Presentation on theme: "ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS As We Face the Future A&WMA Symposium Austin, Texas April 15, 2010 Davis L. Ford, PhD, P.E. Davis L. Ford & Associates."— Presentation transcript:
ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS As We Face the Future A&WMA Symposium Austin, Texas April 15, 2010 Davis L. Ford, PhD, P.E. Davis L. Ford & Associates
FOSSIL FUELS Natural Gas Petroleum Crude Coal Nuclear (different origin but from the earth and non-renewable) ALTERNATIVE FUELS Ethanol (corn based) Bio Diesel (grasses, algae) Solar Wind Turbines Geothermal Others
Water Consumption (gal/mi) for Fuels for Light Duty Vehicles* gal/mi water consumption Petro Nat Gas Coal Gas Ethanol Diesel Liquids (irrigated corn Gasoline or maise) (Assume: 150 gal. water of irrigated corn Produces 1 gal. ethanol and 0.5 gal. water To produce 1 gal. gasoline.) *Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, No. 21, 2008
Summary 1.Alternative fuels currently are more costly than fossil fuels as an energy source. 2.It could be 15 to 20 years before alternative fuels become competitive with fossil fuel sources unless there are economic/technical breakthroughs that are cost/energy effective.
Subsidies can provide and accelerate alternative energy competitiveness through research---both by government and the private sector---but history has shown that the marketplace is the final determinant. Proven reserves of both gas and oil (PUDs) are increasing---thus, enhancing the continued future use of fossil fuel such as natural gas and cleaner oil. This is true even under the recent rules of the securities exchange commission (SEC). Newly proven reserve definitions are more restrictive.
For example, proved undeveloped reserves (PUDs) must be drilled within 5 years of booking or lose their PUD status. Additionally, the price averaging of PUDs requires a 12-month unweighted first-of-the month average pricing rather than year-end pricing. Prior to dire predictions that fossil fuels are non- renewable and diminishing in the near term, new domestic discoveries and drilling technologies---at current energy demands---expand reserves for 2 decades or more. (Quantities of oil and gas anticipated and proven to be economically producible.)
Selected Reading Eckenfelder, W. W., Davis L. Ford, and A.J. Englande, Industrial Water Quality, McGraw Hill/Water Environment Federation (2008) Steward, H. Leighton, Fire, Ice and Paradise, AuthorHouse (2008) Ford, Davis L., The Primary Role of Fossil Fuels, Air and Waste Management Association, Austin, Texas (2008) Schnoor, Jerald L., Living with a Changing Water Environment, The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall (2008) Ford, Davis L., Confidential Report to BNSF (2008) National Geographic, Growing Fuel, The Wrong Way, The Right Way, October (2007) Huber, Peter W. and Mark P. Mills, The Bottomless Well: The Twilight of Fuel, the Virtue of Waste, and Why We Will Never Run Out of Energy, Basic Books (2005) Hollander, Jack M., The Real Environmental Crisis, University of California Press (2003) Morris, Robert C., The Environmental Case for Nuclear Power: Economic, Medical, and Political Considerations, Continuum (2000) Ford, Davis L., Toxicity Reduction, Technomics (1992) Jensen, Paul, Davis L. Ford, et al, How Knowledge Gained in Toxicity Testing Can Help Water Conservation, PBS&J (unpublished) Eckenfelder, W. W. and Davis L. Ford, Water Pollution Control, Jenkins Press (1970) Ataei, A., Wastewater Treatment: Energy-Conservation Opportunities, Chemical Engineering, January (2010)