Presentation on theme: "Frame for this Presentation Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity Teach Less."— Presentation transcript:
Frame for this Presentation Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity Teach Less Learn More? To be playful and serious at the same time is possible, in fact it defines the ideal mental condition. (John Dewey, How We Think, p. 218)
Designing Effective (& Efficient) Blended Learning Objectives: Identify why e-learning has had limited impact in education Explain the prevalence of a Jurassic Park approach to learning (and e-learning) Define Blended Learning in operational terms Make well constituted decisions on what to teach online and how Use a Design Framework for producing effective and efficient Blended Learning
e-Learning – the best thing since... ? Thwarted Innovation (Zemsky and Massy, 2004). or
What the research tells us... Unfortunately, empirical research informing decisions regarding what works ranges from sparse at best, to non-existent at worse. This is because e-learning has focused on the delivery of information rather than the learning of that information (Robinson, & Schraw, 2008, p.1) …in a field marked by one fantastic development after another, the most fantastic of all may be that anything so ubiquitous and so powerful as information technology has had so little impact on teachers, students, and schools (Maddux, 2003 p.36)
LMS without Good Pedagogy – not good, lah Freitas (2007) suggests that although extensive and sustained effort has been invested into the development of the LMS, less attention has been paid to content development and the models employed to embed content into practice. Subsequently, she laments the significant lack of e-learning models and the dearth of pedagogical designs that align content delivery to learning outcomes.
Now and when? One thing is certain – e-learning will evolve into something so simple, so elegant yet all persuasive and natural, that our grand children will wonder in dismay why we didnt see it coming. Truly human-friendly technological design wont appear anytime soon. Computer, networking and software engineers cast the die five decades ago. (Shea- Schultz & Fogarty. 2002, p.89)
Educational Jurassic Park The present vogue is Constructivism and the teacher is no more the Sage on the Stage but the Guide on the Side (Why many dont take teacher professionalism seriously)
Sadly, Education has been a Creature of Fashion For those of us who have been around education for a few decades or so –you may remember Traditional (3 RRRs) - Progressive Education - Back to Basics (Traditional) Now Student-centred, inquiry-based, game-based, etc.)
Moving out of Educational Jurassic Park Contrary to common belief, people dont have different learning styles. They do, however, have different personalities. The distinction is important, because we need to be clear that everybody learns in the same way (Schank. R., 1999, p.48) Emphasizing learning styles...are noted for their lack of impact (Hattie, J, 2009, A synthesis of over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement,p.199) While our lives and our problems are very different, our brains work in similar ways (Goulston, 2009, p.3)
Blended Learning – A new term in educationalists picnic basket? Blending is an art that has been practiced by inspirational teachers for centuries. It centres on the integration of different types of resources and activities within a range of learning environments where learners can interact and build ideas (Littlejohn and Pegler, 2007, p.1) Blended learning is the combination of different training media (technologies, activities, and types of events) to create an optimum training for a specific audience (Bersin, J.,2004, xv)
Rationale for blended learning Combining online learning with face-to-face teaching (and learning) to gain the maximum benefit in terms of quality and efficiency from both delivery modes. The goal of blended learning is to synthesize training media into an integrated mix – one you can tailor to create a high impact, efficient and exciting training program (Bersin, 2004, xvi)
Big Questions What topic (knowledge/skill, etc.) areas are best taught face-to-face and what is best taught online? Are there valid principles to determine how much to teach face-to-face and how much to teach online? Does online learning involve a significantly different pedagogy from face-to-face teaching?
Pedagogy must determine the use of Technology With good pedagogy as the guiding goal, technologies can be employed selectively and sensitively to make a distinct contribution to teaching and learning. (Perkins, 1995, xvi) At its best, e-learning is as good as the best classroom learning. At its worst, it is as bad as the worst classroom learning. The difference is design. (Horton, 2006, p.3)
What is Design? …a systematic approach with rules based on evidence, and a set of contextualized practices that are constantly adapting to circumstances. It is a skilful, creative activity that can be improved on with reflection and scholarship ( Beetham and Sharpe, 2007, p.6)
A Design Frame 1.Effective blended learning is firstly about Good Learning Design, which is grounded on Core principles of Learning 1.Core principles of learning must be thoughtfully applied in relation to: desired learning outcomes/subject content learner characteristics (e.g., motivation, background of students, etc.) actual environment & resource availability 2.The resulting Learning Design/Instructional Strategy (e.g., methods, activities and supporting resources) integrates ICTs that enhance specific aspects of the learning process (e.g., effectiveness and/or efficiency) 3.The completed blended learning design maximizes the affordances of a range of learning modes and mediums
Moving Teaching from Mystery to Heuristics Core Principles of Learning There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching, and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supports that work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2006, p.12) The core principles are a set of heuristics for the design of learning experiences. They are empirically based frames from which teaching professionals can effectively and creatively plan student learning experiences.
Core Principles of Learning 1.Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly communicated 2.Learners prior knowledge is activated and connected to new learning 3.Learning design takes into account the working of memory systems 4.Motivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated into learning designs 5.Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage the range of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic)
Core Principles of Learning, cont.d 6.Content is organized around key concepts and principles that are fundamental to understanding the key structure of a subject 7.Good thinking is systematically developed to promote understanding and self-directed learning 8.Learner competence is promoted through active and experiential learning 9.A psychological climate is created which is positive, success orientated and promotes self esteem 10.Assessment practices are integrated into the learning design to promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality feedback
Core Principles – How they work While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to effective pedagogy, they are mutually supporting, interdependent and potentially highly synergetic. As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight: Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individual features thrown together by the teacher. It works more like a machine, with the parts operating together and reinforcing one another, driving the vehicle forward (p.75) They are not meant to be exhaustive nor summative, and they are always mediated by the Situated Context in which learning occurs.
Using Core Principles Thoughtfully - The Fly Fishing Analogy Key factors in the Situated Context The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual understanding, competence) Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior competence, learner preferences) Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning environment, facilities, resources)
Key Outcomes of Using Core Principles of Learning Good organization, easy navigation and learning guidance to enable quick conceptualization of the site structure, how it works and ease of resource access Chunking to avoid cognitive load and habituation Variation in the learning mode (e.g., see, hear, touch, experience, etc) and mediums (e.g., explain, demonstrate, discuss, do, etc) to provide choices for learners preference and enhance novelty Well designed learning resources/objects that foster key understanding of the subject field, connect to prior learning, and offer differentiation in learning capability Active involvement in the learning process through a range of meaningful tasks and communication with tutors and peers (both synchronous and asynchronous) A enthusiastic, supportive and fun presence that provides the glue to the online system, facilitates ongoing two-way feedback, and seeks to improve the overall learning system.
Utilizing online capability Firstly, it is important to be aware of what specific capabilities (affordances) are provided by online technologies. These include: Visually integrated notes and advanced hyperlinking Multimedia (e.g., video, audio, animations, etc.) Communication platforms/rooms for synchronous and asynchronous group work and community building Electronic library resources and search engines Knowledge building tools (e.g., interactive whiteboards) Three dimensional concept visualization tools for modelling and navigation Such affordances offer the building blocks for creating learning experiences that are both content rich and communication rich, with the capability of continual development and improvement as a learning resource (Sale, 2009, Keynote talk on What is Effective Blended Learning, International Seminar on ICT in Education, Chennai, India)
However, it is important to… Identify the e-tools (you may need to combine) that have the affordances to enhance specific aspects of the learning process, for your learners and their situated context The core principles that underpin good learning design in the face-to- face learning context are equally applicable to designing and managing learning in the online environment. Learning online does not change the way the human brain functions or the basic processes of learning.
Hyperlink the Killer online feature? …the hyperlink, which is practicably without counterpart in the physical world of traditional academics. Within an internet document, hyperlinks are used to bring multisourced information into the primary text or to give the reader a path to alternative media. In essence, this eliminates the physical separation of material messages that are logically connected. In addition to text, hyperlinked messages may be pictures, sound files, animations, or video clips. External links can refer students to other information-rich Internet sites, including personal Web pages, specialized bibliographies, and professional specialists (Hamilton, S. & Zimmerman, S., 2002, p.270)
Global Social Networking A web-based community of Inquiry has the capability to enhance: collaborative learning open communication and bonding between people with shared interests access to a wide range resources (knowledge bases, tools, etc.) Blogs are able to connect people, ideas and resources within a simple and easy to use structure. It has also great potential as a teaching and learning format.
How Much Face-To-Face Vs Online Garison & Kanuka, 2004) argue that he real indicator of blended learning is not the amount of face-to-face or online learning but their effective integration within a course Boyle (2005) advocates for a pedagogically driven model where every element of the blend is justified according to the course outcomes and needs of learners
The Right Blend? There is an old English saying-horses for courses- an apt metaphor. It depends on many criteria- the main ones include: Programme type (e.g., cost reduction, high impact, etc.) Learning group (e.g., prior competence, motivational level, cultural factors, etc.) Resources (including budget and technology infrastructure) Content stability (e.g., enduring, relevance, etc.) Note: related decisions concern the choice and blending of media types to use
Media Selection This will depend on a number of factors, the main ones include: Pedagogic benefits in terms of learning effectiveness Resource availability and compatibility (e.g., Integration with other useful technologies User-friendliness Scalability and business viability
Online or Not Online? – that is the Question 1.Will the online components enhance the quality of student learning (e.g., increase the potential learning effectiveness for a group of learners – based on how the design positively impacts core principles of learning)? 2.What are the relative costs in resources (e.g., money, time, etc.) in using online components as compared to face-to- face teaching? We may be prepared to trade-off some effectiveness for significant gains in efficiency (e.g., in the case of motivated distance learners)
No prescriptive formula on blending There can be no prescriptive formula to be applied across curricula. The nature of the learning outcomes, the types of learners involved and the resources available for a particular module may offer great opportunity for effective and efficient online delivery components. In another module context, the converse may be the case. It is not a question of how much online learning versus how much face-to-face learning; rather about how the face-to-face learning context can be enhanced through ICTs and vice-versa.