Presentation on theme: "A Frame for this afternoon"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Frame for this afternoon “To be playful and serious at the same time is possible, and it defines the ideal mental condition”“Methods which are permanently successful in formal education … go back to the types of situation which causes reflection out of school in ordinary life. They give pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking, or the intentional noting of connections; learning naturally results”.(John Dewey, 1916)
2 Active Learning Methods in a Small Group Context Compare & contrast active and experiential learning (just a warm up test for you, lah)Evaluate a range of active learning methods for small group learninganalyze the need for variation in the learning experienceUse a range of active learning methods as an integrated pedagogic strategy
3 Compare and contrast Active and Experiential learning In groups of 4/5, identify and share your prior knowledge on what youunderstand by active and experiential learning.From your discussion, identify:Similarities between active and experiential learningDifferences between active and experiential learningThe importance of the differences in terms of learning effectiveness(illustrate with at least 2 examples)Note: all of you must be able to present and answer questions posed bymembers of other groups or yours truly
4 Active & Experiential Learning: Similarities & Differences Experiential learning is by its very nature active, but engages directly with real world experience (e.g., actually teaching very difficult students)Kolb’s Experiential Learning cycleDiscussing ways to deal with difficult students is active learning, but is limited experientiallyBoth can promote student’s thinking (e.g., analyzing, comparing and contrasting, making inferences and interpretations, evaluating, generating possibilities, etc) and create interest in the learning experience.
5 What do we mean by Cooperative Learning Structures? A Structure is a content free way (method/tool) for organisinginteraction in the classroom. Content is placed into astructure to create a Activity which necessitates cooperativelearning.Activities are then designed into lessons to meet specificlearning outcomes (e.g., activating prior learning, promotingtypes of thinking, reinforcing key content understanding,developing communication skills, etc)
6 Numbered Heads Together Basic Theme:Students are presented with a question or problem-they “put their heads together”, generate and explorepossible answers/solutionSteps1 The teacher has students numbered off The teacher tells the students to “put theirwithin groups, so that each student has heads together”, discuss their possible answers,a number: 1, 2, 3, agree their best answer and make sure that allgroup members know the ‘correct’ answer2 The teacher asks a question or presentsa problem and gives ‘think time’ for After a defined period of time (or when thestudents individually students indicate they are ready) the teachercalls a number (1, 2, 3, or 4), and all studentswith that number can raise their hands torespond
7 What is Cooperative Learning? Any classroom learning situation in which students of all levelsof performance work together in structured groups to achieve acommon learning goal.Key Principles:Positive Interdependence (e.g., ‘your gain is my gain’)Individual Accountability (the individual is tested)Equal Participation (as far as is possible)
8 Why use Cooperative Learning? Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques (whenused effectively):Promote student learning and academic achievementIncrease retention of the subject contentEnhance student motivationHelp develop skills in oral communication & teamworkPromote student self-esteem(Kagan 2004)
9 Building Cooperative Learning into Lessons Use Cooperative Learning as an addition to the lecture, tutorial or other method, not in place of these methods (Use for between 10-30% of the lesson time)Use Structures that facilitate the specific learning you want within the lesson design (For example, after a period of lecturing, it is useful to provide a means for students to digest the information, identify points for further clarity and generate questions. Therefore, select a structure(s) that facilitates this learning)Adjust Methods for maximum benefit (Less content can be covered in cooperative learning, which may necessitate covering some material through e-learning, homework, etc). Balance the benefits of cooperative learning with other methods of teaching and learning support.
10 Preparation and Management Group formation (teacher selected, heterogeneous, 2-6 students)Duration of a group (long enough to be successful. Groups that stay together for longer periods can tackle more complex tasks. Don’t quickly break groups up because they are not working – this failure often transfers to new groups)Focus on a learning goal to be mastered by all (require students to learn something, not just to do something. If the group is simply asked to complete a task, one or two students will work and the others will freeload)Make the learning meaningful (connect to the learning objectives. Students must see the learning as relevant, not activity for its own sake or the teacher avoiding work)Make the Structure Explicit (show, don’t simply tell instructions -have a group model the step. Circulate, observe, listen and intervene where necessary. Develop and practice a Quiet or Zero-Noise signal)The principles of good small group management apply
11 known as Think-Pair-Share) Timed Pair ShareBasic Theme:In pairs, students share with a partner for apredetermined time while the partner listenscarefully. Then partners switch rolesSteps1 Teacher announces a topic and states Partner B acknowledges what wasthe question/problem each student will learned (e.g., “One thing I learned as Ihave to share on listened to you was…”)2 Teacher provides instructions on how to Pairs switch roles: Partner B speaks;select partner and allocates time for task Partner A listens3 In pairs, Partner A speaks; Partner B Partner A acknowledges learninglistensA useful adaptation of this is to allow a THINK time before the sharing –known as Think-Pair-Share)
12 RoundRobin Basic Theme: In teams, student take turns responding orally Steps1 Teacher assigns a topic or questionwith multiple possible answers2 In teams, students respond orally,each in turn, taking the same amount of time
13 Circle the Sage Basic Theme: Each teammate gathers around a different “Sage” to learnthe content; they then return to compare notesSteps1 Teacher identifies “Sages.”2 “Sages” spread out around the Sages teach; disciples take notesroom and stand3 Each member of each team Disciples return to their teams, andgathers around a different sage, compare notes with teammates.to become a “Disciple.”
14 QuestionsHow to teach students who absolutely dislike the subject matter – even course?What are other active learning strategies that can be used in large classes?How to align the 3 demands on cognitive capacity to autonomy learning?Saljo’s 5 learning conceptions – all correct, different levels of learning – right?What is the difference between facilitation and lecturing in the context of active learning?How to teach less, get students to learn more and push the boundaries of their thinking?How to adopt active learning to psychomotor based modules?Should we use active learning sparingly – otherwise students will be thinking the whole day – can be tiring?How do we assess active learning?How to use role play to teach first year fundamental concepts in engineering – how?Now what Active - indeed Experiential - Learning Experiences could I weave in here?
15 Active Learning Methods and Tools QuestioningSmall group activities (e.g., cooperative learning structures, buzz groups, poster tours, etc)Case studies, Scenario-Based Learning, Projects and PBL activitiesGames, Role Play & SimulationsDiscussion/DebatesOther Performance Tasks (experiments, troubleshooting, etc)Thinking Tools (e.g., Mind mapping, Plus-Minus-Interesting, Force-Field Analysis, Thinking Hats, etc)
16 Big Point...A method is typically only a part of the overall instructional strategy –it’s how a number of them are weaved together to create an experiencethat results in student engagement and effective learning
17 Pedagogic DesignA systematic approach, using evidence-based principles andpractices, for creating learning experiences (strategiesincorporating instructional methods, activities and resources)to facilitate desired learning outcomes for a group of learnersGood pedagogic design is both systematic and creative –skillfully utilizing available resources and being responsiveto the situated context (adaptable to what actually happensin real learning situations)A learning design is the planned learning experience – the strategy - which you create in order to teach students effectively so they can achieve the learning outcomes.As you will see, over the duration of this workshop, a good learning design is crucial to good teaching and effective learning. A good learning design involves both systematic planning and flexibility. Flexibility is important as students may not always respond to our planned strategy. Effective teachers are able to modify their strategy if the planned strategy is not working as intended.17
19 Variety & Novelty - Stories, Humour, Activities, Examples – Woven through good Presentation Style
20 What is SHAPE ? Stories Humour Activities Examples Presentation Style A Heuristic for the design of creative learning experiences
21 The Power of SHAPE“We understand everything in human life through stories”(Jean-Paul Sartre)“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain” (Edward De Bono)“Learning activities are the best and most productive wayto learn” (Lambert and Coombs)“The meaning of your communication is the response that you get”(Bandler & Grinder)“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing theirconcentration and effort” (Wlodkowski)
22 Using SHAPE to Shape the learning experience Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchorsHumour used to achieve rapport and provide noveltyActivities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learningPresentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological statesExamples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures…and use these Resources Creatively
23 SHAPE as a Metaphor for Expert Teaching “...expert teachers use a repertoire of strategies, selecting the mostappropriate for use in a particular context and adapting it ifnecessary for a group of learnersA pedagogic repertoire consists of two aspects: approaches,activities, examples, analogies and illustrations for representing facts,skills, concepts, beliefs and attitudes to others; and the skills andstrategies used as an integral part of these approaches “(Turner-Bisset, 2001, p.69)
24 “Against boredom even the gods themselves struggle in vain” Friedrich NietzscheLocally Known as the “Chilli Crab Syndrome”
26 Minimize Forgetting through Review 100%Probability of recallRecall without reviewsRecall with reviews at intervalsnext next nextminutes day day weekwith continuous periodic reviews
27 Noted Gen Y characteristics - how do they play out in the classroom – what challenges are presented? NOWHave been referred to as a generation that has been ‘treasured’, consideredspecial since birth, and generally been more sheltered than its predecessors.Product of a child-centred philosophy(Howe and Strauss, 2009)
28 Everything is Experience (& Perception) As human being we are stuck in a process of continuous Experience – even when sleepingGiven a choice, people seek experiences that are perceived as pleasurable, novel, and pain reducing – because they satisfy needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – from the work of William Glasser)
30 The Serial Position Curve 80706050403020Primacy EffectRecency EffectProportion Correctvon Restorff EffectPosition on List
31 Psychological Effects Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily)Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently presented items or experiences to be remembered best)Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember distinct or novel items and experiences)
32 The Need for a Motivational Strategy? “..if something can be learned, it can belearned in a motivating manner” (p.23)“..every instructional plan also needs to bea motivational plan” (p.24)(Wlodkowski, R. J., 1999, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn)
33 Reasons for Active Learning Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much justby sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packagedassignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about whatthey are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, applyit to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part ofthemselves.Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson, "Seven Principles forGood Practice," AAHE Bulletin 39: 3-7, March 1987
34 Activity for Activity Sake Active Learning is NOTActivity for Activity Sake
35 Thinking Tools and Techniques Mind-mapping (A useful all round learning & thinking tool)Thinking Hats (A thought management tool)Plus-Minus-Interesting (A simple practical tool for identifying positives, negatives and unsure elements in a situation)Five W’s & H (A questioning format to promote critical thinking)Force-Field Analysis (A critical and creative thinking tool for managing change)Forced Associations (A creative thinking technique to break out of traditional patterns of perception and thinking)PO (A creative thinking technique)SCAMPER (A creating thinking tool)Morphological Matrix (A creative thinking tool for creating multiple combinations)Note: thinking tools and techniques don’t do the thinking, they only provide a means for organizing your thinking
36 Mind Map of Edward De Bono’s Thinking Hats White HatBlue HatFacts onlyNo opinionsMetacognitionOverviewRed HatGreen HatFeelingsOwn viewCreativeNew ideasBlack HatNegativeLogicalYellow HatPositiveOptimisticMind Maps can promote alltypes of thinking as well asaid memory and learning
38 Who? What? Where? When? Why? How? 5 W’s and an HWho? What? Where? When? Why? How?Who - identifies the people involvedWhat - identifies things, resources, etcWhere - identifies places or locationsWhen - identifies time-frames or situationsWhy identifies reasonsHow identifies steps, activities or actions
39 Force-Field Analysis Current Situation Desired Situation Potency::PotencyForces driving changeForces resisting changeEquilibriumThe objective is to move the balance to the right which can be achieved by:identifying forces, their causes and strengthplanning and acting to assist the driving forcesplanning and acting to reduce the resisting forcesusing some of the resisting forces against each other if possible
40 Forced Associations (Random Triggers) Forced Associations is a technique for linking another thinking pattern intothe one we are presently using. We do this by selecting a random concrete nounfrom a different field and combining it with the problem under consideration.For example, we might be looking at ways to make lifts quicker.By choosing a random word ‘Mirror’ could lead to installing mirrors by lifts.As we know this is a popular solution for ‘slow lifts’. The lift doesn’t go faster,but people waiting don’t notice this as they look in the mirror.Force Associatewith ‘Mirror’
41 PO (Provocative Operation) PO involves making deliberately provocative statements, which seek toforce thinking out of established patterns.Examples: “Everybody should go to prison”“Lets abolish schools”Having made a provocative statement, it is then necessary to suspend judgementand use the statement to generate ideas. For example, you can generate ideasby examining:The consequences of the statementWhat the benefits could be?What would need to change in order to make it a sensible statement?What would happen if a sequence of events changed?
42 S A P R C M E Substitute Combine Adapt Magnify, Minify, Modify SCAMPER is a checklist that helps tothink of ways to improve existing productsor create new onesSubstituteCombineAdaptMagnify, Minify, ModifyPut to other useEliminateReverse
43 Morphological Matrix X A B C D E This tool encourages new possibilities through combining optionsOPTIONSXABCDEOPTIONS
44 Deciding on Methods 1One method is not inherently superior to another. All methods have strengths and limitations, which need to be borne in mind when planning sessions. The following are important questions to ask yourself concerning your choice of methods for a given session will they:facilitate the content you want to deal with and the types of learning required (e.g., knowledge, skills, and attitudes) and meet the objectives effectivelysuit the nature of the learning group and the individual’s who comprise it (e.g., age, ethnic background, prior experience, etc)?utilize the resources you have available and ‘fit’ the environment?fit into your style or range of teaching skills - are you comfortable and competent in using it?
45 Deciding on Methods 2All methods (including explanation and demonstration) need to be systematically and creatively ‘weaved’ into an effective and efficient instructional strategy, based on sound principles of learningAlso, it is to be noted that a good learning design, while of key importance, requires the expertise of delivery and management - which includes the ability of good observation and thinking on one’s feetFinally, all methods will result in students experiencing the “chilli crab syndrome” over time
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