Presentation on theme: "The European Union I.History & Evolution II.Structures-Functions III.Contemporary Challenges IV.Discussion."— Presentation transcript:
The European Union I.History & Evolution II.Structures-Functions III.Contemporary Challenges IV.Discussion
Evolution of the European Union
The Best Intentions Revitalize Europe after World War II Strength in Unity vs. Warsaw Pact Fix broken economies Promote Dialogue Integrate & Cooperate To this end: –Council of Europe, 1949 –European Coal & Steel Community, 1951 (Treaty of Paris) –Basis for Euro Community…
Evolution: European Community (EC) Established by Treaty of Rome, 1957 –Benelux + Fr, Ge, Italy 3 Pillars: 1.European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (aka Common Market) 2.European Economic Community (EEC) 3.European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom). The only remaining structure.
Evolution: European Communities Main Concerns of Euro Community –Peace –Trade & elimination of tariffs –Travel –National sovereignty –Expansion –Transitions from communism to capitalism
Evolution: EC EU Maastricht Treaty, 1993. Absorbed the EC. Authority in new areas: monetary policy, foreign affairs, national security, transportation, the environment, justice, and tourism Established a 3-pillars of authority: –Trade and other economic matters (one currency & creation of European Central Bank). 17 members use Euro. So does Vatican, Monaco and 3 others. –Justice & home affairs (policy governing asylum, border crossing, immigration, & judicial cooperation on crime and terrorism) –Common foreign and security policy (common defense policy, joint positions and actions)
Evolution: Membership History Began w/ 6: Benelux + France, Germany, Italy Denmark, UK, and Ireland joined in early 1970s Greece in 1981 Portugal and Spain in 1986 Austria, Finland, Sweden in 1995 10 Countries joined in 2004: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia Bulgaria and Romania in 2006 The combined population of all 27 members is 510,000,000 Organization and diversity makes consensus hard
Structures and Functions of the European Union
5 Main Bodies European Commission (EC)EXEC Council of MinistersLEG European ParliamentLEG Court of JusticeJUD Court of AuditorsFinancial Evaluator
The European Commission (EC) Executive Body Initiates all legislation and enforces decisions Ensures proper implementation of laws Administers EU budget Represents EU in trade negotiations Scrutinize the implementation of the treaties and legislation Act solely in the interest of the EU as a whole, as opposed to the Council which consists of leaders of member states who reflect national interests. The only body paid to think European Implements, monitors, and controls enforcement of EU law and policy Can bring a Member State before the Court of Justice for failure to enforce EU law Based in Brussels 27 Commissioners. 1 is President (Barroso until 2014) –Commissioners appointed for 5 years –25,000 Euro civil servants
Council of Ministers Meets in Brussels Legislative Branch I –Legislative authority is divided between Council and EP –Council and EP required to vote to pass law –Budgetary power (w/EP). 116 bil. euro/year Consists of one Minister from each Member State Responsible for making the major policy decisions of EU Power to adopt legislation proposed by Commission Each Member State acts as President of Council for 6 month rotation Meetings attended by different Ministers according to agenda Develop political cooperation
The European Parliament Legislative II 736 seats. Proportionate Rep. Directly Elected. 5 year terms. Second largest democratic electorate in the world (India) Cant initiate leg –CAN amend and reject legislation –CAN request leg –CAN Veto Commission –CAN censure EC w/ 2/3 majority = resignation of the entire EC Equal legislative and budgetary powers with Council Appoint Court of Auditors and the president and executive board of the European Central Bank Sit in political groups. For a group to be recognized, it needs 25 MEPs from 7 different countries Consensual. Peoples Party-Socialist Coalition President Martin Schulz of Germany. 30 month term began in Jan 2012.
The European Council Comprises the heads of government of Member States and President of Commission assisted by Foreign Ministers of the Member States and a member of Commission Defines the EU's policy agendathe motor of EU integration No direct legislative power but "supreme political authority" Meets 4 times/year Sorts out disputes between member states and the institutions President of the European Council –Once-renewable term of 30 months –Primus inter pares –Herman Van Rompuy (Belgium). Dec 2009-Present. 2nd term –The President must report to the European Parliament after each European Council meeting
The European Council Party# QM V People's Party15204 Socialists565 Liberal Democrat and Reform Party431 Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists 241 Party of the Left14 Total27345 All members of Council are members of a political party at national level Most are members of a Euro Party Ideological alignment does color political agreements and choices of appointments (such as their President)
The Court of Justice Ensures that the European Treaties are interpreted and implemented in accordance with EU law 13 judges appointed by agreement with Member States Assisted by 6 advocates general Judgements overrule those of national courts Power to fine a Member State National courts have power to enforce decisions of Court of Justice
The Court of Auditors Monitors the Unions financial activities 1 member from each EU member state –Appointed by Council –6 yr terms –800 auditors No judicial functions Function: externally check EU budget In Luxembourg
EU Legal Instruments Binding: –Regulations - Apply directly in the Member States w/o requiring any further national legislation –Directives - Binding in substance but up discretion of Member States how to transpose them into national legislation & execute them. –Decisions - Addressed to a Member State, firm, or individual. Non Binding: –Recommendations –Opinions –Resolutions
Pop Quiz: Who is the European President? a. Herman Van Rompuy - President of the European Council since 12/1/09 b. José Manuel Barroso - President of the European Commission since 11/22/04 c. Ireland - Presidency of the Council of the European Union 1/1/13 – 7/1/13 Anyone?
Pop Quiz: Who is the European President? a.Van Rompuy is President of Council. Not of EU. Yet, the press usually cites him as President. b.Barroso is President of Commission. Not of EU. Yet, the press often cites him as President. Has more power that Van Rompuy. Gets fewer mentions as President. c.Ireland. Not. Hehe Answer: There is no EU President. Does this matter? No - Presidents are not necessary Yes - most Europeans think there is a President
Challenges of the EU Broadening, Deepning & Legitimizing...oh, and the economy
EU Policy Challenges 2009- 2019: A Report to the President 1.Economic Issues –Deepening/extending economic reforms –Reducing unemployment and large gov. –Revising financial regulation and supervision –Completing the Single Market –Balance multilateralism and bilateralism in trade policy –Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) –Ageing population and shrinking workforce 2.Climate change –The future of transport
EU Policy Challenges 2009- 2019: A Report to the President 3. Cultural Issues –World Wide Web-balancing security and privacy + intellectual property Audiovisual and cultural policies –Civil Rights and Justice –Migration policy –Crime –Safeguarding diversity and cultures 4. The Politics of Poltics –Inter EU Structural Issues: Good Governnance and Insitution Building –Security & Crisis Mangement –^ Turnout in European Elections in 2014 and 2019
EU Policy Challenges 2009- 2019: A Report to the President 5. Intermestic Issues –Stabilization and Reform in the Balkans –Question of Turkish membership –Deepening the Eastern Partnership without alienating Russia 6. Foreign Policy –Promoting Middle East Peace –Seizing the 'Obama moment' to deepen Transatlantic relations –Strengthening Europe's relevance to Asia –Deepening the EU-Latin American partnership
Its the Economee Stoopid If EU is to flourish far beyond its 50th birthday, it is its economy that most needs attention -The Economist Fit at 50
Its the Economee Stoopid
Euroscepticism France followed by the Netherlands rejected EU Constitution in 2006. New members are more enthusiastic than the old ones Skeptcism is strongest in UK, though Eurobarometer polls show dissatisfaction in other EU members as well No further expansion
Broadening: Eastern Europe? –Possible new members: Croatia, Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro -West: Easterners may sink the boat
Broadening: Turkey? Pro: -USA -extension into southern Caucasus -stabilize pipeline: oil and gas -compatibility of Islam with democracy? Con: -dif. levels of development -religious and ethnic feuds -Cyprus
Discussion Structures & Functions? To increase legitimacy? Is it just PR? Broadening vs. Deepening: Focus on deepening and broadening or one of the two?