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Gambling among Minnesota American Indian Public School Students Randy Stinchfield, Ph.D., LP Department of Psychiatry University of Minnesota Medical School.

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Presentation on theme: "Gambling among Minnesota American Indian Public School Students Randy Stinchfield, Ph.D., LP Department of Psychiatry University of Minnesota Medical School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gambling among Minnesota American Indian Public School Students Randy Stinchfield, Ph.D., LP Department of Psychiatry University of Minnesota Medical School

2 American Indians in Minnesota Seven Anishinaabe communities (also known as Ojibwe or Chippewa) in the north; and Seven Anishinaabe communities (also known as Ojibwe or Chippewa) in the north; and Four Dakota (also know as Sioux) communities in the south Four Dakota (also know as Sioux) communities in the south In the 2000 Census, 81,074 Minnesotans reported AI and one or more other race (2000 Census data; In the 2000 Census, 81,074 Minnesotans reported AI and one or more other race (2000 Census data;

3 Commercial Gambling in Minnesota More than 3,000 lottery retail outlets More than 3,000 lottery retail outlets More than 3,000 charitable gambling sites More than 3,000 charitable gambling sites 18 tribal casinos 18 tribal casinos Two racetracks with card rooms Two racetracks with card rooms Advertising on television, radio, newspaper, billboards, and at sporting events Advertising on television, radio, newspaper, billboards, and at sporting events

4 Tribal Gambling: A Two-edged Sword On the one hand, tribal gambling has improved the lives of many tribal members. Tribal gambling has become the New Buffalo for some AI communities, bringing needed economic development to reservations. On the one hand, tribal gambling has improved the lives of many tribal members. Tribal gambling has become the New Buffalo for some AI communities, bringing needed economic development to reservations. On the other hand, some tribal members gamble in tribal casinos and risk becoming addicted. On the other hand, some tribal members gamble in tribal casinos and risk becoming addicted. And what about gambling among AI youth? And what about gambling among AI youth?

5 First Generation of AI Youth This is the first generation of AI youth to be exposed to easy access to a variety of gambling venues and widespread gambling advertising This is the first generation of AI youth to be exposed to easy access to a variety of gambling venues and widespread gambling advertising The class of 2010 was born a couple years after the onset of the state lottery and casino gambling, so they have been exposed to gambling their entire lives The class of 2010 was born a couple years after the onset of the state lottery and casino gambling, so they have been exposed to gambling their entire lives

6 Research on gambling among Native American and First Nations youth A recent review of problem gambling in North American Indian/First Nations populations by Wardman, el-Guebaly, and Hodgins (2001), found only four published articles: three from MN (Peacock, Day & Peacock,1999; Stinchfield, 1997; and Zitzow, 1996) and one from Alberta (Hewitt & Auger, 1995). A recent review of problem gambling in North American Indian/First Nations populations by Wardman, el-Guebaly, and Hodgins (2001), found only four published articles: three from MN (Peacock, Day & Peacock,1999; Stinchfield, 1997; and Zitzow, 1996) and one from Alberta (Hewitt & Auger, 1995). Findings of the review: American Indian/First Nations adolescents have higher rates of gambling and problem gambling than their non-Indian peers. Findings of the review: American Indian/First Nations adolescents have higher rates of gambling and problem gambling than their non-Indian peers.

7 Youth Gambling a Concern With the rapid expansion of gambling have also come concerns about youth gambling and youth problem gambling With the rapid expansion of gambling have also come concerns about youth gambling and youth problem gambling Underage gambling is a particular concern since it is illegal and may put youth at risk for problem gambling Underage gambling is a particular concern since it is illegal and may put youth at risk for problem gambling Concerns about time and money spent gambling and of the risk of addiction Concerns about time and money spent gambling and of the risk of addiction Tribal elders, public health officials, policy makers, teachers, and parents want to know the extent of youth gambling and problem gambling and what can be done to prevent it Tribal elders, public health officials, policy makers, teachers, and parents want to know the extent of youth gambling and problem gambling and what can be done to prevent it

8 Research Questions How often do Minnesota AI youth gamble? How often do Minnesota AI youth gamble? What games do AI youth play most frequently? What games do AI youth play most frequently? Are there differences in gambling frequency between boys and girls and between young and older youth? Are there differences in gambling frequency between boys and girls and between young and older youth? Is Minnesota AI youth gambling on the rise? Is Minnesota AI youth gambling on the rise? How many underage AI youth gamble on the lottery and in casinos? How many underage AI youth gamble on the lottery and in casinos? Are there differences in gambling frequency and gambling problems between AI youth and non-AI peers? Are there differences in gambling frequency and gambling problems between AI youth and non-AI peers?

9 Three Specific Aims 1. Measure 2010 rates of gambling and underage gambling among AI public school students and compare rates of gambling between boys and girls, young and older youth 2. Compare rates of gambling, frequent gambling, and underage gambling from 1992 to Compare AI to non-AI students on frequent gambling in 2010

10 2007 MSS Gambling Items During the last 12 months, how often have you done these activities? During the last 12 months, how often have you done these activities? Played cards for money Played cards for money Bet money on games of personal skill like pool, golf, or bowling Bet money on games of personal skill like pool, golf, or bowling Bet money on sports teams or horseracing Bet money on sports teams or horseracing Bought lottery tickets or scratch offs Bought lottery tickets or scratch offs Gambled in a casino Gambled in a casino Gambled for money online Gambled for money online

11 Five-point Response Options Not at all Not at all Less than once a month Less than once a month About once a month About once a month About once a week About once a week Daily Daily

12 Race/ethnicity Item on Minnesota Student Survey How do you describe yourself? (Mark all that apply) American Indian American Indian Black or African American Black or African American Mexican American or Chicano/Chicana Mexican American or Chicano/Chicana Puerto Rican or other Latin American Puerto Rican or other Latin American Asian American or Pacific Islander (including Cambodian, Hmong, Korean, Laotian, Vietnamese) Asian American or Pacific Islander (including Cambodian, Hmong, Korean, Laotian, Vietnamese) White White I dont know I dont know

13 2010 Minnesota AI Student Sample RaceCount% AI only AI and one or more other race 2, Column Total 3,268100

14 2010 Minnesota AI Student Sample by Gender and Grade GradeBoysGirls Row Total 9 th 1,0211,1722, th ,075 Column Total 1,5451,7233,268

15 First Specific Aim Measure 2010 rates of gambling and underage gambling among AI public school students and compare rates of gambling between boys and girls, and 9th and 12 th grade youth.

16 Gambling by Gender and Grade (2010)

17 2010 Gambling by Gender and Grade Over half of 9 th grade boys gamble Over half of 9 th grade boys gamble Almost one-third of 9 th grade girls gamble Almost one-third of 9 th grade girls gamble Three-fourths of 12 th grade boys gamble Three-fourths of 12 th grade boys gamble Over half of 12 th grade girls gamble Over half of 12 th grade girls gamble More boys gamble than girls More boys gamble than girls More 12 th grade students gamble than 9 th grade students More 12 th grade students gamble than 9 th grade students

18 Frequent Gambling by Gender and Grade (2010)

19 2010 Frequent Gambling by Gender and Grade Less than one in ten girls is a frequent gambler Less than one in ten girls is a frequent gambler More boys gamble frequently than girls More boys gamble frequently than girls More 12 th grade students gamble frequently than 9 th grade students More 12 th grade students gamble frequently than 9 th grade students

20 2010 Youth Frequent Gambling The games played frequently by 9 th grade boys were informal games of cards, games of personal skill, and sports betting The games played frequently by 9 th grade boys were informal games of cards, games of personal skill, and sports betting The games played frequently by 12 th grade boys were cards, games of personal skill, the lottery, and casino The games played frequently by 12 th grade boys were cards, games of personal skill, the lottery, and casino The games played frequently by 9 th grade girls were cards and games of personal skill The games played frequently by 9 th grade girls were cards and games of personal skill The games played frequently by 12 th grade girls were lottery and casino The games played frequently by 12 th grade girls were lottery and casino More 12 th grade students play legalized games frequently than 9 th grade students and there appears to be a shift from play of informal games to legalized/commercial gambling as boys and girls get older More 12 th grade students play legalized games frequently than 9 th grade students and there appears to be a shift from play of informal games to legalized/commercial gambling as boys and girls get older

21 Underage Gambling Underage is defined as playing a legalized form of gambling by youth under the legal age of 18 There are three types of legalized gambling on the MSS: There are three types of legalized gambling on the MSS: (1) Lottery; (1) Lottery; (2) Casino; and (2) Casino; and (3) Online gambling (3) Online gambling

22 Underage Gambling by Gender and Game/Venue (2010)

23 Underage Gambling (2010) Most underage youth did not play legalized games More boys engaged in underage gambling than girls More boys engaged in underage gambling than girls

24 Comparison of AI Students to their non-AI Peers on Weekly/Daily Casino Gambling (2010)

25 Compare AI Students to their non-AI Peers on Frequent Gambling More AI students gambled frequently than their non-AI peers on most games/venues and the contrast was most striking for girls More AI students gambled frequently than their non-AI peers on most games/venues and the contrast was most striking for girls The ratio of AI boys who were frequent gamblers ranged from 1 to 2 times that of their non-AI peers The ratio of AI boys who were frequent gamblers ranged from 1 to 2 times that of their non-AI peers The ratio of AI girls who were frequent gamblers ranged from 2 to 4 times that of their non-AI peers The ratio of AI girls who were frequent gamblers ranged from 2 to 4 times that of their non-AI peers

26 Second Specific Aim: Compare Trends from 1992 to 2010 The Minnesota Student Survey has AI 9 th and 12 th grade sample sizes of: The Minnesota Student Survey has AI 9 th and 12 th grade sample sizes of: 725 in 1992 (fewer AI students in 1992 due to race item allowed only one race) 725 in 1992 (fewer AI students in 1992 due to race item allowed only one race) 2,178 in ,178 in ,160 in ,160 in ,447 in ,447 in ,743 in ,743 in ,496 in ,496 in ,268 in ,268 in 2010

27 Gambling at all and Gambling weekly/daily by Gender

28 Second Specific Aim: Gambling Trends from 1992 to 2010 Gambling rates declined from 75% in 1992 to 50% in 2010 Gambling rates declined from 75% in 1992 to 50% in 2010 Boys gambling declined from 87% in 1992 to 64% in 2010 Boys gambling declined from 87% in 1992 to 64% in 2010 Girls gambling declined from 64% in 1992 to 38% in 2010 Girls gambling declined from 64% in 1992 to 38% in 2010 There were fewer AI students gambling in 2010 than were gambling in 1992 There were fewer AI students gambling in 2010 than were gambling in 1992

29 Second Specific Aim: Frequent gambling trends: 1992 to 2010 Frequent gambling rates showed a modest decline from 21% in 1992 to 13% in 2010 Frequent gambling rates showed a modest decline from 21% in 1992 to 13% in 2010 Boys frequent gambling declined from 27% in 1992 to 20% in 2010 Boys frequent gambling declined from 27% in 1992 to 20% in 2010 Girls frequent gambling declined from 14% in 1992 to 7% in 2010 Girls frequent gambling declined from 14% in 1992 to 7% in 2010 There were fewer AI students gambling frequently in 2010 than were gambling frequently in 1992 There were fewer AI students gambling frequently in 2010 than were gambling frequently in 1992

30 Gambling Weekly/Daily by 9 th Grade Boys by Game

31 9 th Grade Boys Frequent Gambling Trends from 1992 to 2010 Declines in most games from 2004 to 2010 Declines in most games from 2004 to 2010 Large fluctuations for cards, sports betting, betting on games of skill, and the lottery with peaks for these games in 1998 with subsequent declines in 2010 Large fluctuations for cards, sports betting, betting on games of skill, and the lottery with peaks for these games in 1998 with subsequent declines in 2010 Casino gambling was fairly stable but also showed declines from 2001 to 2010 Casino gambling was fairly stable but also showed declines from 2001 to 2010 There were fewer 9 th grade boys gambling frequently in 2010 than in 1992 There were fewer 9 th grade boys gambling frequently in 2010 than in 1992

32 Gambling Weekly/Daily by 12 th Grade Boys by Game

33 12th Grade Boys Frequent Gambling Trends from 1992 to 2010 Declines in every game from 2004 to 2010 Declines in every game from 2004 to 2010 Large fluctuations for cards, sports betting, betting on games of skill, and the lottery with peaks in the early 2000 with subsequent declines Large fluctuations for cards, sports betting, betting on games of skill, and the lottery with peaks in the early 2000 with subsequent declines Casino gambling showed gradual declines from 2001 to 2010 Casino gambling showed gradual declines from 2001 to 2010 There were fewer 12 th grade boys gambling frequently in 2010 than in all previous years There were fewer 12 th grade boys gambling frequently in 2010 than in all previous years

34 Gambling Weekly/Daily by 9 th Grade Girls by Game

35 9th Grade Girls Frequent Gambling Trends from 1992 to 2010 Declines in cards, sports betting and casino gambling from 2004 to 2010 Declines in cards, sports betting and casino gambling from 2004 to 2010 No significant change in any game from 2007 to 2010 No significant change in any game from 2007 to 2010 Lottery play showed gradual declines from 1992 to 2010 and has been cut by more than half from 5% to 2% Lottery play showed gradual declines from 1992 to 2010 and has been cut by more than half from 5% to 2% Casino gambling has been fairly stable around 1% from 1998 to 2010 Casino gambling has been fairly stable around 1% from 1998 to 2010 There were fewer 9 th grade girls gambling frequently in 2010 (6%) than in 1992 (14%) There were fewer 9 th grade girls gambling frequently in 2010 (6%) than in 1992 (14%)

36 Gambling Weekly/Daily by 12 th Grade Girls by Game

37 12th Grade Girls Frequent Gambling Trends from 1992 to 2010 Little change in frequent gambling from 2007 to 2010 Little change in frequent gambling from 2007 to 2010 Lottery play peaked in 2001 at 12% and has subsequently declined by half to 6% in 2010 Lottery play peaked in 2001 at 12% and has subsequently declined by half to 6% in 2010 Most games were stable from 2007 to 2010 except casino gambling which decreased from 4.3% in 2007 to 3.4% in 2010 Most games were stable from 2007 to 2010 except casino gambling which decreased from 4.3% in 2007 to 3.4% in 2010 There were fewer girls gambling frequently in 2010 (9%) than in 1992 (13%) There were fewer girls gambling frequently in 2010 (9%) than in 1992 (13%)

38 Trends in Frequent Gambling Frequent gambling is engaged in by a small percentage of youth, and it has been fairly stable from 1992 to 2010 with a couple exceptions: Frequent gambling is engaged in by a small percentage of youth, and it has been fairly stable from 1992 to 2010 with a couple exceptions: (1) A peak in lottery play in 1998 by 12 th grade boys and a peak in 2001 for 12 th grade girls (1) A peak in lottery play in 1998 by 12 th grade boys and a peak in 2001 for 12 th grade girls (2) Card playing has declined significantly from 2001 to 2010 (2) Card playing has declined significantly from 2001 to 2010

39 Why are fewer AI youth gambling? Your guess? Your guess? Novelty of gambling may have worn off Novelty of gambling may have worn off Prevention efforts have been effective Prevention efforts have been effective Youth may be spending their time and money on other activities Youth may be spending their time and money on other activities Downturn in the economy; youth have less spending money Downturn in the economy; youth have less spending money

40 Trends in Underage Lottery and Casino Gambling by Gender

41 Trends in Underage Lottery and Casino Gambling High rates of underage lottery play by boys and girls starting in 1992 with consistent declines from 1992 to 2010 Boys underage casino gambling showed consistent modest declines from 1998 to 2010 Girls underage casino gambling is relatively uncommon and has been fairly stable at about 2- 4% from 1998 to 2007 Underage online gambling has shown declines from 2007 to 2010 for both boys and girls

42 Changes from 1992 to 2010 The percentage of 9 th and 12 th grade boys playing cards frequently, was cut in half from 2004 to 2010 The percentage of 9 th and 12 th grade boys playing cards frequently, was cut in half from 2004 to th grade girls also showed a drop by half from 2004 to 2010 and 12 th grade girls were stable at 3% in 2004, 2007 and th grade girls also showed a drop by half from 2004 to 2010 and 12 th grade girls were stable at 3% in 2004, 2007 and 2010 This data bears out the decline in the popularity of poker This data bears out the decline in the popularity of poker Significant reductions in underage lottery play and casino gambling Significant reductions in underage lottery play and casino gambling

43 Concerns Identified in this Study First, there is a small but substantial segment of the AI youth population (7% of girls and 20% of boys) that are frequent gamblers Second, AI youth have higher rates of frequent gambling than their non-AI peers, particularly for girls Third, underage AI youth report playing the lottery, gambling in casinos and gambling online

44 Recommendations Youth gamble, so we need to teach them that if they choose to gamble, they need to follow guidelines about time and money in order to avoid negative consequences of gambling and also about the warning signs of developing problem gambling Youth gamble, so we need to teach them that if they choose to gamble, they need to follow guidelines about time and money in order to avoid negative consequences of gambling and also about the warning signs of developing problem gambling Some youth may only need information to assist them in making informed and healthy decisions about gambling Some youth may only need information to assist them in making informed and healthy decisions about gambling Some youth who are already over-involved in gambling will require more intensive prevention and intervention efforts Some youth who are already over-involved in gambling will require more intensive prevention and intervention efforts Develop and evaluate youth gambling awareness and prevention programs Develop and evaluate youth gambling awareness and prevention programs

45 Future Research Directions Explore validity of underage casino gambling Explore validity of underage casino gambling Explore why AI youth have higher rates of gambling than their non-AI peers Explore why AI youth have higher rates of gambling than their non-AI peers Measure gambling among youth out of the mainstream, that is, youth in alternative learning centers and juvenile detention centers Measure gambling among youth out of the mainstream, that is, youth in alternative learning centers and juvenile detention centers Explore which correlates of gambling may serve as risk and protective factors that will have implications for public awareness and prevention Explore which correlates of gambling may serve as risk and protective factors that will have implications for public awareness and prevention

46 Final Thoughts For most adolescents, informal gambling is an infrequent and harmless pastime. However, the risk exists that informal gambling may develop into problem gambling, and therefore, youths require accurate information about the inherent risks of gambling. The goal is that within the context of easy access to gambling, we will provide resources to youth to assist them in making healthy and informed decisions about their own gambling behavior The goal is that within the context of easy access to gambling, we will provide resources to youth to assist them in making healthy and informed decisions about their own gambling behavior

47 For more information Contact Randy Stinchfield, Ph.D.: References: Stinchfield, R. (2011). Gambling among Minnesota Public School Students from 1992 to 2010: Declines in Youth Gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(1), Stinchfield, R., & Winters, K. C. (2004). Adolescents and young adults. In J. E. Grant & M. N. Potenza (Eds.), Pathological gambling: A clinical guide to treatment (pp ). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Stinchfield, R. (2002). Youth Gambling: How Big a Problem? Psychiatric Annals, 32, Stinchfield, R. (2001). A comparison of gambling among Minnesota public school students in 1992, 1995, and Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, Stinchfield, R. (2000). Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, Stinchfield, R., Cassuto, N., Winters, K., & Latimer, W. (1997). Prevalence of gambling among Minnesota Public School Students in 1992 and Journal of Gambling Studies, 13,


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