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1 Common Sense Guide to Eating For People With Type-2 Diabetes.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Common Sense Guide to Eating For People With Type-2 Diabetes."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Common Sense Guide to Eating For People With Type-2 Diabetes

2 2 What You Will Learn Today 2 most important eating strategies Carbohydrates, protein and fat tips How to read a food label Supplement FAQs Meal planning to better your health

3 3 What Are The 2 Most Important Eating Strategies? 1. Lose Weight: –Reduces insulin resistance –Lowers blood pressure –Improves blood sugar control –Improves blood lipids –Reduces risk of heart disease & stroke –Reduces need for blood-sugar lowering medication

4 4 What Are The 2 Most Important Eating Strategies? 2. Eat A Heart-Healthy Diet: –2/3 of all people with type 2 diabetes die of heart disease –The risk of dying of a heart attack is at least 2-3 times greater in people with diabetes

5 5 The Importance of Weight Control The risk of developing diabetes increases as body mass index goes up

6 6 The Importance of Weight Control Insulin resistance goes up as percent of ideal body weight goes up

7 7 Weight Loss and a Heart Healthy Diet Go Hand in Hand Eat more fiber –Lower your cholesterol –Feel fuller on fewer calories Eat less fat, especially trans fat and saturated fat –Makes weight loss without hunger easier –Improves blood lipids –Reduces the risk of heart attack & stroke Eat fewer refined foods & more whole foods –Better blood lipid profile –Better weight control

8 8 Carbohydrates The bodys main energy source Some carbohydrate-rich foods are much better choices than others

9 9 Where Are Carbohydrates Found? Starchy Vegetables –Corn –Potatoes –Sweet potatoes Grains –Cereals –Breads Fruits Milk Sugars

10 10 Choose Preferred Carbohydrates Whole grains –Whole wheat pasta –Oatmeal –Barley –Whole grain cereal –Brown rice Vegetables –Raw –Steamed –Salad –Stir fry Whole fruit –Fresh –Frozen –Unsweetened These are minimally processed, whole plant foods

11 11 Limit Refined Carbohydrates Candy Brownies Cookies Bagels Croissants Biscuits Danish Pretzels White bread Fat free chips

12 12 Make a Better Choice Instead of:Choose: white rice brown rice white pasta whole grain pasta sugared cereal oatmeal French fries baked potato, yam candy whole fruit fruit juicewhole fruit

13 13 Advantage of Whole Plant Foods Carbohydrate:Calories: Bagel Breakfast: 1 bagel (4 ounces) 60 g311 Light cream cheese (2 Tbsp) 2 g 70 Milk, skim (1 cup) 12 g 85 Total 74 g466 Total weight: 12.5 ounces Oatmeal Breakfast: Cooked oatmeal (2 cups) 48 g 281 Skim milk (1 cup) 12 g 85 Orange (1) 15 g 61 Total 75 g 427 Total weight: 28 ounces You Get To Eat MORE!

14 14 Advantage of Whole Plant Foods Carbohydrate:Calories: Macaroni & Cheese Dinner: Macaroni & Cheese (1 cup)40 g390 Salad (2 cups)13 g 81 Apple sauce (1/2 cup)22 g 86 Total75 g577 Total weight: 22 ounces Stirfry & Brown Rice Dinner: Broccoli Stirfry & Brown Rice (2 cups)48 g259 Salad (2 cups)13 g 81 Diced Fresh Fruit (1 cup)13 g 55 Total74 g396 Total weight: 27 ounces You Get To Eat MORE!

15 15 Should I Avoid Sugar? You should try to limit refined sugars: –Weight gain and obesity –Provides empty calories –Displaces nutrient-rich carbohydrates –Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease Natural sugars in fruits, vegetables and nonfat dairy products okay

16 16 Calorie Free Sugar Substitute Tips Do not raise blood glucose levels Sweet taste without calories People with PKU should not use aspartame Sugar alcohols found in diabetic foods contain empty calories and may cause diarrhea

17 17 Protein Tips Most Americans eat too much protein Portion control – deck of cards = one serving People who have kidney problems or nephropathy may have to limit their intake of protein

18 18 Heart Healthy Sources of Protein Very lean meat, fish, shellfish, and skinless poultry breast Beans, peas, and lentils Nonfat dairy products Nuts and seeds Egg whites Some soy products

19 19 Fat Facts Limit high fat foods for weight loss Limit or omit saturated, trans fats, e.g. cheese, cream, fatty meat, fried foods Choose liquid oils and use sparingly

20 20 Food Label Basics Look beyond the claim on the front of the box: –Cholesterol or trans fat free – doesnt mean saturated fat free or low in sodium –Heart healthy – generally okay –Fat free, sugar free – doesnt mean calorie free –Baked doesnt mean low in fat or calories –Good source of calcium – doesnt mean sugar or fat free

21 21 Calories related to serving size? Number of servings? Fat, saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol content? Sodium? Fiber? Limit These Nutrients Start here 5% or less is low; 20% or more is high Get Enough of These Nutrients Food Label Basics

22 22 Food Label Tip This food is considered high in sodium – look at the number of calories relative to the mg of sodium – ideally, they should be about the same

23 23 Food Label Success Label reading may seem hard at first, but it gets easier with time Start with one section of the grocery store and become familiar with those products Fill up with produce!

24 24 Dining Out Eat a light snack before you go Avoid bread basket Choose low-fat items Keep portions small –Order appetizers, soups, salads –…Or Share –…Or Take half home Skip dessert and alcohol

25 25 Mineral Supplements Supplements are not a substitute for a healthy diet Chromium - more research is needed on the long-term safety and efficacy Vanadium - not clinically justifiable Magnesium – may be good for people who do not consume enough whole grains

26 26 Vitamin Supplements Vitamins E and C – some patients may benefit from supplementation of these antioxidants B12 - Many diabetic patients 50 years or older may benefit B Vitamins - Elevated homocysteine levels can be reduced with supplements of folic acid, vitamins B-6 and B12 Niacin – improves blood lipids but may have adverse effects on blood sugar regulation, more research is needed

27 27 Other Supplements L-Argnine: –Has been shown to promote insulin secretion –High doses may cause diarrhea and are not justifiable by current research –More research is needed Omega 3 fatty acids: –Favorable effects on triglyceride levels –May help lower blood pressure –More research is needed to determine long- term effects

28 28 Herbs Growing interest for blood sugar regulation Ginseng has shown some promise It is likely that some herbs may have medicinal effects, but most will have little impact and some may prove harmful

29 29 Spices Use spices in place of salt Some evidence suggests that some spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, bay leaves and turmeric, may have a small but favorable effect on carbohydrate metabolism

30 30 What If I Overeat? There may be times when you overeat Rather than feeling guilty, take a long walk Exercising after a big meal will help blunt the rise in glucose May require extra insulin or oral agents to prevent excessively high blood sugar

31 31 Meal Planning Breakfast starters: –Cooked oatmeal –Whole grain cereal –Fruit –Skim milk –Herb tea or decaf coffee Whole grains are preferable to products made with white flour

32 32 Meal Planning Lunchtime good choices: –Salad with low-fat dressing –Stir fry with vegetables, brown rice –Bean soup –Low-fat chili –Baked sweet potato, yam or potato –Fish –Leftovers from healthy dinner –Whole grain pasta Avoid deli-type items that are high in fat and sodium

33 33 Meal Planning Dinner ideas: –Vegetables –Salad –Soup –Baked potato –Stir fry –Whole grain pasta –Bean dishes e.g. chili, salad, soup, pasta, etc. –Fish –Lean poultry or meat

34 34 Meal Planning Snacks for your heart: –Fruit –Vegetables –Baked potatoes –Baked sweet potatoes –Soup –Nonfat light yogurt –Peanut butter on whole grain cracker* –Nuts* –Smoothie (heart healthy) *not ideal for weight loss, look for unsalted

35 35 What Should I Eat? Whole grains – whole wheat pasta, oatmeal, barley, whole grain cereal, brown rice

36 36 What Should I Eat? Vegetables –Raw –Steamed –Salad –Stir fry

37 37 What Should I Eat? Whole fruit –Fresh –Frozen –Unsweetened

38 38 What Should I Eat? Lean poultry, fish, lean meat, some soy foods, beans and legumes

39 39 What Should I Eat? Nonfat dairy: –Milk –Ricotta –Yogurt

40 40 What Should I Eat? Nuts, seeds, avocados and small amounts of unsaturated oils Minimize if weight loss is a goal, especially with oils

41 41 What You Will Learn Today 2 most important eating strategies Carbohydrates, protein and fat tips How to read a food label Supplement FAQs Meal planning to better your health

42 42 Bite off more than you can chew, then chew it. Plan more than you can do, then do it. Anonymous

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