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Writing Effectively. Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Overview How can you make your writing effective and powerful?How can you make your writing effective and powerful?

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Presentation on theme: "Writing Effectively. Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Overview How can you make your writing effective and powerful?How can you make your writing effective and powerful?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing Effectively

2 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Overview How can you make your writing effective and powerful?How can you make your writing effective and powerful? What is the three-part structure?What is the three-part structure? What are common style and substance errors?What are common style and substance errors?

3 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Overview What is voice?What is voice? What is subject-verb agreement?What is subject-verb agreement? What are the proper uses of pronouns?What are the proper uses of pronouns? What are the basic of protocol?What are the basic of protocol?

4 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Quick Write Why is effective writing important in almost any field?Why is effective writing important in almost any field? Why would a pilot, a computer engineer, or a biologist need to be able to write effectively?Why would a pilot, a computer engineer, or a biologist need to be able to write effectively? Write down your thoughts and then share with a partner or discuss with the class

5 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Effective and Powerful Writing Effective and Powerful Writing Follow the process youve learnedthe basic checklistand work on your styleFollow the process youve learnedthe basic checklistand work on your style Style is how you communicate through the words you choose, the order in which you place them, and their level of formalityStyle is how you communicate through the words you choose, the order in which you place them, and their level of formality

6 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Tone One element of style is tone. Controlling your tone in writing means picking the right wordsOne element of style is tone. Controlling your tone in writing means picking the right words Words are a lot like fruits and vegetables: Some are like sweet like apple slices, and some are as hot as chili peppersWords are a lot like fruits and vegetables: Some are like sweet like apple slices, and some are as hot as chili peppers Graphic courtesy of Clipart.com

7 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Clarity Clarity lets the reader understand your meaning quicklyClarity lets the reader understand your meaning quickly One of the enemies of clarity is jargonOne of the enemies of clarity is jargon Jargon is specific or technical language used by people within a specialty or cultural areaJargon is specific or technical language used by people within a specialty or cultural area Using jargon simply to try to seem smart is unfair to readers and may confuse themUsing jargon simply to try to seem smart is unfair to readers and may confuse them

8 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Continuity Effective writing holds together in a natural wayit has continuityEffective writing holds together in a natural wayit has continuity Every part of the writing piece works toward the goal of communicating meaning clearly and quicklyEvery part of the writing piece works toward the goal of communicating meaning clearly and quickly Understanding the three-part structure of a paper will help your writings continuityUnderstanding the three-part structure of a paper will help your writings continuity

9 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Three-Part Structure of Papers Three-Part Structure of Papers IntroductionBodyConclusion Captures audience attention Sequence of ideas Summarizes main points in the body States your purpose Flows logically in a series of paragraphs Brings the writing to a smooth close Heart of your message

10 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Paragraphs A paragraph presents a single major idea or pointA paragraph presents a single major idea or point A topic sentence announces your intent for a single paragraphA topic sentence announces your intent for a single paragraph Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that bridge gaps between ideas or paragraphsTransitions are words, phrases, or sentences that bridge gaps between ideas or paragraphs

11 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Paragraphs and Transitions Transitions Paragraph Topic Sentence

12 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Sentence Fragments Most sentences have: A sentence fragment is a piece of the sentence that comes before it or the sentence that follows Example: We were ready to go, but couldnt find James anywhere. Until we looked behind the bleachers. He was sitting there tying his shoes. Subject – noun/pronoun Graphics courtesy of Clipart.com Predicate – action/verb

13 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Run-on Sentences Our van was overheating the muffler smoked (no comma) Our van was overheating, the muffler smoked (improper use of comma) Graphic courtesy of Clipart.com

14 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 To Fix Run-On Sentences Divide the sentence in twoDivide the sentence in two Use a comma and a coordinating conjunctionUse a comma and a coordinating conjunction Use a semicolon or a colonUse a semicolon or a colon Use a semicolon and a transitional phraseUse a semicolon and a transitional phrase

15 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Choosing Words Strive for originality and accuracyStrive for originality and accuracy Avoid clichésexpressions that people use to add color to writingAvoid clichésexpressions that people use to add color to writing Theyve lost their impact because of overuseTheyve lost their impact because of overuse Choose correct wordsmany words in the English language look and sound similar but have completely different meaningsChoose correct wordsmany words in the English language look and sound similar but have completely different meanings

16 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Common Clichés benefit of the doubt better late than never bury the hatchet crack of dawn cutting edge dream come true drop in the bucket last but not least leaps and bounds more than meets the eye never a dull moment stick out like a sore thumb sweep under the rug vanish in thin air Graphic courtesy of Clipart.com

17 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Voice Active Voice Passive Voice Subject is the actor or doer of the action Subject receives the action or is acted upon

18 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Recognizing Passive Voice Recognizing Passive Voice Find Then Look For… the verb = Whats happening? the actor = Whos doing it? the preposition by after the verb and before the actor Forms of the to be verb: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been or main verb ending in -ed or -en The blue ribbon was given by the awards committee to Holly. The gift was received by Tom.

19 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Changing Passive to Active Put the actor (doer) before the verb or Drop the part of the verb that ends in –ed or –en or Choose a different verb or Eliminate form of to be verb

20 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Subject-Verb Agreement Agreement means that the subject and verb are the same numberAgreement means that the subject and verb are the same number The word number refers to singular or pluralThe word number refers to singular or plural For example, The boy eats the candy bar (singular subject, singular verb form)or The boys eat the candy bars (plural subject, plural verb form)For example, The boy eats the candy bar (singular subject, singular verb form)or The boys eat the candy bars (plural subject, plural verb form)

21 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Compound Subjects If two nouns are joined by and, they usually take a plural verbIf two nouns are joined by and, they usually take a plural verb If two nouns are joined by or, nor, or but, the verb agrees in number with the subject nearest itIf two nouns are joined by or, nor, or but, the verb agrees in number with the subject nearest it Use a singular verb for a compound subject that is preceded by each or everyUse a singular verb for a compound subject that is preceded by each or every

22 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Compound Subjects Use a singular verb for a compound subject whose parts are considered a single unitUse a singular verb for a compound subject whose parts are considered a single unit Use a singular verb with collective nouns (and noun phrases showing quantity) that are treated as a unitUse a singular verb with collective nouns (and noun phrases showing quantity) that are treated as a unit But, use a plural verb when a collective noun refers to individual itemsBut, use a plural verb when a collective noun refers to individual items

23 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Pronouns A pronoun is a word that replaces a nounA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun The noun that a pronoun refers to or replaces is the antecedentThe noun that a pronoun refers to or replaces is the antecedent Personal pronouns can be first person, second person, or third personPersonal pronouns can be first person, second person, or third person Pronouns can also be singular or pluralPronouns can also be singular or plural

24 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Pronouns Person PersonSingularPlural First Person I, me, my, mine we, us, our, ours Second Person you, your, or yours you, your, yours Third Person he, she, it, him, her, his, hers, its they, them, theirs

25 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Pronouns Pronouns must agree in person and number with their antecedentsPronouns must agree in person and number with their antecedents With a compound subject joined by and, use a plural pronounWith a compound subject joined by and, use a plural pronoun When parts of an antecedent are joined by or or nor, make the pronoun agree with the nearest nounWhen parts of an antecedent are joined by or or nor, make the pronoun agree with the nearest noun

26 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Pronouns: Example Sentences John and Steve should have raised their handsJohn and Steve should have raised their hands John or Steve should have raised his handJohn or Steve should have raised his hand Neither my parents nor my sister has stayed on her diet (awkward) verses:Neither my parents nor my sister has stayed on her diet (awkward) verses: Neither my sister nor my parents have stayed on their diet (better)Neither my sister nor my parents have stayed on their diet (better) Instead of: Everyone should bring his or her book to classInstead of: Everyone should bring his or her book to class Use: All students should bring their books to classUse: All students should bring their books to class

27 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Effective writing is still an essential part of composing Effective writing is still an essential part of composing Your teachers and future employers will expect you to communicate electronically with skill and forethoughtYour teachers and future employers will expect you to communicate electronically with skill and forethought is not as private as you might think the network is subject to other peoples monitoring is not as private as you might think the network is subject to other peoples monitoring

28 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Three Advantages of Three Advantages of Graphic courtesy of Clipart.com

29 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Disadvantages of An inaccurate, hastily written can feed as many fires as it extinguishesAn inaccurate, hastily written can feed as many fires as it extinguishes Too many copies of s can clog the server network and can end up in the wrong handsToo many copies of s can clog the server network and can end up in the wrong hands leaves an electronic trail, and power surges can make your work vanish leaves an electronic trail, and power surges can make your work vanish

30 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Six Rules of Protocol Rule #1: Be clear and concise Rule #2: Watch your tone Rule #3: Be selective about what messages you send Rule #4: Be selective about who gets the message Rule #5: Check your attachments and support material Rule #6: Keep your under control

31 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Professional Use appropriate greetings and closingsUse appropriate greetings and closings State your purpose at the beginning of the messageState your purpose at the beginning of the message Write in brief, clear paragraphsWrite in brief, clear paragraphs Give your readers a clear call to actiontell them what you want them to doGive your readers a clear call to actiontell them what you want them to do

32 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Professional Put your phone number at the end of your messagePut your phone number at the end of your message Always thank the receiverAlways thank the receiver Avoid cc-ing (courtesy copy) a large groupAvoid cc-ing (courtesy copy) a large group List cc recipients alphabetically to avoid hurt feelings or political issuesList cc recipients alphabetically to avoid hurt feelings or political issues

33 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Safe Graphic courtesy of Clipart.com

34 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Safe Never give your password to anyone, even close friendsNever give your password to anyone, even close friends Dont open, download, or answer e- mails from senders you dont recognizeDont open, download, or answer e- mails from senders you dont recognize Never give out personal information on the Internet without the supervision of a parent or guardianNever give out personal information on the Internet without the supervision of a parent or guardian

35 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Review To make your writing effective and powerful, follow the basic checklist and work on your writing styleTo make your writing effective and powerful, follow the basic checklist and work on your writing style Controlling your tone in writing means picking the right wordsControlling your tone in writing means picking the right words Clarity is the quality of clearness that lets the reader understand your meaning quicklyClarity is the quality of clearness that lets the reader understand your meaning quickly Effective writing holds together in a natural wayit has continuityEffective writing holds together in a natural wayit has continuity

36 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Review In most cases, youll organize your draft in a three-part structurean introduction, a body, and a conclusionIn most cases, youll organize your draft in a three-part structurean introduction, a body, and a conclusion Transitions help move your reader from one idea to anotherTransitions help move your reader from one idea to another You should avoid sentence fragments, run-on sentences, and clichésYou should avoid sentence fragments, run-on sentences, and clichés

37 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Review Use active voice to make your writing clearer and more directUse active voice to make your writing clearer and more direct Follow the rules for subject-verb agreement and pronounsFollow the rules for subject-verb agreement and pronouns has three great advantages: its fast, it can get to huge numbers of people at little expense, and its paperless has three great advantages: its fast, it can get to huge numbers of people at little expense, and its paperless

38 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Review These advantages can backfire, so be carefulThese advantages can backfire, so be careful Follow the six rules of protocolFollow the six rules of protocol Never give out your password or personal information over or the Internet protect yourself from unsafe Never give out your password or personal information over or the Internet protect yourself from unsafe

39 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Summary How can you make your writing effective and powerful?How can you make your writing effective and powerful? What is the three-part structure?What is the three-part structure? What are common style and substance errors?What are common style and substance errors?

40 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Summary What is voice?What is voice? What is subject-verb agreement?What is subject-verb agreement? What are the proper uses of pronouns?What are the proper uses of pronouns? What are the basics of protocol?What are the basics of protocol?

41 Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Next Donehow to write effectivelyDonehow to write effectively Nextspeaking effectivelyNextspeaking effectively Graphic courtesy of Clipart.com


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