2The Milky WayAlmost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way.From outside, our Milky Way might very much look like our cosmic neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy.We see most of the Milky Way as a faint band of light across the sky.
3First Studies of the Galaxy First attempt to unveil the structure of the galaxy by William Herschel (1785), based on optical observations.The shape of the Milky Way was believed to resemble a grindstone, with the sun close to the center
4Strategies to explore the structure of our Milky Way I. Select bright objects that you can see throughout the Milky Way and trace their directions and distances.II. Observe objects at wavelengths other than visible (to circumvent the problem of optical obscuration), and catalog their directions and distances.III. Trace the orbital velocities of objects in different directions relative to our position.
5Determining the Structure of the Milky Way Galactic PlaneGalactic CenterThe structure of our Milky Way is hard to determine because:1) We are inside.2) Distance measurements are difficult.3) Our view towards the center is obscured by gas and dust.
6Measuring Distances: The Cepheid Method The more luminous a Cepheid variable, the longer its pulsation period.Instability StripObserving the period yields a measure of its luminosity and thus its distance!
7The Cepheid MethodAllows us to measure the distances to star clusters throughout the Milky Way
8Exploring the Galaxy Using Clusters of Stars Two types of clusters of stars:1) Open clusters = young clusters of recently formed stars; within the disk of the GalaxyOpen clusters h and c PerseiGlobular Cluster M 192) Globular clusters = old, centrally concentrated clusters of stars; mostly in a halo around the galaxy
9Globular Clusters Dense clusters of 50,000 – a million stars Globular Cluster M80Dense clusters of 50,000 – a million starsOld (~ 11 billion years), lower-main-sequence starsApprox. 200 globular clusters in our Milky Way
10Locating the Center of the Milky Way Distribution of globular clusters is not centered on the sun,but on a location which is heavily obscured from direct (visual) observation.
11The Structure of the Milky Way 75,000 light yearsDiskNuclear BulgeSunHaloOpen Clusters, O/B AssociationsGlobular Clusters
12Infrared View of the Milky Way Near-infrared imageGalactic planeInterstellar dust (absorbing optical light) emits mostly infrared.Nuclear bulgeInfrared emission is not strongly absorbed and provides a clear view throughout the Milky WayFar-infrared image
13Orbital Motions in the Milky Way (I) Disk stars:Nearly circular orbits in the disk of the galaxyHalo stars:Highly elliptical orbits; randomly oriented
14Orbital Motions in the Milky Way (II) Differential RotationSun orbits around galactic center at 220 km/s1 orbit takes approx. 240 million years.Stars closer to the galactic center orbit faster.Stars farther out orbit more slowly.
15Mass determination from orbital velocity: The more mass there is inside the orbit, the faster the sun has to orbit around the galactic center.Combined mass:M = 400 billion MsunM = 100 billion MsunM = 11 billion MsunM = 4 billion MsunM = 25 billion Msun
16The Mass of the Milky Way If all mass was concentrated in the center, Rotation curve would follow a modified version of Kepler’s 3rd law.Rotation Curve = orbital velocity as function of radius.
17The Mass of the Milky Way (II) Total mass in the disk of the Milky Way:Approx. 200 billion solar massesAdditional mass in an extended halo:Total: Approx. 1 trillion solar massesMost of the mass is not emitting any radiation:dark matter!
18The History of the Milky Way The traditional theory:Quasi-spherical gas cloud fragments into smaller pieces, forming the first, metal-poor stars (pop. II);Rotating cloud collapses into a disk-like structureLater populations of stars (pop. I) are restricted to the disk of the galaxy
19Modifications of the Traditional Theory Ages of stellar population may pose a problem to the traditional theory of the history of the Milky Way.Possible solution: Later accumulation of gas, possibly due to mergers with smaller galaxies.Recently discovered ring of stars around the Milky Way may be the remnant of such a merger.
20Exploring the structure of the Milky Way with O/B Associations O/B AssociationsPerseus armOrion-Cygnus armSunSagittarius armO/B Associations trace out 3 spiral arms near the sun.Distances to O/B Associations determined using Cepheid variables
21Neutral hydrogen concentrated in spiral arms Radio Observations21-cm radio observations reveal the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the galaxy.Distances to hydrogen clouds determined through radial-velocity measurements (Doppler effect!)SunNeutral hydrogen concentrated in spiral armsGalactic center
22The Structure of the Milky Way Revealed Distribution of stars and neutral hydrogenDistribution of dustSunBarRing
23Star Formation in Spiral Arms (I) Shock waves from supernovae, ionization fronts initiated by O and B stars, and the shock fronts forming spiral arms trigger star formation.Spiral arms are stationary shock waves, initiating star formation.
24Star Formation in Spiral Arms (II) Spiral arms are basically stationary shock waves.Stars and gas clouds orbit around the galactic center and cross spiral arms.Shocks initiate star formation.Star formation self-sustaining through O/B ionization fronts and supernova shock waves.
25Self-Sustained Star Formation in Spiral Arms Star forming regions get elongated due to differential rotation.Star formation is self-sustaining due to ionization fronts and supernova shocks.
26Grand-Design Spiral Galaxies Grand-design spirals have two dominant spiral arms.Flocculent (woolly) galaxies also have spiral patterns, but no dominant pair of spiral arms.NGC 300M 100
27Grand-design galaxy M 51 (Whirlpool Galaxy): The Whirlpool GalaxyGrand-design galaxy M 51 (Whirlpool Galaxy):Self-sustaining star forming regions along spiral arm patterns are clearly visible.
28The Galactic Center (I) Our view (in visible light) towards the Galactic center (GC) is heavily obscured by gas and dust:Extinction by 30 magnitudes Only 1 out of 1012 optical photons makes its way from the GC towards Earth!galactic centerWide-angle optical view of the GC region
29Radio View of the Galactic Center Many supernova remnants; shells and filamentsArcSgr ASgr ASgr A*: The center of our galaxyThe galactic center contains a supermassive black hole of approx. 2.6 million solar masses.
30Measuring the Mass of the Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way By following the orbits of individual stars near the center of the Milky Way, the mass of the central black hole could be determined to be ~ 2.6 million solar masses.
31X-Ray View of the Galactic Center Galactic center region contains many black-hole and neutron-star X-ray binaries.Supermassive black hole in the galactic center is unusually faint in X rays, compared to those in other galaxies.Chandra X ray image of Sgr A*
32Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (I) Cepheid method: Using period – Luminosity relation for classical Cepheids:Measure Cepheid’s period Find its luminosity Compare to apparent magnitude Find its distanceb) Type Ia supernovae (collapse of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system):Type Ia supernovae have well known standard luminosities Compare to apparent magnitudes Find its distancesBoth are “Standard-candle” methods:Know absolute magnitude (luminosity) compare to apparent magnitude find distance.
33Cepheid Distance Measurement Repeated brightness measurements of a Cepheid allow the determination of the period and thus the absolute magnitude. distance
34Distance Measurements to Other Galaxies (II): The Hubble Law E. Hubble (1913):Distant galaxies are moving away from our Milky Way, with a recession velocity, vr, proportional to their distance d:vr = H0*dH0 ≈ 70 km/s/Mpc is the Hubble constant.=> Measure vr through the Doppler effect infer the distance.
35The Extragalactic Distance Scale Many galaxies are typically millions or billions of parsecs from our galaxy.Typical distance units:Mpc = megaparsec = 1 million parsecsGpc = gigaparsec = 1 billion parsecsDistances of Mpc or even Gpc The light we see has left the galaxy millions or billions of years ago!! “Look-back times” of millions or billions of years
36Galaxy Sizes and Luminosities Vastly different sizes and luminosities:From small, low-luminosity irregular galaxies (much smaller and less luminous than the Milky Way) to giant ellipticals and large spirals, a few times the Milky Way’s size and luminosity
37Rotation Curves of Galaxies From blue / red shift of spectral lines across the galaxy infer rotational velocityPlot of rotational velocity vs. distance from the center of the galaxy:rotation curveObserve frequency of spectral lines across a galaxy.
38Determining the Masses of Galaxies Based on rotation curves, can use Newtonian Gravity to determine themasses of galaxies
39Supermassive Black Holes From the measurement of stellar velocities near the center of a galaxy:Infer mass in the very center Central black holes!Several million, up to more than a billion solar masses! Supermassive black holes
40Dark MatterAdding “visible” mass instars,interstellar gas,dust,etc., we find that most of the mass is “invisible”!The nature of this “dark matter” is not understood at this time.Some ideas:Brown dwarfs, small black holes, exotic elementary particles.
41Clusters of GalaxiesGalaxies do not generally exist in isolation, but form larger clusters of galaxies.Rich clusters:1,000 or more galaxies, diameter of ~ 3 Mpc, condensed around a large, central galaxyPoor clusters:Less than 1,000 galaxies (often just a few), diameter of a few Mpc, generally not condensed towards the center
42Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies Space between galaxies is not empty, but filled with hot gas (observable in X rays)That this gas remains gravitationally bound, provides further evidence for dark matter.Visible lightX raysComa Cluster of Galaxies
43Gravitational Lensing The huge mass of gas in a cluster of galaxies can bend the light from a more distant galaxy.Image of the galaxy is strongly distorted into arcs.
44Our Galaxy Cluster: The Local Group Milky WayAndromeda GalaxySmall Magellanic CloudLarge Magellanic Cloud
45Ultraluminous infrared galaxies Starburst GalaxiesStarburst galaxies are often very rich in gas and dust; bright in infrared:Ultraluminous infrared galaxies
46Interacting GalaxiesCartwheel GalaxyParticularly in rich clusters, galaxies can collide and interact.Galaxy collisions can producering galaxies andtidal tails.NGC 4038/4039Often triggering active star formation: Starburst galaxies
47Tidal Tails Example for galaxy interaction with tidal tails: The Mice Example for galaxy interaction with tidal tails:The MiceComputer simulations produce similar structures.
48Simulations of Galaxy Interactions Numerical simulations of galaxy interactions have been very successful in reproducing tidal interactions like bridges, tidal tails, and rings.
50Mergers of GalaxiesRadio image of M64: Central regions rotating backwards!NGC 7252: Probably result of merger of two galaxies, ~ a billion years ago:Small galaxy remnant in the center is rotating backwards!Multiple nuclei in giant elliptical galaxies
51 “active galactic nuclei” (= AGN) Active GalaxiesGalaxies with extremely violent energy release in their nuclei (pl. of nucleus). “active galactic nuclei” (= AGN)Up to many thousand times more luminous than the entire Milky Way; energy released within a region approx. the size of our solar system!
52Line Spectra of Galaxies Taking a spectrum of the light from a normal galaxy:The light from the galaxy should be mostly star light, and should thus contain many absorption lines from the individual stellar spectra.
53Seyfert Galaxies Unusual spiral galaxies: Very bright cores Unusual spiral galaxies:Very bright coresEmission line spectra.Variability: ~ 50 % in a few monthsMost likely power source:Accretion onto a supermassive black hole (~107 – 108 Msun)NGC 1566Circinus GalaxyNGC 7742
54Often: gas outflowing at high velocities, in opposite directions Interacting GalaxiesSeyfert galaxy NGC 7674Seyfert galaxy 3C219Active galaxies are often associated with interacting galaxies, possibly result of recent galaxy mergers.Often: gas outflowing at high velocities, in opposite directions
55Cosmic Jets and Radio Lobes Many active galaxies show powerful radio jetsHot spots:Energy in the jets is released in interaction with surrounding materialRadio image of Cygnus AMaterial in the jets moves with almost the speed of light (“relativistic jets”).
56Radio GalaxiesCentaurus A (“Cen A” = NGC 5128): the closest AGN to us.Jet visible in radio and X-rays; show bright spots in similar locations.Infrared image reveals warm gas near the nucleus.Radio image superposed on optical image
57Radio Galaxies (II)Visual + radio image of 3C31Radio image of 3C75Radio image of NGC 1265Evidence for the galaxy moving through intergalactic material3C75: Evidence for two nuclei recent galaxy merger
58Formation of Radio Jets Jets are powered by accretion of matter onto a supermassive black hole.Black HoleAccretion DiskTwisted magnetic fields help to confine the material in the jet and to produce synchrotron radiation.
59The Jets of M87Jet: ~ 2.5 kpc longM87 = Central, giant elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster of galaxiesOptical and radio observations detect a jet with velocities up to ~ 1/2 c.
60The Dust Torus in NGC4261Dust torus is directly visible with Hubble Space Telescope
61Model for Seyfert Galaxies Seyfert I:Strong, broad emission lines from rapidly moving gas clouds near the black holeGas cloudsEmission linesUV, X-raysSeyfert II:Weaker, narrow emission lines from more slowly moving gas clouds far from the black holeSupermassive black holeAccretion diskdense dust torus
62Other Types of AGN and AGN Unification Observing directionCyg A (radio emission)Radio Galaxy:Powerful “radio lobes” at the end points of the jets, where power in the jets is dissipated.
63Other Types of AGN and AGN Unification Quasar or BL Lac object (properties very similar to quasars, but no emission lines)Emission from the jet pointing towards us is enhanced (“Doppler boosting”) compared to the jet moving in the other direction (“counter jet”).Observing direction
64The Origin of Supermassive Black Holes Most galaxies seem to harbor supermassive black holes in their centers.Fed and fueled by stars and gas from the near-central environmentGalaxy interactions may enhance the flow of matter onto central black holes
65QuasarsActive nuclei in elliptical galaxies with even more powerful central sources than Seyfert galaxies.Also show strong variability over time scales of a few months.Also show very strong, broad emission lines in their spectra.
66Spectral lines show a large redshift of The Spectra of QuasarsThe Quasar 3C273Spectral lines show a large redshift ofz = Dl / l0 = 0.158
67Quasar Red Shifts z = Dl/l0 Our old formula Dl/l0 = vr/c Quasars have been detected at the highest redshifts, up toz ~ 6z = 0z = 0.178z = 0.240z = Dl/l0z = 0.302Our old formulaDl/l0 = vr/cis only valid in the limit of low speed, vr << cz = 0.389
68Studying QuasarsThe study of high-redshift quasars allows astronomers to investigate questions of1) Large scale structure of the universe2) Early history of the universe3) Galaxy evolution4) Dark matterObserving quasars at high redshifts distances of several GpcLook-back times of many billions of years Universe was only a few billion years old!
69Probing Dark Matter with High-z Quasars: Gravitational Lensing Light from a distant quasar is bent around a foreground galaxy two images of the same quasar!Light from a quasar behind a galaxy cluster is bent by the mass in the cluster.Use to probe the distribution of matter in the cluster.
70Gravitational Lensing of Quasars Gravitational Lensing of Quasars
71Gallery of Quasar Host Galaxies Elliptical galaxies; often merging / interacting galaxies