Presentation on theme: "Teaching Vocabulary and Ways to Retain It"— Presentation transcript:
1Teaching Vocabulary and Ways to Retain It Khmelnytskyi National UniversityFebruary 21, 2012Carol A. Haddaway,Sr. English Language Fellow, Ukraine
2“Vocabulary forms the biggest part of the meaning of any language, and vocabulary is the biggest problem for most learners” (McCarthy as cited in Fan. 2003, p. 222).“In communication, vocabulary is often more important then grammar” (Davies, 2000, p.59).Learning new words and how to use them is not a simple matter and can be quite challenging but working with words can and should be enjoyable and fun for learners (Davies, 2000).
3Outline What is Vocabulary A balanced vocabulary program How to teach vocabularySome teaching techniquesVocabulary development strategiesAcademic words
4What is Vocabulary?Words/items (mother-in-law, post office, ice cream)Word families (base words and their derived forms) child, children, childhood, childish; teach, teacher, teaching, taughtPhrasal verbstake away, put on, figure out, look up, pick upCollocationdigital photograph, hot summerIdiomscall it a day, hot under the collar, cold shoulder, hit the road running, piece of cakeCan you think of 5 or 6 further examples of vocabulary items, in any language you know, that consist of more than one word?
5Layers of Word Knowledge What does it mean to “Know” a word ?Layers of Word KnowledgeExamplesMeaningDenotationConnotationDegree (“strength” of a word)Dictionary e.g. dog - domestic animal‘dog’ – to British or Arabic peopleThe conflict annihilated /destroyed/damaged. the city.CollocationFixed phrases (“word partners”)forth and back; tall, handsome, and darkGrammar, Spelling (look)Pronunciation (sound)VerbsNounsAdj. or verbs with prepositionsThink, thoughtMouse, mice, information, adviceResponsible for, remind someone ofWord PartsPrefixes/suffixes – sub, un, ableSubstandard, ungratefulAppropriate FormsFormal/informalDirect/euphemisticWeep or cry, variant/variety, dinnerI heard that your uncle died/passed away
6What Vocabulary Should We Teach? What's in a Word? The Importance of Vocabulary and Some Ways to Teach ItWhat Vocabulary Should We Teach?Vocabulary Items that are:Frequent (West General Service List – first head words of English)Important (Academic Word List – 570 word families)Needed for Classroom Tasks & ActivitiesRegular (common patterns or features)Easy to learn (cognates)Must consider level & needs/interests of learnersMust answer students’ vocabulary questions(Richards, Nation, Genesee)Crandall & Bickel, UMBC
7How Should We Divide Our Time in Teaching Vocabulary? Teach each of these for about the same amount (25%) of time:(Nunan, Online course on Teaching Vocabulary
8Learning from Input (L, R) The content has a message that students want to focus on.listening to a story, having a conversation, following instructions, extensive reading, watching TVThe man and the mango tree
9Learning from Output (S, W) Opportunity to use the wordsRepetitionAttention to vocabulary, accuracy, and appropriateness.Focus on communicating messagesSay/shout the word first- Playing Cards
10Playing Cards - Output Forum Vol 48/4 2010, p. 28 Turn the card over and the first player to say/shout the corresponding word collects that cardPlaying Cards - Output Forum Vol 48/4 2010, p. 28
11Language-Focused (Deliberate) Learning Looking for patterns, dictionary workVocabulary strategiesWord cardsIntensive readingFocus on vocabulary and aspects of grammar and discourse features, while learner get to practice language-learning strategies.
12Fluency (speed + skill) All 4 skillsUse known words & grammarEncourage lots of useTime pressure to perform fasterFocus on communicating a message as they'd have to in real life,Tell Dice game4/3/2
13Vocabulary Dice Game – fluency Sit in groups of 4Role the dice. The highest number startsTake turns asking each other questions. e.g. you roll 6, the person to your left says, “tell me 6 things about yourself” Then person who asked the question rolls the dice and continues like this.Vocabulary Dice Game – fluency
14Vocab Dice Game - examples English words1 thing about yourself2 things about your family3 things about your best friend4 things about your hobbies5 things you wish you had6 of your favorite movies4 things about money, food, restaurants, things you like to doAdjectives that describe youYour favorite websiteReasons why you like FacebookHow you plan to make moneyFavorite childhood memoriesWhat are you good at
15How Should We Teach Vocabulary? What's in a Word? The Importance of Vocabulary and Some Ways to Teach ItHow Should We Teach Vocabulary?Focus on important wordsGeneral Service List, Academic Word ListGive simple, clear explanations & translation as neededUse concept-checking questions to check meaningProvide repetition over timeCrandall & Bickel, UMBC
16Teaching Problem (1)Teacher: The new word is important. The stress is on the second syllable. OK, repeat – importantSilenceLearner: What means?Teacher: OK – just repeat – importantappraisal(Thaine, 2010)
17Teaching Problem (2)Teacher: OK, our 12th new word for today: who knows what we call someone whose job it is to take care of a building?
18Teaching Problem (3)Teacher: So here on the board is the new word I’ve written up – wallet. So what does it mean?leverageThe player's popularity has given him a great deal of leverage with the owners of the team.
19Teaching Problem (4)Teacher: Right, the word is jump. For example: He likes to jump.FoliageThe foliage was think and I couldn’t see the sun.
20Teaching Problem (5)‘Sissors’. Does everyone understand the meaning of this word?(Silence)Teacher: Do you understand? Anya?Learner: Yes.peripheral
22Identifying words we know The Universal Declaration of Human RightsIdentifying words we know
23Lexical Sets A cluster or group of related words Words can be related in several waysBy topic: furniture, clothes, family relationshipsIn pairs – opposites: hot/cold, old/newIn pairs – synonyms: slip/slide, booklet/brochureBy superordinate: FRUITHyponym of FRUIT: orange, apple, banana, kiwiWord families: paint, painter, painting
30piece of cake brainstorm Idiomspiece of cakebrainstorm
31Why are lexical sets important? We probably don’t store words in our brain in alphabetical order like a dictionary does.Memory: We apparently store words in or brain in groups of related words (or lexical sets)If a new word can be “hooked’ to words which are already stored, it might be easier to remember it
32Word Associations Cough Grass Red Salt Puppy coffee Blue Pepper Tea KittenSneezeGreenConnect the matching words
33Collocations – words that co-occur with high frequency GrammaticalReason forAccount forRely onBy accidentIn retrospectLexicalSpend moneyInflict a woundDense fogDeeply absorbedDead fatigued?Thematically relatedGrammatical collocation are those in which a noun, verb, or adjective co-occurs with a grammatical item (preposition).Lexical collocation do not contain grammatical words. Consist of full lexical items i.e. nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs.
35Extensive ((joyful) reading Read constantly! The more you see new words used in context, the more you will be able to recognize, spell and use them.Is one way to become familiar with low- frequency words
36Using ContextTo guess words in context, one must know 95% of the words in the text, i.e. 19 out of 20 words.Knowing 98% (one unknown word in 50) is considered an “independent reading level”Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present.(Laufer, 1989; Nation & Waring, 1997)We can’t assume that context will always be helpful. In order for readers to be able to guess words in context:One must know 95% of the words in the text3; that is, 19 out of 20 words. Even this percentage of knowledge can cause difficulty; in fact, 98% (one unknown word in 50) is considered an “independent reading level.”Research shows that incorrect guesses are more frequent than correct ones, and that the most common way people deal with unfamiliar words in reading is by ignoring them.We must be aware of both the limitations of context and also the characteristics of helpful context clues.Tip-offs from the Text – p ?36
37Prefixes and Root words Many academic words have Latin or Greek roots so if you understand the prefix and root meaning, you can often guess the word meaning.For example:Sub = underMarine = waterSubmarine = a boat that can dive under the oceanWord Building
38Selective Dictionary Use Do I need the word? Can I understand the text without it? Is it a word I may find valuable later?Does the context help?Do the word parts help?Does it help to pronounce it? Does it sound like a word that I know?
39Academic VocabularyAcademic vocabulary must be taught simply because it does not occur in daily interactions and conversational exchangesAcademic Word List (most frequent university academic words across several disciplines)t/
40Practice with Academic Words AccurateAttachAnalyzeConcludeReluctantDefineDisplayEconomyEmphasisEstimateInjurePredictRationalRelaxRelevantFind your matchCan you think of informal equivalents for any of these?Academic words will sometimes look familiar to ss. . .the trick is for you to learn to USE them. . . (multiple meanings, many forms, etc.)See WK pp for more practice. Instead of the post card being about a vacation (p. 111), have it be about (? A recent exam; a day of school; and have it be an .
42Convincing students to be independent learners, responsible for their own vocabulary learning represents the single most effective teaching strategy.(Hinkle, Tesol 2009)
43VOCABULARY WEBSITES Vocabulary Activities Learning vocabulary can be fun200 vocabulary exercisesInteractive vocabulary gamesInteractive puzzlesDictionary.com
44VOCABULARY ACTIVITIES Vocabulary quizzes/activities Interactive vocabulary matching exercises Vocabulary and grammar activities Vocabulary and other activities for young learners Vocabulary website from Ohio University
45Word Lists & Frequency Lists General Service Word List (most frequent words)Academic Word List (most frequent university academic words across several disciplines)(Coxhead’s Academic Word List)
46RefererencesCrandall, J. & Bickel, B. What’s in a Word? The Importance of Vocabulary & Some Ways to Teach It presentation (UMBC)Davies, P. & Pearse, E. (2006). Success in English Teaching. Oxford.Decarrico, J.S. (2001) Vocabulary Learning and Teaching. In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, 3rd ed., edited by M. Celce- Murcia. Heinle.Hinkle, E. Teaching Academic Vocabulary and Helping Students Retain It. TESOL 2009, Denver, CO.Nation, P. (2005). Teaching Vocabulary. Asian ELT JournalNunan, D. (2003). Practical English Language Teaching. McGraw Hill.Thaine, C. (2010). Teacher Training Essentials. CambridgeZimmerman, C. (2009). Word Knowledge. Oxford.Zimmerman, C. (2011). Academic Vocabulary and School Success presented at the 2011 TESOL Academy.