Presentation on theme: "A Frame for this afternoon To be playful and serious at the same time is possible, and it defines the ideal mental condition Methods which are permanently."— Presentation transcript:
A Frame for this afternoon To be playful and serious at the same time is possible, and it defines the ideal mental condition Methods which are permanently successful in formal education … go back to the types of situation which causes reflection out of school in ordinary life. They give pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking, or the intentional noting of connections; learning naturally results. (John Dewey, 1916)
Active Learning Methods in a Small Group Context Compare & contrast active and experiential learning (just a warm up test for you, lah) Evaluate a range of active learning methods for small group learning analyze the need for variation in the learning experience Use a range of active learning methods as an integrated pedagogic strategy
Compare and contrast Active and Experiential learning In groups of 4/5, identify and share your prior knowledge on what you understand by active and experiential learning. From your discussion, identify: Similarities between active and experiential learning Differences between active and experiential learning The importance of the differences in terms of learning effectiveness (illustrate with at least 2 examples) Note: all of you must be able to present and answer questions posed by members of other groups or yours truly
Active & Experiential Learning: Similarities & Differences Experiential learning is by its very nature active, but engages directly with real world experience (e.g., actually teaching very difficult students) Kolbs Experiential Learning cycle Discussing ways to deal with difficult students is active learning, but is limited experientially Both can promote students thinking (e.g., analyzing, comparing and contrasting, making inferences and interpretations, evaluating, generating possibilities, etc) and create interest in the learning experience.
What do we mean by Cooperative Learning Structures? A Structure is a content free way (method/tool) for organising interaction in the classroom. Content is placed into a structure to create a Activity which necessitates cooperative learning. Activities are then designed into lessons to meet specific learning outcomes (e.g., activating prior learning, promoting types of thinking, reinforcing key content understanding, developing communication skills, etc)
Numbered Heads Together Basic Theme: Students are presented with a question or problem- they put their heads together, generate and explore possible answers/solution Steps 1 The teacher has students numbered off 3 The teacher tells the students to put their within groups, so that each student has heads together, discuss their possible answers, a number: 1, 2, 3, 4. agree their best answer and make sure that all group members know the correct answer 2 The teacher asks a question or presents a problem and gives think time for 4 After a defined period of time (or when the students individually students indicate they are ready) the teacher calls a number (1, 2, 3, or 4), and all students with that number can raise their hands to respond
What is Cooperative Learning? Any classroom learning situation in which students of all levels of performance work together in structured groups to achieve a common learning goal. Key Principles: Positive Interdependence (e.g., your gain is my gain) Individual Accountability (the individual is tested) Equal Participation (as far as is possible)
Why use Cooperative Learning? Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques (when used effectively): Promote student learning and academic achievement Increase retention of the subject content Enhance student motivation Help develop skills in oral communication & teamwork Promote student self-esteem (Kagan 2004)
Building Cooperative Learning into Lessons Use Cooperative Learning as an addition to the lecture, tutorial or other method, not in place of these methods (Use for between 10-30% of the lesson time) Use Structures that facilitate the specific learning you want within the lesson design ( For example, after a period of lecturing, it is useful to provide a means for students to digest the information, identify points for further clarity and generate questions. Therefore, select a structure(s) that facilitates this learning) Adjust Methods for maximum benefit (Less content can be covered in cooperative learning, which may necessitate covering some material through e-learning, homework, etc). Balance the benefits of cooperative learning with other methods of teaching and learning support.
Preparation and Management Group formation (teacher selected, heterogeneous, 2-6 students) Duration of a group (long enough to be successful. Groups that stay together for longer periods can tackle more complex tasks. Dont quickly break groups up because they are not working – this failure often transfers to new groups) Focus on a learning goal to be mastered by all (require students to learn something, not just to do something. If the group is simply asked to complete a task, one or two students will work and the others will freeload) Make the learning meaningful (connect to the learning objectives. Students must see the learning as relevant, not activity for its own sake or the teacher avoiding work) Make the Structure Explicit (show, dont simply tell instructions -have a group model the step. Circulate, observe, listen and intervene where necessary. Develop and practice a Quiet or Zero-Noise signal) The principles of good small group management apply
Timed Pair Share Basic Theme: In pairs, students share with a partner for a predetermined time while the partner listens carefully. Then partners switch roles Steps 1 Teacher announces a topic and states 4 Partner B acknowledges what was the question/problem each student will learned (e.g., One thing I learned as I have to share on listened to you was…) 2 Teacher provides instructions on how to 5 Pairs switch roles: Partner B speaks; select partner and allocates time for task Partner A listens 3 In pairs, Partner A speaks; Partner B 6 Partner A acknowledges learning listens A useful adaptation of this is to allow a THINK time before the sharing – known as Think-Pair-Share)
RoundRobin Basic Theme: In teams, student take turns responding orally Steps 1 Teacher assigns a topic or question with multiple possible answers 2 In teams, students respond orally, each in turn, taking the same amount of time
Circle the Sage Basic Theme: Each teammate gathers around a different Sage to learn the content; they then return to compare notes Steps 1 Teacher identifies Sages. 2 Sages spread out around the 4 Sages teach; disciples take notes room and stand 3 Each member of each team 5 Disciples return to their teams, and gathers around a different sage, compare notes with teammates. to become a Disciple.
Questions How to teach students who absolutely dislike the subject matter – even course? What are other active learning strategies that can be used in large classes? How to align the 3 demands on cognitive capacity to autonomy learning? Saljos 5 learning conceptions – all correct, different levels of learning – right? What is the difference between facilitation and lecturing in the context of active learning? How to teach less, get students to learn more and push the boundaries of their thinking? How to adopt active learning to psychomotor based modules? Should we use active learning sparingly – otherwise students will be thinking the whole day – can be tiring? How do we assess active learning? How to use role play to teach first year fundamental concepts in engineering – how? Now what Active - indeed Experiential - Learning Experiences could I weave in here?
Active Learning Methods and Tools Questioning Small group activities (e.g., cooperative learning structures, buzz groups, poster tours, etc) Case studies, Scenario-Based Learning, Projects and PBL activities Games, Role Play & Simulations Discussion/Debates Other Performance Tasks (experiments, troubleshooting, etc) Thinking Tools (e.g., Mind mapping, Plus-Minus-Interesting, Force-Field Analysis, Thinking Hats, etc)
Big Point... A method is typically only a part of the overall instructional strategy – its how a number of them are weaved together to create an experience that results in student engagement and effective learning
Pedagogic Design A systematic approach, using evidence-based principles and practices, for creating learning experiences (strategies incorporating instructional methods, activities and resources) to facilitate desired learning outcomes for a group of learners Good pedagogic design is both systematic and creative – skillfully utilizing available resources and being responsive to the situated context (adaptable to what actually happens in real learning situations)
A metaphor for Good Learning Design
Variety & Novelty - Stories, Humour, Activities, Examples – Woven through good Presentation Style
What is SHAPE ? Stories Humour Activities Presentation Style Examples A Heuristic for the design of creative learning experiences
The Power of SHAPE We understand everything in human life through stories (Jean-Paul Sartre) Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain (Edward De Bono) Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn (Lambert and Coombs) The meaning of your communication is the response that you get (Bandler & Grinder) A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort (Wlodkowski)
Using SHAPE to Shape the learning experience Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchors Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learning Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological states Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures … and use these Resources Creatively
SHAPE as a Metaphor for Expert Teaching...expert teachers use a repertoire of strategies, selecting the most appropriate for use in a particular context and adapting it if necessary for a group of learners A pedagogic repertoire consists of two aspects: approaches, activities, examples, analogies and illustrations for representing facts, skills, concepts, beliefs and attitudes to others; and the skills and strategies used as an integral part of these approaches (Turner-Bisset, 2001, p.69)
Against boredom even the gods themselves struggle in vain Friedrich Nietzsche Locally Known as the Chilli Crab Syndrome
Typical Attention Span
Minimize Forgetting through Review 10 next next next minutes day day week with continuous periodic reviews Recall without reviews Recall with reviews at intervals 100% Probability of recall
Noted Gen Y characteristics - how do they play out in the classroom – what challenges are presented? NOW Have been referred to as a generation that has been treasured, considered special since birth, and generally been more sheltered than its predecessors. Product of a child-centred philosophy (Howe and Strauss, 2009)
Everything is Experience (& Perception) As human being we are stuck in a process of continuous Experience – even when sleeping Given a choice, people seek experiences that are perceived as pleasurable, novel, and pain reducing – because they satisfy needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – from the work of William Glasser)
The Serial Position Curve Position on List Proportion Correct Primacy Effect Recency Effect von Restorff Effect
Psychological Effects Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily) Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently presented items or experiences to be remembered best) Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember distinct or novel items and experiences)
The Need for a Motivational Strategy?..if something can be learned, it can be learned in a motivating manner (p.23)..every instructional plan also needs to be a motivational plan (p.24) (Wlodkowski, R. J., 1999, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn)
Reasons for Active Learning Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves. Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson, "Seven Principles for Good Practice," AAHE Bulletin 39: 3-7, March 1987
Active Learning is NOT Activity for Activity Sake
Thinking Tools and Techniques Mind-mapping (A useful all round learning & thinking tool) Thinking Hats (A thought management tool) Plus-Minus-Interesting (A simple practical tool for identifying positives, negatives and unsure elements in a situation) Five Ws & H (A questioning format to promote critical thinking) Force-Field Analysis (A critical and creative thinking tool for managing change) Forced Associations (A creative thinking technique to break out of traditional patterns of perception and thinking) PO (A creative thinking technique) SCAMPER (A creating thinking tool) Morphological Matrix (A creative thinking tool for creating multiple combinations) Note: thinking tools and techniques dont do the thinking, they only provide a means for organizing your thinking
Mind Map of Edward De Bonos Thinking Hats Blue Hat Red Hat Black Hat Green Hat Yellow Hat Metacognition Overview Feelings Own view Negative Logical Positive Optimistic Creative New ideas Mind Maps can promote all types of thinking as well as aid memory and learning White Hat Facts only No opinions
Plus-Minus-Interesting PLUS MINUS INTERESTING
5 Ws and an H Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? Who -identifies the people involved What - identifies things, resources, etc Where - identifies places or locations When - identifies time-frames or situations Why - identifies reasons How - identifies steps, activities or actions
Force-Field Analysis Equilibrium Forces driving changeForces resisting change The objective is to move the balance to the right which can be achieved by: identifying forces, their causes and strength planning and acting to assist the driving forces planning and acting to reduce the resisting forces using some of the resisting forces against each other if possible Current Situation Current Situation Desired Situation Desired Situation Potency: :Potency
Forced Associations (Random Triggers) Forced Associations is a technique for linking another thinking pattern into the one we are presently using. We do this by selecting a random concrete noun from a different field and combining it with the problem under consideration. For example, we might be looking at ways to make lifts quicker. By choosing a random word Mirror could lead to installing mirrors by lifts. As we know this is a popular solution for slow lifts. The lift doesnt go faster, but people waiting dont notice this as they look in the mirror. Force Associate with Mirror
PO (Provocative Operation) PO involves making deliberately provocative statements, which seek to force thinking out of established patterns. Examples:Everybody should go to prison Lets abolish schools Having made a provocative statement, it is then necessary to suspend judgement and use the statement to generate ideas. For example, you can generate ideas by examining: The consequences of the statement What the benefits could be? What would need to change in order to make it a sensible statement? What would happen if a sequence of events changed?
S C A M P E R SCAMPER is a checklist that helps to think of ways to improve existing products or create new ones Substitute Combine Adapt Magnify, Minify, Modify Put to other use Eliminate Reverse
Morphological Matrix This tool encourages new possibilities through combining options X ABCDE A X B X C X D X E X OPTIONS
Deciding on Methods 1 One method is not inherently superior to another. All methods have strengths and limitations, which need to be borne in mind when planning sessions. The following are important questions to ask yourself concerning your choice of methods for a given session will they: facilitate the content you want to deal with and the types of learning required (e.g., knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and meet the objectives effectively suit the nature of the learning group and the individuals who comprise it (e.g., age, ethnic background, prior experience, etc)? utilize the resources you have available and fit the environment? fit into your style or range of teaching skills - are you comfortable and competent in using it?
Deciding on Methods 2 All methods (including explanation and demonstration) need to be systematically and creatively weaved into an effective and efficient instructional strategy, based on sound principles of learning Also, it is to be noted that a good learning design, while of key importance, requires the expertise of delivery and management - which includes the ability of good observation and thinking on ones feet Finally, all methods will result in students experiencing the chilli crab syndrome over time