Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Scientific Method: REVIEW:Observation and Data"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Scientific Method: REVIEW:Observation and Data Honors BiologyMs. Kim
2Observation: using your 5 senses to collect information Data: scientific informationInference: a logical conclusion or assumption based on your observations
3Example… Your cell phone is ringing in class What is an observation? I hear a ringing sound.I see the phone light up.What is an inference?Someone is calling me.
4DATA2 TYPES:Quantitative: includes observations or data that involves numbers (#’s), amounts or quantitiesQualitative: includes observations that DO NOT involve numbers; Observations or data that is descriptive.
6**(Initial) Observation : use your 5 senses What are the steps?**(Initial) Observation : use your 5 senses1. State the problem or question:●What are you trying to solve or research?2. Form your hypothesis:an educated or logical prediction to answer your problem question; use your prior knowledgeNot just a “guess”IT MUST BE TESTABLE!!!“If…then…because” statement3. Plan your experiment:●decide your procedure, control, variables & materials
74. Perform your experiment: 5. Analyze your data (Results): Collect data (both qualitative and quantitative)5. Analyze your data (Results):Make sense of your dataput it in LINE graphs/charts/table, etc.6. Conclusion:Sum up your findings (data)Restate your hypothesis and state whether it is supported or not supported based on your resultsCITE your quantitative and/or qualitative data!!! EXPLAIN your numerical data.State and EXPLAIN any experimental error(s) (called error analysis)
8Hypothesis Example:What will happen to Derrick Rose’s shooting points during a Bulls game if he drank Gatorade everyday for 3 months?IF Derrick Rose drank Gatorade everyday for 3 months, THEN Derrick Rose will score more shooting points BECAUSE the Gatorade will provide him energy and help his endurance last longer.
9A Controlled Experiment Experiment = process to collect dataThere are 2 groups in an experiment:Experimental (or test) groupControl group
10Experimental vs. Control Groups Experimental (Test) GroupControl Group1 variable (thing) changes or is testedComparison groupNo changes“Normal” conditions
11+ Example: HOW WILL FERTILIZER AFFECT PLANT GROWTH? WITH FERTILIZER WITHOUT FERTILIZER(plants normally don’t have fertilizer)>>>>ONLY CHANGE (test) 1 VARIABLE (thing): THE PRESENCE OF FERTILZERConditions (or standard variables) that NEED to remainthe same for a controlled experiment:AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT,SOIL,TYPE OF POT,TEMPERATURE,SPECIES OF PLANTTEST GROUP++CONTROL GROUP
12GOING BACK TO DERRICK ROSE: What will happen to Derrick Rose’s shooting points during a Bulls game if he drank Gatorade everyday for 3 months?Experimental group: Derrick Rose drinking Gatorade.Control group: Derrick Rose not drinking Gatorade.
13Independent Variable Dependent Variable A controlled experiment will have 2 different variables:Independent variable (“If….then…)Dependent variable (If…then…)Independent VariableDependent VariableThe thing (variable) that CHANGES in the experiment.Ask “What variable changed in the experimental group?“WHAT ARE YOU TESTING or CHANGING?”Goes on x-axisThe measured outcome in the experiment.Ask “What is being measured?”Goes on y-axis
14+ + Independent variable: WHAT ARE YOU TESTING? Fertilizer Example: HOW WILL FERTILIZER AFFECT PLANT GROWTH?WITH FERTILIZER WITHOUT FERTILIZER(plants normally don’t have fertilizer)Independent variable: WHAT ARE YOU TESTING?FertilizerDependent variable: WHAT ARE YOU MEASURING?Plant GrowthTEST GROUP++CONTROL GROUP
15GOING BACK TO DERRICK ROSE’S EXAMPLE: The independent, or manipulated variable, is (what are you testing?)*Ex: The amount of Gatorade Derrick Rose drinks.The dependent, or responding variable, is (what are we measuring/what’s the result?).*Ex: Shooting points Derrick Rose will score during a game.
16X- Axis = Independent variable If time is present, it is usually ALWAYS goes on the x-axis (independent variable)Y- Axis = Dependent variable
17T.A.I.L.S for graphs T = Title is present A = Correctly label x/y-axes (with label & units)I = Use consistent intervals on axesL = Label a key (if applicable)S = Size (BIG graphs/use entire graph paper)
18Now let’s practice with Spongebob… Which people are in the control group? What is the independent variable? Patty Power Mr. Krabbs wants to make Bikini Bottoms a nicer place to live. He has created a new sauce that he thinks will reduce the production of body gas associated with eating crabby patties from the Krusty Krab. He recruits 100 customers with a history of gas problems. He has 50 of them (Group A) eat crabby patties with the new sauce. The other 50 (Group B) eat crabby patties with sauce that looks just like new sauce but is really just mixture of mayonnaise and food coloring. Both groups were told that they were getting the sauce that would reduce gas production. Two hours after eating the crabby patties, 30 customers in group A reported having fewer gas problems and 8 customers in group B reported having fewer gas problems.What is the control group?What is the independent variable?What is the dependent variable?Group BNew SauceAmount of gas
20Additional Information… Essential to ALL experiments is:Replication!!!You NEED to consider your number of trialsUse the EXACT same conditions in EACH trialWhy?To determine if the results are consistent this INCREASES our confidence in the resulting dataBUT…A certain amount of variation is NORMAL!Increasing trial # allows us to obtain an AVERAGE RESULT from different trials.
21Additional Information… Essential to ALL experiments is:2) Sample sizeYou NEED to consider your sample size when drawing conclusionsFor example…You are working with plants and decide to plant 2 control plants and 2 test plants.1 test plant and 2 control plants die during the experimentWHAT HAPPENS NOW?
22Additional Information… Essential to ALL experiments is:3) Clear procedureDo NOT use pronouns!Use “directional” languageExample:Place ______ in _____.Fill 20 ml of water in a 50 ml graduated cylinderSomeone MUST be able to REPEAT your procedure over and over to produce similar results!!
23Theory vs. HypothesisScientists test hypotheses MANY times in different ways! (i.e.- w/ new research tools, equipment, etc)Many “types” of knowing…science-based knowledge based on careful, repeated observations/testable hypotheses.THEORY = a well-tested explanation that is supported by A LOT of evidence (data)Much broader than a hypothesis
24Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning INDUCTIVE REASONING:Derives general principles from specific observationsEx: All organisms are made of cells – based on years of findings from biologistsDEDUCTIVE REASONING:Reasoning flows from general to specificEx: If all organisms are made of cells, and humans are organisms, then humans are made of cells.