Presentation on theme: "How to Conduct a Research Interview"— Presentation transcript:
1How to Conduct a Research Interview CBR 105:How to Conduct a Research Interview
2ObjectivesUpon completion of this workshop participants will be able to:List the key principles associated with CBRRecognize cultural considerations critical to CBR interviewingDescribe the interview planning processDifferentiate b/w qualitative and quantitative interviewsDesign quantitative and qualitative interview guidesApply good listening skills and best practices for good interviewing practices.2
3AgendaUnique qualities of CBR research; culturally sensitive interviewingInterview planning processChoosing between quantitative and qualitative interviewing; preparing the questionsListening skillsMock interviewsThinking through potential issues
4Introductions and Opening Activity This workshop is about interviewing, we will get to know each other by interviewing one anotherIn 1 minute jot down a few questions to ask your partnerThen, you will each have 2 minutes to interview your partnerAfter the interviews are completed, everyone will take a turn introducing their partner to the group
5Debriefing the Activity What did you notice about what types of questions people asked?How did you decide what questions to ask your partner?Which questions were most helpful to us as a group in getting to know each other?How did it feel to be interviewed? What worked and what didn’t (aside from the lack of time)?What can we learn about interviewing for research from this exercise?Discuss the following as a large group and record ideas on flip chart:What did you notice about what types of questions people asked?How did you decide what questions to ask your partner?Which questions were most helpful to us as a group in getting to know each other?How did it feel to be interviewed? What worked and what didn’t (aside from the lack of time)?What can we learn about interviewing for CBR from this exercise?
61. Interviewing for CBRWhat do you think is unique about interviewing for CBR?How do we define CBR?
7Definition of CBRCBR is a: “...collaborative approach to research that equitably involves all partners in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each brings. CBPR begins with a research topic of importance to the community with the aim of combining knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and eliminate health disparities” (W. K. Kellogg Community Health Scholars Program , as cited in Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003)
8Principles of CBRJust to remind you of what CBR is….but I know that you remember it entirely from other workshops…
9Considerations for Cross-cultural Interviewing Common problems associated with cross-cultural interviewing include:Researchers making false assumptionsResearchers perceiving difference as oddThis can misdirect:The research interviewThe nature of the dataThe interpretations
10Insider / Outsider Issues When an interviewer and interviewee do not share a common frame of reference there can be issues of:Physical accessSocial access (how much the interviewee shares)Meaning-makingThese issues can exist even when the interviewer is an ‘insider’. (Shah, 2003)**EXAMPLES???**
11Tips for Culturally Sensitive Interviewing Provide cultural sensitivity training for researchers on the interviewees’ beliefs, values, behaviors, and communication styles (Schaller, Parker, and Garcia, 1998).Involve community members as much as possible in the interviewing process to ensure relevant questions and approaches (Padilla and Lindhom, 1995).When possible, match the researchers to participants from a cultural perspective and form cross-cultural research terms (Shah, 2003).
12Watch out for stereotypes! Exercise 1Working in small groups describe the communities you each work withPick one community and make a list of beliefs, behaviours, and communication styles characteristic of the group that would be helpful for interviewers to know aboutBe prepared to present your results to the groupWatch out for stereotypes!
132. Interview Planning Process Determining a focus.What do you want to know about? Why?What have others done?How much time/resources do you have?How will you reach potential participants?What permission(s) do you need?
14What is Your Focus? Why do you want to study what you want to study? What is your rationale?What do you want your research to achieve?What are the ‘research goals’?
15What have Others Done?How have others asked similar types of questions? (check the literature, colleagues, peers)Can you use or adapt a pre-existing instrument to meet your needs?15
16How Much Time and Resources do You Have? Time-line, deadlinesResources:Dollars# and type of interviewers, training and supportHonoraria for participants, peer interviewersSpaceTaping, tapes and transcriptionSoftware, computer for analysisTranslation/interpretation
17How Will You Reach Potential Participants? Would in-person interviews be best or would phone or work better?Is a mailed questionnaire possible or necessary?If in-person, where would be safe and private? Could you find a room/space close by?What style of interaction will be most effective?
18Permissions Community protocol around interviewing What doesn’t this group like? What might they react to?Agency protocolED, Board, research committee requirementsFunder Protocol: what do they ask for?
19Permissions Research ethics board (REB) Formal ethics proposal Has to be done well before the interviews startNeed to submit copies of your interview guides19
203. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Interviews What is the difference betweenqualitative and quantitative interviews?
21Quantitative Interview Closed questionsAiming for clear answers (that can be quantified)Often focused on the descriptors/variables and their relationshipe.g. Number of days in hospital
22The ChecklistPlease select all of the ice cream flavours that you have eaten in the last month?ChocolateVanillaStrawberryBananaOther: __________ (please specify)
23RankingOrder the following ice cream flavours by preference (where 1=your favourite & 4 = your least favourite)?Chocolate ___Vanilla ___Strawberry ___Banana ___
24Likert ScalePlease rate the degree to which you agree/disagree with the following statements:1) Ice cream is my favourite dessert.Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree2) Ice cream is a healthy dessert option.
25Qualitative interviews In-depth (an hour +)Personal, challenging and time-consumingRelatively few questions, often open endedStructured, semi-structured, or unstructured.A way of finding out what others feel, experience, understandOften taped and transcribed
26Sample Qualitative Interview Guide Introduction, thank you’s, confidentiality, tapingWhy are you participating in this research study?Please describe what kinds of supports and services you’ve used in the past?If someone were to ask you to explain cognitive therapy, what would you say?Could you describe any turning points or key moments in the process?What is an image or symbol to describe your experience of cognitive group therapy ?Is there anything else I should know?
27Tips for Both Types of Interview Guides Keep the number of questions to a reasonable limit so as not to overwhelm.Pilot your guide and test it first.Be open to redesigning the guide if it’s not working.Consider social desirability bias.
28Exercise 2 – Preparing & Discussing Different Types of Interview Questions In small groups, choose a topic related to one of the interviewee populations you brainstormed characteristics for earlier. Keep in mind cultural sensitivity issues.Team 1: Develop a quantitative interview guide with questions.Team 2: Develop a qualitative interview guide with at least questions.Once completed, regroup, share your questions, and give each other feedback.Volunteers for new interviewers to start us off.Volunteers for new interviewees.Come up to front.Set up the chairs the way you want.Dim the lights if you want, you can bring paper…Try to do an introduction that befits your type of interview.Welcome your participant…Start the questions.Rest of you: team 1: write down some kudos or positive comments about the interviewer is doing.Team 2: write down suggestions for how the interviewer could improve his or her technique and questions.
294. Listening Skills Volunteers for new interviewers to start us off. Volunteers for new interviewees.Come up to front.Set up the chairs the way you want.Dim the lights if you want, you can bring paper…Try to do an introduction that befits your type of interview.Welcome your participant…Start the questions.Rest of you: team 1: write down some kudos or positive comments about the interviewer is doing.Team 2: write down suggestions for how the interviewer could improve his or her technique and questions.
30Acquiring Critical Listening Skills Listening takes up half of all our waking time.Requires effort and skill, but suffers from the effects of a fast paced, impatient, advertising driven ‘Western’ world.Not just ‘hearing’ (physiological): complex psychological, cognitive and cultural dimensions.Includes perception, organization, remembering and responding.Responding is often overlooked, but it will change a dialogue or dynamic.
31Barriers to ListeningObstacles to listening are both external (noise) and internal (preoccupation, prejudgment, lack of effort)Nonlistening:PseudolisteningSelective listeningLiteral listeningAmbushing
32Central Components of Listening Start by being mindful:being present, in the moment and paying close attentionAsk questions .. seek to understandParaphrase and clarify.Goal is understanding.
33Central Components of Listening Enhanced by practice of FELORF=face your speakerE=make eye contact (if appropriate)L=lean inO=stay openR=relax33
34Exercise 3: Partner Activity - Listening Practice Work in groups of 3 (Listener, Talker and Observer)Decide who will listen and who will speak first.The speaker will talk for 2 minutes about something important to him/her.Listener will listen actively and use the techniques we talked about to show he/she is listening.After 2 minutes – listener is to restate the key points back to the talker. Talker validates information/Observer is to share what they noted during the exchangeRotate until each team member has taken on each roleHow did it feel to be the speaker?What did you partner do to let you know you were really being listened to?How did it feel to be the listener?What kinds of obstacles did you face when listening? (prejudgement, ambushing, selective listening)What do you think you have to work on as a listener?
36Exercise 4: Mock Interview Guidelines Interviewers and interviewees stay in character, keeping in mind all skills learned from the daycultural sensitivity issues, listening skillsObservers take note of and be prepared to give feedback on:Verbal and non-verbal communication (FELOR, cultural sensitivity)Quality of interview questionsMock interview guidelinesExplain that they will now get a chance to try out one of their interview guides that they created earlier. Have them get into their prior small groups of four and choose which guide they would like to try out (quantitative or qualitative). They should pick one person from the group who will use the guide to interview someone from another group. (5 min)Ask for volunteers to serve as interviewees for another group (1/group). Explain that interviewees will need to role-play their responses even if they don’t know much about the topic. They should refer to the list of the characteristics of the population they are role-playing and attempt to incorporate these characteristics into their role-play as realistically as possible and without going overboard. The rest of the group should take notes as observers and be prepared to give the interviewer and interviewee feedback. Each mock interview should last about 5-10 minutes. The debrief after each mock interview should last about 5 minutes. Encourage observers to comment on not only the interview interactions but the quality of the questions, thus, applying all learnings from the day. Show slide 43: Debriefing the interviews after each interview. Do half of the groups, then a 5-minute break and then the rest after the break. (15 min/interview + debrief; 95 min)Large group debrief: (10 min)How was this experience for you?What did you learn about interviewing from it?What issues came up and how might they be addressed?
37Exercise 4: Debrief of Interviews Interviewers reflect:How did you feel?What did you do well?What could you have done better?Interviewees reflect:Observers provide feedback and comments on:What was done wellSuggestions for improvementInterviewers respond.Kudos and critiques
39Some Key Issues Others? Breach of confidentiality Misinformation SafetyInappropriate/odd behaviourCompensationOthers?
40ObjectivesHaving completed this workshop participants should now be able to:List the key principles associated with CBRRecognize cultural considerations critical to CBR interviewingDescribe the interview planning processDifferentiate b/w qualitative and quantitative interviewsDesign quantitative and qualitative interview guidesApply good listening skills and best practices for good interviewing practices.
41Workshop Evaluation Your feedback is extremely important! Please complete the workshop evaluation….Thank you!
42How to Conduct a Research Interview CBR 105:How to Conduct a Research Interview