with O/B Associations O/B Associations Distances to O/B Associations determined using Cepheid variables O/B Associations trace out 3 spiral arms near the sun. Sagittarius arm Orion-Cygnus arm Perseus arm Sun

21 Radio Observations 21-cm radio observations reveal the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the galaxy. Distances to hydrogen clouds determined through radial-velocity measurements (Doppler effect!) Galactic center Sun Neutral hydrogen concentrated in spiral arms

22 The Structure of the Milky Way Revealed Distribution of dust Sun Ring Bar Distribution of stars and neutral hydrogen

23 Star Formation in Spiral Arms (I) Shock waves from supernovae, ionization fronts initiated by O and B stars, and the shock fronts forming spiral arms trigger star formation. Spiral arms are stationary shock waves, initiating star formation.

24 Star Formation in Spiral Arms (II) Spiral arms are basically stationary shock waves. Stars and gas clouds orbit around the galactic center and cross spiral arms. Shocks initiate star formation. Star formation self- sustaining through O/B ionization fronts and supernova shock waves.

25 Self-Sustained Star Formation in Spiral Arms Star forming regions get elongated due to differential rotation. Star formation is self-sustaining due to ionization fronts and supernova shocks.

26 Grand-Design Spiral Galaxies Grand-design spirals have two dominant spiral arms. M 100 Flocculent (woolly) galaxies also have spiral patterns, but no dominant pair of spiral arms. NGC 300

27 The Whirlpool Galaxy Grand-design galaxy M 51 (Whirlpool Galaxy): Self-sustaining star forming regions along spiral arm patterns are clearly visible.

28 The Galactic Center (I) Wide-angle optical view of the GC region galactic center Our view (in visible light) towards the Galactic center (GC) is heavily obscured by gas and dust: Extinction by 30 magnitudes Only 1 out of 10 12 optical photons makes its way from the GC towards Earth!

29 Radio View of the Galactic Center Many supernova remnants; shells and filaments Sgr A Arc Sgr A*: The center of our galaxy The galactic center contains a supermassive black hole of approx. 2.6 million solar masses. Sgr A

30 Measuring the Mass of the Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way By following the orbits of individual stars near the center of the Milky Way, the mass of the central black hole could be determined to be ~ 2.6 million solar masses.

31 Chandra X ray image of Sgr A* Supermassive black hole in the galactic center is unusually faint in X rays, compared to those in other galaxies. Galactic center region contains many black-hole and neutron-star X-ray binaries. X-Ray View of the Galactic Center

32 Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (I) a)Cepheid method: Using period – Luminosity relation for classical Cepheids: Measure Cepheids period Find its luminosity Compare to apparent magnitude Find its distance b) Type Ia supernovae (collapse of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system): Type Ia supernovae have well known standard luminosities Compare to apparent magnitudes Find its distances Both are Standard-candle methods: Know absolute magnitude (luminosity) compare to apparent magnitude find distance.

33 Cepheid Distance Measurement Repeated brightness measurements of a Cepheid allow the determination of the period and thus the absolute magnitude. distance

34 Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (II): The Hubble Law E. Hubble (1913): Distant galaxies are moving away from our Milky Way, with a recession velocity, v r, proportional to their distance d: v r = H 0 *d H 0 70 km/s/Mpc is the Hubble constant. => Measure v r through the Doppler effect infer the distance.

35 The Extragalactic Distance Scale Many galaxies are typically millions or billions of parsecs from our galaxy. Typical distance units: Mpc = megaparsec = 1 million parsecs Gpc = gigaparsec = 1 billion parsecs Distances of Mpc or even Gpc The light we see has left the galaxy millions or billions of years ago!! Look-back times of millions or billions of years

36 Galaxy Sizes and Luminosities Vastly different sizes and luminosities: From small, low- luminosity irregular galaxies (much smaller and less luminous than the Milky Way) to giant ellipticals and large spirals, a few times the Milky Ways size and luminosity

37 Rotation Curves of Galaxies Observe frequency of spectral lines across a galaxy. From blue / red shift of spectral lines across the galaxy infer rotational velocity Plot of rotational velocity vs. distance from the center of the galaxy: rotation curve

38 Determining the Masses of Galaxies Based on rotation curves, can use Newtonian Gravity to determine the masses of galaxies

39 Supermassive Black Holes From the measurement of stellar velocities near the center of a galaxy: Infer mass in the very center Central black holes! Several million, up to more than a billion solar masses! Supermassive black holes

40 Dark Matter Adding visible mass in stars, interstellar gas, dust, etc., we find that most of the mass is invisible! The nature of this dark matter is not understood at this time. Some ideas: Brown dwarfs, small black holes, exotic elementary particles.

41 Clusters of Galaxies Galaxies do not generally exist in isolation, but form larger clusters of galaxies. Rich clusters: 1,000 or more galaxies, diameter of ~ 3 Mpc, condensed around a large, central galaxy Poor clusters: Less than 1,000 galaxies (often just a few), diameter of a few Mpc, generally not condensed towards the center

42 Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies Coma Cluster of Galaxies Visible light X rays Space between galaxies is not empty, but filled with hot gas (observable in X rays) That this gas remains gravitationally bound, provides further evidence for dark matter.

43 Gravitational Lensing The huge mass of gas in a cluster of galaxies can bend the light from a more distant galaxy. Image of the galaxy is strongly distorted into arcs.

44 Our Galaxy Cluster: The Local Group Milky Way Andromeda Galaxy Small Magellanic Cloud Large Magellanic Cloud

45 Starburst Galaxies Ultraluminous infrared galaxies Starburst galaxies are often very rich in gas and dust; bright in infrared:

46 Interacting Galaxies Cartwheel Galaxy Particularly in rich clusters, galaxies can collide and interact. Galaxy collisions can produce ring galaxies and tidal tails. Often triggering active star formation: Starburst galaxies NGC 4038/4039

47 Tidal Tails Example for galaxy interaction with tidal tails: The Mice Computer simulations produce similar structures.

48 Simulations of Galaxy Interactions Numerical simulations of galaxy interactions have been very successful in reproducing tidal interactions like bridges, tidal tails, and rings.

49 Galactic Interaction Simulations Joshua Barnes: ml ml John Dubinksi: Chris Mihos: Bob Berrington (Wyoming): There are others…

50 Mergers of Galaxies NGC 7252: Probably result of merger of two galaxies, ~ a billion years ago: Small galaxy remnant in the center is rotating backwards! Radio image of M64: Central regions rotating backwards! Multiple nuclei in giant elliptical galaxies

51 Active Galaxies Galaxies with extremely violent energy release in their nuclei (pl. of nucleus). active galactic nuclei (= AGN) Up to many thousand times more luminous than the entire Milky Way; energy released within a region approx. the size of our solar system!

52 Line Spectra of Galaxies Taking a spectrum of the light from a normal galaxy: The light from the galaxy should be mostly star light, and should thus contain many absorption lines from the individual stellar spectra.

53 Seyfert Galaxies NGC 1566 Circinus Galaxy Unusual spiral galaxies: Very bright cores Emission line spectra. Variability: ~ 50 % in a few months Most likely power source: Accretion onto a supermassive black hole (~10 7 – 10 8 M sun ) NGC 7742

54 Interacting Galaxies Seyfert galaxy NGC 7674 Active galaxies are often associated with interacting galaxies, possibly result of recent galaxy mergers. Seyfert galaxy 3C219 Often: gas outflowing at high velocities, in opposite directions

55 Cosmic Jets and Radio Lobes Many active galaxies show powerful radio jets Radio image of Cygnus A Material in the jets moves with almost the speed of light (relativistic jets). Hot spots: Energy in the jets is released in interaction with surrounding material

56 Radio Galaxies Radio image superposed on optical image Centaurus A (Cen A = NGC 5128): the closest AGN to us. Jet visible in radio and X- rays; show bright spots in similar locations. Infrared image reveals warm gas near the nucleus.

57 Radio Galaxies (II) Evidence for the galaxy moving through intergalactic material Radio image of 3C75 3C75: Evidence for two nuclei recent galaxy merger Visual + radio image of 3C31 Radio image of NGC 1265

58 Formation of Radio Jets Jets are powered by accretion of matter onto a supermassive black hole. Black Hole Accretion Disk Twisted magnetic fields help to confine the material in the jet and to produce synchrotron radiation.

59 The Jets of M87 M87 = Central, giant elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster of galaxies Optical and radio observations detect a jet with velocities up to ~ 1/2 c. Jet: ~ 2.5 kpc long

60 The Dust Torus in NGC4261 Dust torus is directly visible with Hubble Space Telescope

61 Model for Seyfert Galaxies Supermassive black hole Accretion disk dense dust torus Gas clouds Seyfert I: Strong, broad emission lines from rapidly moving gas clouds near the black hole Seyfert II: Weaker, narrow emission lines from more slowly moving gas clouds far from the black hole UV, X-rays Emission lines

62 Radio Galaxy: Powerful radio lobes at the end points of the jets, where power in the jets is dissipated. Cyg A (radio emission) Other Types of AGN and AGN Unification Observing direction

63 Emission from the jet pointing towards us is enhanced (Doppler boosting) compared to the jet moving in the other direction (counter jet). Other Types of AGN and AGN Unification Quasar or BL Lac object (properties very similar to quasars, but no emission lines) Observing direction

64 The Origin of Supermassive Black Holes Most galaxies seem to harbor supermassive black holes in their centers. Fed and fueled by stars and gas from the near- central environment Galaxy interactions may enhance the flow of matter onto central black holes

65 Quasars Active nuclei in elliptical galaxies with even more powerful central sources than Seyfert galaxies. Also show very strong, broad emission lines in their spectra. Also show strong variability over time scales of a few months.

66 The Spectra of Quasars The Quasar 3C273 Spectral lines show a large redshift of z = = 0.158

67 Quasar Red Shifts z = 0 z = 0.178 z = 0.240 z = 0.302 z = 0.389 Quasars have been detected at the highest redshifts, up to z ~ 6 z = / Our old formula / = v r /c is only valid in the limit of low speed, v r << c

68 Studying Quasars The study of high-redshift quasars allows astronomers to investigate questions of 1) Large scale structure of the universe 2) Early history of the universe 3) Galaxy evolution 4) Dark matter Observing quasars at high redshifts distances of several Gpc Look-back times of many billions of years Universe was only a few billion years old!

69 Probing Dark Matter with High-z Quasars: Gravitational Lensing Light from a quasar behind a galaxy cluster is bent by the mass in the cluster. Use to probe the distribution of matter in the cluster. Light from a distant quasar is bent around a foreground galaxy two images of the same quasar!

70 Gravitational Lensing of Quasars

71 Gallery of Quasar Host Galaxies Elliptical galaxies; often merging / interacting galaxies

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