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11/11/20131 | Tourism and Peace Myths, Realities & Progress Omar Moufakkir Stenden University The Netherlands (31)58244-1301

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Presentation on theme: "11/11/20131 | Tourism and Peace Myths, Realities & Progress Omar Moufakkir Stenden University The Netherlands (31)58244-1301"— Presentation transcript:

1 11/11/20131 | Tourism and Peace Myths, Realities & Progress Omar Moufakkir Stenden University The Netherlands (31)58244-1301 University

2 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 217A (III) of 10 December 1948 11/11/20132 |

3 25 1 Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 11/11/20133 |

4 252 Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. 11/11/20134 |

5 11/11/20135 | Based on enrolment data, about 72 million children of primary school age in the developing world were not in school in 2005; 57 per cent of them were girls. Worldwide 121 million children out of education. 26 1 Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.

6 11/11/20136 | 1.2 billion people live on less than $1 a day 2.5 billion live on less than $2 a day 1.3 billion do not have access to clean water According to UNICEF, 25,000 children die each day due to poverty.

7 11/11/20137 | In US poverty rates in 2007 was 12.5% non-Hispanic Whites (8.2%) Blacks (24.5%) Asians (10.2 %)

8 11/11/20138 | In 2005, the wealthiest 20% of the world accounted for 76.6% of total private consumption. The poorest fifth just 1.5%:

9 No planet can survive half slave, half free, half engulfed in misery, half careening along the joys of an almost unlimited consumption –neither ecology, or our morality could survive such contrasts. Lester B. Pearson, UN General Assembly President 11/11/20139 |

10 The right to development is the measure of the respect of all other human rights. That should be our aim: a situation in which all individuals are enabled to maximize their potential, and to contribute to the evolution of society as a whole. Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General 11/11/201310 |

11 No world can claim to be developed as long as there is a world somewhere in this World that is underdeveloped. 11/11/201311 | content/uploads/2006/12/dubai-towers-dubai.jpg 3.jpg

12 Tourism - The World's Peace Industry Louis D'Amore, 1988 Tourism: The World's Peace Industry? Stephen W. Litvin, 1998 Euphoria Disbelief Skepticism Interest Belief 11/11/201312 |

13 11/11/201313 |

14 Importance of tourism in developing countries International receipts in US $billion 199020002007Growth rate World264474856224% High income countries221352597170% Developing countries43122259506% 11/11/201314 | In 2007, international tourism receipts in developing countries grew to 30% of the world total Principal export sector in one third of the developing countries First source of foreign exchange earnings in most of the 49 LDCs (excluding oil)

15 Developing countries have valuable tourism resources and the tourism activity has a strong potential of geographical expansion including in remote areas The tourism supply chain has a high capacity to support and complement other economic activities, such as traditional agriculture, transport, handicraft Tourism is a labour intensive sector creating many opportunities for youth and women Tourism is a sector where entry barriers for SMEs can be quite low, and that can contribute to development in poor areas Tourism can also have non material benefits like making communities proud of their local culture, and appreciate their natural environment 11/11/201315 | Tourism contributes to development and poverty reduction (WTO)

16 We discovered that peace at any price is no peace at all. We discovered that life at any price has no value whatever; that life is nothing without the privileges, the prides, the rights, the joys which make it worth living, and also worth giving. And we also discovered that there is something more hideous, more atrocious than war or than death; and that is to live in fear. Eve Curie, French author, speaking to the American Booksellers Association, New York, 9 April 1940 11/11/201316 |

17 There is more to peace than money There is more to tourism than money

18 The missing link tourism represents a vital force for peace and a factor of friendship and understanding among the peoples of the world. The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism 11/11/201318 | What is Peace in our globalised world?

19 Participatory Peace Positive Peace Negative Peace Participatory peace: defined as a situation in which ordinary people as world citizens work together for global benefits (Moufakkir) Positive peace: defined as a situation wherein all the states in former conflict are working together for mutual benefit (Galtung) Negative peace: defined as nothing more than the absence of physical violence (seen most often at the onset of a United Nations enforced cease-fire) Hierarchy of Peace Peace is a never-ending story Hot peace Cold peace

20 Peace is reverence for life. Peace is the most precious possession of humanity. Peace is more than the end of armed conflict. Peace is a mode of behavior. Peace is a deep-rooted commitment to the principles of liberty, justice, equality and solidarity among all human beings. Peace is also a harmonious partnership of humankind with the environment. Today, on the eve of the twenty- first century, peace is within our reach. (UNESCO, 1989) 11/11/201320 |

21 11/11/201321 | If there is to be peace in the world, there must be peace in the nations. If there is to be peace in the nations, there must be peace in the cities. If there is to be peace in the cities, there must be peace between neighbors. If there is to be peace between neighbors, there must be peace in the home. If there is to be peace in the home, there must be peace in the heart. by Lao-Tse, 604 BC (from Tao Te Ching)

22 11/11/201322 | Peace is not the product of a victory or a command. It has no finishing line, no final deadline, no fixed definition of achievement. Peace is a never-ending process, the work of many decisions. Oscar Arias, Former President of Costa Rica and 1987 Nobel Peace Laureate Peace - the word evokes the simplest and most cherished dream of humanity. Peace is, and has always been, the ultimate human aspiration. And yet our history overwhelmingly shows that while we speak incessantly of peace, our actions tell a very different story. Javier Perez de Cuellar

23 Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed (Constitution of UNESCO, 1945, Preamble) We need to teach for peace and not just about peace Peace Education

24 11/11/201324 | Established in 2005 as an initiative by the Israel hotel managers association and sponsored by the Peres Center for peace Creation of the forum aims to advance peace through tourism by strengthening dialogue and ties in the region

25 T4P Mission Offering advanced solutions to mutual challenges and development of activities to strengthen economies and peaceful advancement in the region. Working toward facilitating border crossings and obtaining freedom of movement of tourists and tourism professionals in the area, through lobbying and conducting meetings with relevant authorities in the region. 11/11/201325 |

26 11/11/201326 | No borders, no boundaries, no animosity; just beautiful cultural experiences Rafi Baeri, VP Marketing and Sales Dan Hotels Corp. (Israel) Raed S. Saadeh, President, Arab (Palestinian) Hotel Association Tourism has no borders Elhamy ElZayat, Chairman and CEO EMECO Travel (Egypt) The most important thing about peace is hope Chairman of the Board, Jordan Hotel Association Tourism is key to improving relations with other

27 11/11/201327 | Janos Damon, Executive Director, Israel Hotel Managers Association (Israel) Tourism is hospitality, welcoming strangers, getting to know people, developing friendships It is very appropriate that the forum begin its conference in an area known for its commitment to peace with the well known The Hague Peace conference beginnings in the 1890s Klaas Wybo van der Hoek, Vice President Stenden University (Netherlands)

28 Joint marketing! Joint training Border crossing! Destination image studies 11/11/201328 | The working groups reports

29 International Centre for Peace Through Tourism Research Mission Statement We will work towards building bridges out of the walls that keep us apart We will promote analysis and initiatives that support peace through tourism, by means of research results dissemination and knowledge sharing with the academic community, government, NGOs, and the tourism and hospitality private sectors, and related tourism stakeholders. We will encourage debate about the place of tourism within peace and conflict studies, and participate in national and international networks that work on issues related to conflict management 11/11/201329 |

30 Academic research projects Role of tour guides in promoting peace between Israelis and Palestinians Social tourism and racialized boundaries in domestic tourism Ethics and demand for ethical tourism Interplay of immigration, stereotypes and tourism destination visitation 11/11/201330 |

31 Descriptors of Turks living in Germany 11/11/201331 |

32 Descriptors of the Turks living in Turkey 11/11/201332 |

33 Image that the Dutch have of the Moroccan community living in the Netherlands Create problems Are criminals Are associated with crime Create unsafe atmosphere Do not respect Dutch law Are fundamentalists Are discriminated Are negatively portrayed by media They are too many in Holland 75% 55% 85% 70% 67% 82% 84% 70%

34 Image that the Dutch have of the country Morocco Are associated with violence Very attached to their traditions Very attached to their religion Are fundamentalists Are negatively portrayed in media Are economically poor 67% 91% 80% 69% 72% 87% Women are oppressed by men Women are oppressed by religion Women must wear the hijab 85% 82% 76%

35 11/11/201335 |

36 I heard the bad Turks are here and the good ones are over there I think the bad Moroccans are here and the worst ones are over there!!

37 Familiarity with ethics in tourism South Africa Germany Switzerland Netherlands

38 Journal of Tourism and Peace Research The main aim is to provide a peer-reviewed forum for the study and discussion of tourism and peace issues in tourism and tourism-related areas of leisure, recreation and hospitality studies 11/11/201338 |

39 BooK: Tourism, Progress and Peace Tourism has the potential to contribute to world peace. This is the most complex and yet basic idea that we are trying to promote and empirically verify Submissions should demonstrate how tourism can make a positive contribution to the objective of harmonious interpersonal and intercultural relationships 11/11/201339 |

40 Themes coveredCountry Tourism and perception change: US and MexicoMexico Tourism that erases bordersBosnia Tourism and human rightsAustralia Palestine and responsible tourismPalestinian Territories Settlement of the Cyprus conflictCyprus Peace and tourism contextsIreland Intercultural understandingCroatia South Korea and North KoreaSouth Korea Heritage, cooperation, and reconciliationAustralia, Uganda Encounter between Egyptian and Israeli in SinaiIsrael Borders as tourism attractionsIsrael Role of progress for peaceful coexistanceIndia Culture and impacts on developing countriesNetherlands Ethics in TourismNetherlands Sport tourism as a peace-building toolUS Peace eco-tours and peace trailsUS Weaving a culture of peaceUS 11/11/2013 40 |

41 IIPT Credo of the Peaceful Traveller Grateful for the opportunity to travel and experience the world and because peace begins with the individual, I affirm my personal responsibility and commitment to: · Journey with an open mind and gentle heart · Accept with grace and gratitude the diversity I encounter · Revere and protect the natural environment which sustains all life · Appreciate all cultures I discover · Respect and thank my host for their welcome · Offer my hand in friendship to everyone I meet · Support travel services that share these views and act upon them and · By my spirit, words and actions, encourage others to travel the world in peace. html 11/11/201341 |

42 11/11/201342 | Our peacelessness is multifaceted It is rather socio-cultural We are fighting against poverty We are fighting against terror We are fighting against environmental disasters We are fighting against racism We are fighting against orthodoxy/fundamentalism We are fighting against alienation We are fighting against discrimination We are fighting against prejudice We are fighting against ignorance We are fighting against bigotry and hatred

43 There is no such thing as peace through tourism per se. Undoubtedly, tourism can be a vehicle for peace, but education for peace starts at home. Our peacelessness is the result of inequality in the world. This inequality is a result of ignorance, greed and failed policies. Thinking about peacelessness is what takes us further away from the animal kingdom. Accepting this peacelessness is what brings us closer to animals. Surely, there is the animal in the human, but which of these is closer to humanity remains to be explained. 11/11/201343 |

44 11/11/201344 | Peace through Tourism Poverty Integration ? Global warming Prejudice Democracy Conflict Inequality Political tourism Boycott Buycott Pro-poor T Volunteer T Philanthropic C-B T Social T Domestic T Heritage T Cultural T Tourism Education Education for peace Sustainable T T tourism ethics Cross-cultural understanding Quality encounters Reconciliation T Peace parks Places of Peace Circle of peacelessness and peace through tourism

45 11/11/201345 | Today, the question is not whether tourism is good or bad; whether it is a generator of peace or simply the beneficiary of peace Today, the question is: How can we use tourism to benefit the multifaceted nature of peace?

46 Thank You May tourism and education for peace be with you. 11/11/201346 |

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