3 The Best Intentions Revitalize Europe after World War II Strength in Unity vs. Warsaw PactFix broken economiesPromote DialogueIntegrate & CooperateTo this end:Council of Europe, 1949European Coal & Steel Community, 1951 (Treaty of Paris)Basis for Euro Community…
4 Evolution: European Community (EC) Established by Treaty of Rome, 1957Benelux + Fr, Ge, Italy3 Pillars:European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (aka “Common Market”)European Economic Community (EEC)European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom). The only remaining structure.
5 Evolution: European Communities Main Concerns of Euro CommunityPeaceTrade & elimination of tariffsTravelNational sovereigntyExpansionTransitions from communism to capitalism
6 Evolution: EC → EU Maastricht Treaty, 1993. Absorbed the EC. Authority in new areas: monetary policy, foreign affairs, national security, transportation, the environment, justice, and tourismEstablished a 3-pillars of authority:Trade and other economic matters (one currency & creation of European Central Bank). 17 members use Euro. So does Vatican, Monaco and 3 others.Justice & home affairs (policy governing asylum, border crossing, immigration, & judicial cooperation on crime and terrorism)Common foreign and security policy (common defense policy, joint positions and actions)
7 Evolution: Membership History Began w/ 6: Benelux + France, Germany, ItalyDenmark, UK, and Ireland joined in early 1970sGreece in 1981Portugal and Spain in 1986Austria, Finland, Sweden in 199510 Countries joined in 2004: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and SlovakiaBulgaria and Romania in 2006The combined population of all 27 members is 510,000,000Organization and diversity makes consensus hard
10 5 Main Bodies European Commission (EC)—EXEC Council of Ministers—LEG European Parliament—LEGCourt of Justice—JUDCourt of Auditors—Financial Evaluator
11 The European Commission (EC) Executive BodyInitiates all legislation and enforces decisionsEnsures proper implementation of lawsAdministers EU budgetRepresents EU in trade negotiationsScrutinize the implementation of the treaties and legislationAct solely in the interest of the EU as a whole, as opposed to the Council which consists of leaders of member states who reflect national interests. “The only body paid to think European“Implements, monitors, and controls enforcement of EU law and policyCan bring a Member State before the Court of Justice for failure to enforce EU lawBased in Brussels27 Commissioners. 1 is President (Barroso until 2014)Commissioners appointed for 5 years25,000 Euro civil servants
13 Council of Ministers Meets in Brussels Legislative Branch I Legislative authority is divided between Council and EPCouncil and EP required to vote to pass lawBudgetary power (w/EP). 116 bil. euro/yearConsists of one Minister from each Member StateResponsible for making the major policy decisions of EUPower to adopt legislation proposed by CommissionEach Member State acts as President of Council for 6 month rotationMeetings attended by different Ministers accordingto agendaDevelop political cooperation
14 The European Parliament Legislative II736 seats. Proportionate Rep.Directly Elected. 5 year terms.Second largest democratic electorate in the world (India)Can’t initiate legCAN amend and reject legislationCAN request legCAN Veto CommissionCAN censure EC w/ 2/3 majority = resignation of the entire ECEqual legislative and budgetary powers with CouncilAppoint Court of Auditors and the president and executive board of the European Central BankSit in political groups. For a group to be recognized, it needs 25 MEPs from 7 different countriesConsensual. People’s Party-Socialist CoalitionPresident Martin Schulz of Germany. 30 month term began in Jan 2012.
16 The European CouncilComprises the heads of government of Member States and President of Commission assisted by Foreign Ministers of the Member States and a member of CommissionDefines the EU's policy agenda—the motor of EU integrationNo direct legislative power but "supreme political authority"Meets 4 times/yearSorts out disputes between member states and the institutionsPresident of the European CouncilOnce-renewable term of 30 monthsPrimus inter paresHerman Van Rompuy (Belgium). Dec 2009-Present. 2nd termThe President must report to the European Parliament after each European Council meeting
17 All members of Council are members of a political party at national level Most are members of a Euro PartyIdeological alignment does color political agreements and choices of appointments (such as their President)The European CouncilParty#QMVPeople's Party15204Socialists565Liberal Democrat and Reform Party431Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists241Party of the Left1Total27345
18 The Court of JusticeEnsures that the European Treaties are interpreted and implemented in accordance with EU law13 judges appointed by agreement with Member StatesAssisted by 6 advocates generalJudgements overrule those of national courtsPower to fine a Member StateNational courts have power toenforce decisions of Court ofJustice
19 The Court of Auditors Monitors the Union’s financial activities 1 member from each EU member stateAppointed by Council6 yr terms800 auditorsNo judicial functionsFunction: externally check EU budgetIn Luxembourg
21 EU Legal Instruments Binding: Regulations - Apply directly in the Member States w/o requiring any further national legislationDirectives - Binding in substance but up discretion of Member States how to transpose them into national legislation & execute them.Decisions - Addressed to a Member State, firm, or individual.Non Binding:RecommendationsOpinionsResolutions
22 Pop Quiz: Who is the European „President“? a. Herman Van Rompuy - President of the European Council since 12/1/09b. José Manuel Barroso - President of the European Commission since 11/22/04c. Ireland - Presidency of the Council of the European Union 1/1/13 – 7/1/13Anyone?
23 Pop Quiz: Who is the European „President“? Van Rompuy is President of Council. Not of EU. Yet, the press usually cites him as President.Barroso is President of Commission. Not of EU. Yet, the press often cites him as President. Has more power that Van Rompuy. Gets fewer mentions as President.Ireland. Not. Hehe→ Answer: There is no EU President.→Does this matter?No - Presidents are not necessaryYes - most Europeans think there is a President
24 Broadening, Deepning & Legitimizing ...oh, and the economy Challenges of the EUBroadening, Deepning & Legitimizing...oh, and the economy
26 EU Policy Challenges 2009-2019: A Report to the President Economic IssuesDeepening/extending economic reformsReducing unemployment and large gov.Revising financial regulation and supervisionCompleting the Single MarketBalance multilateralism and bilateralism in trade policyCommon Agricultural Policy (CAP)Ageing population and shrinking workforceClimate changeThe future of transport
27 EU Policy Challenges 2009-2019: A Report to the President 3. Cultural IssuesWorld Wide Web-balancing security and privacy + intellectual property Audiovisual and cultural policiesCivil Rights and JusticeMigration policyCrimeSafeguarding diversity and cultures4. The Politics of PolticsInter EU Structural Issues: Good Governnance and Insitution BuildingSecurity & Crisis Mangement^ Turnout in European Elections in 2014 and 2019
28 EU Policy Challenges 2009-2019: A Report to the President 5. Intermestic IssuesStabilization and Reform in the BalkansQuestion of Turkish membershipDeepening the Eastern Partnership without alienating Russia6. Foreign PolicyPromoting Middle East PeaceSeizing the 'Obama moment' to deepen Transatlantic relationsStrengthening Europe's relevance to AsiaDeepening the EU-Latin American partnership
29 It‘s the Economee Stoopid “If EU is to flourish far beyond its 50th birthday, it is its economy that most needs attention“-The Economist „Fit at 50“
31 EuroscepticismFrance followed by the Netherlands rejected EU Constitution in 2006.New members are more enthusiastic than the old onesSkeptcism is strongest in UK, though Eurobarometer polls show dissatisfaction in other EU members as wellNo further expansion
32 Broadening: Eastern Europe? Possible new members: Croatia, Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro-West: „Easterners may sink the boat“
33 Broadening: Turkey? Pro: -USA -extension into southern Caucasus -stabilize pipeline: oil and gas-compatibility of Islam with democracy?Con:-dif. levels of development-religious and ethnic feuds-Cyprus
34 Discussion Structures & Functions? To increase legitimacy? Is it just PR?Broadening vs. Deepening: Focus on deepening and broadening or one of the two?