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R/T ( RADIO-TELEPHONY ) THE ART OF UNDERSTANDING AND BEING UNDERSTOOD BY MAESTRO.

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Presentation on theme: "R/T ( RADIO-TELEPHONY ) THE ART OF UNDERSTANDING AND BEING UNDERSTOOD BY MAESTRO."— Presentation transcript:

1 R/T ( RADIO-TELEPHONY ) THE ART OF UNDERSTANDING AND BEING UNDERSTOOD BY MAESTRO

2 DEFINITIONS AERODROME TRAFFIC : ALL TRAFFIC ON THE MANOEUVERING AREA OF AN AERODROME AND ALL AIRCRAFT OPERATING IN THE VICINITY OF AN AERODROME. AIR-GROUND COMMUNICATIONS : 2-WAY COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN AIRCRAFT AND STATIONS ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH AIR TRAFFIC: ALL AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT OR OPERATING ON THE MANOEUVERING AREA OF AN AERODROME.

3 DEFINITIONS BLIND TRANSMISSION : A TRANSMISSION FROM 1 STATION TO ANOTHER IN CIRCUMSTANCES WHERE 2-WAY COMMUNICATION CANNOT BE ESTABLISHED BUT WHERE IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE CALLED STATION IS ABLE TO RECEIVE THE TRANSMISSION. BROADCAST : A TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION RELATING TO AIR INFORMATION THAT IS NOT ADDRESSED TO A SPECIFIC STATION OR STATIONS. VFR FLIGHT : A FLIGHT CONDUCTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.

4 DEFINITIONS VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS : METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF VISIBILITY, DISTANCE FROM CLOUD AND CEILING, EQUAL TO OR BETTER THAN A SPECIFIED MINIMA.

5 COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS AIS : AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICES ATC : AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL ( IN GENERAL ) ETA : ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL ETD : ??? FIR : FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION IFR : INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES VFR : ???

6 COMMONLY USED ABBREVIATIONS IMC : INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS VMC : ??? PAPI : PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR NOTAM : NOTICE TO AIRMAN UTC : CO-ORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME QNH : ALTIMETER SUB-SCALE SETTING TO OBTAIN ELEVATION AMSL WHEN ON THE GROUND AGL : ABOVE GROUND LEVEL AMSL : ABOVE MEAN SEA LEVEL

7 TRANSMITTING TECHNIQUE LISTEN OUT BEFORE TRANSMITTING SEVERE DISTORTION MAY ARISE FROM : - TALKING TOO CLOSE TO THE MIC - LIPS TOUCHING THE MIC - HOLDING THE MIC OR BOOM USE A NORMAL CONVERSATIONAL TONE MAINTAIN AN EVEN RATE OF SPEECH MAINTAIN THE SPEAKING VOLUME AVOID MAKING HESITATION SOUNDS SUCH AS ER….. DEPRESS THE TRANSMIT SWITCH FULLY BEFORE SPEAKING AND DO NOT RELEASE UNTIL THE MESSAGE IS COMPLETED BE AWARE THAT THE MOTHER TONGUE OF THE RECIEVER MAY NOT BE ENGLISH ENSURE THE BUTTON IS RELEASED AFTER TRANSMITTING

8 TRANSMISSION OF LETTERS A ALPHA ALF AH Q QUEBEC KEH BECK B BRAVO BRAH VOH R ROMEO ROH ME OH C CHARLIE CHAR LEE S SIERRA SEEAIRRAH D DELTA DELL TAH T TANGO TANG GO E ECHO ECK OH U UNIFORM YOU NEE FORM F FOXTROT FOKS TROT V VICTOR VIK TAH G GOLF GOLF W WHISKEY WISS KEY H HOTEL HOH TELL X X-RAY ECKS RAY I INDIA IN DEE AH Y YANKEE YANG KEY J JULIET JEW LEE ETT Z ZULU ZOO LOO K KILO KEY LOH L LIMA LEE MAH M MIKE MIKE N NOVEMBER NO VEM BER O OSCAR OSS CAR P PAPA PAH PAH

9 TRANSMISSION OF NUMBERS 0 ZERO 1 WUN 2 TOO 3 TREE 4 FOWER 5 FIFE 6 SIX 7 SEVEN 8 AIT 9 NINER DECIMAL DAYSEEMAL THOUSAND TOUSAND

10 TRANSMISSION OF NUMBERS NUMBER TRANSMITTED PRONOUNCED AS ONE ONE EIGHT WUN WUN AIT DECIMAL EIGHT DAY-SEE-MAL AIT ONE TWO ZERO WUN TOO ZE-RO DECIMAL THREE DAY-SEE-MAL TREE SEVEN SEV-EN N.B. ONLY THE FIRST FIVE FIGURES ARE USED WHEN IDENTIFYING FREQUENCIES SEPARATED BY 25 KHz

11 TRANSMISSION OF TIME TIME TRANSMITTED PRONOUNCED AS 0823 ZERO EIGHT TWO ZE-RO AIT TOO TREE THREE OR TWO THREE 1300 ONE THREE ZERO ZERO WUN TREE ZE-RO ZE-RO 2057 FIVE SEVEN OR TWO FIFE SEV-EN OR TOO ZE-RO ZERO FIVE SEVEN FIFE SEV-EN

12 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING ACKNOWLEDGE LET ME KNOW THAT YOU HAVE RECEIVED AND UNDERSTOOD THIS MESSAGE AFFIRM YES APPROVED PERMISSION FOR PROPOSED ACTION GRANTED

13 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING CANCEL ANNUL THE PREVIOUSLY TRANS- MITTED MESSAGE CHECK EXAMINE A SYSTEM OR PROCEDURE CLEARED AUTHORISED TO PROCEED UNDER THE CONDITIONS SPECIFIED CONFIRM HAVE I CORRECTLY RECEIVED THE FOLLOWING…..? or DID YOU CORRECTLY RECEIVE THIS MESSAGE?

14 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING CONTACT ESTABLISH RADIO CONTACT WITH … CORRECTION AN ERROR HAS BEEN MADE IN THIS TRANSMISSION. THE CORRECT VERSION IS…….. DISREGARD CONSIDER THAT TRANSMISSION AS NOT SENT GO-AHEAD PROCEED WITH YOUR MESSAGE

15 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING HOW DO YOU READ? WHAT IS THE READABILITY OR MY TRANSMISSION? 1 - UNREADABLE 2 - READABLE NOW AND THEN 3 - READABLE BUT WITH DIFFICULTY 4 - READABLE 5 - PERFECTLY READABLE I SAY AGAIN I REPEAT FOR CLARITY OR EMPHASIS

16 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING MONITOR LISTEN OUT ON (FREQUENCY) NEGATIVE NO OR PERMISSION NOT GRANTED OR THAT IS NOT CORRECT READ BACK REPEAT ALL OR THE SPECIFIED PART OF THIS MESSAGE BACK TO ME EXACTLY AS RECEIVED REPORT...…PASS ME THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION

17 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING REQUEST I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW……OR WISH TO OBTAIN ROGER I HAVE RECEIVED ALL YOUR LAST TRANSMISSION. ( NOTE: UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES TO BE USED IN REPLY TO A QUESTION REQUIRING A DIRECT ANSWER IN THE AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE. STANDBY WAIT AND I WILL CALL YOU

18 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES WORD/PHRASE MEANING STANDBY WAIT AND I WILL CALL YOU VERIFY CHECK AND CONFIRM ( WITH ORIGINATOR ) WILCO I UNDERSTAND YOUR MESSAGE AND WILL COMPLY WITH IT ( ABBREVIATION FOR WILL COMPLY)

19 DISTRESS AND URGENCY DISTRESS SIGNAL : A CONDITION OF BEING THREAT- ENED BY SERIOUS AND/OR IMMINENT DANGER AND OF REQUIRING IMMEDIATE ASSIS- TANCE, Frequency : Primary, Then 121.5Mhz URGENCY SIGNAL : A CONDITION CONCERNING THE SAFETY OF AN AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VEHICLE, OR OF SOME PERSON ON BOARD OR WITHIN SIGHT, BUT WHICH DOES NOT REQUIRE IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE, Frequency : Primary

20 DISTRESS AND URGENCY DISTRESS MESSAGE (MAYDAY,MAYDAY,MAYDAY) 1.NAME OF SITUATION ADDRESSED 2.AIRCRAFT CALLSIGN 3.NATURE OF EMERGENCY 4.INTENTION OF PERSON IN COMMAND 5.PRESENT POSITION 6.FLIGHT LEVEL/ALTITUDE 7.HEADING

21 DISTRESS AND URGENCY URGENCY MESSAGE (PAN-PAN, PAN-PAN, PAN-PAN ) 1.NAME OF STATION ADDRESSED 2.AIRCRAFT CALLSIGN 3.NATURE OF URGENCY CONDITION 4.INTENTION OF PERSON IN COMMAND 5.PRESENT POSITION 6.FLIGHT LEVEL/ALTITUDE 7.HEADING 8.ANY OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION

22 YOUTH FLYING CLUB

23 AIRSPACE CONDITIONS OF VFR FLIGHT CONTROLLED AIR SPACEUNCONTROLLED AIR SPACE

24 CONTROLLED AIRSPACE A pilot may fly under Visual Flight Rules in controlled airspace provided he is able to remain- –1.5 km Horizontally; –300m (1000 ft) Vertically away from cloud –In flight visibility- Min 8 km or as dictated by ATC.

25 CONTROLLED AIRSPACE 8km Flight visibility 1.5km 1,000 ft AWAY FROM CLOUD 1,000 ft

26 UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE Outside Controlled Airspace, a pilot may fly under Visual Flight Rules if; >3000ft –1.5 km Horizontally; –1000ft vertically from cloud, –In flight visibility of 8 km. <3000ft –Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface, –In flight visibility of at least 1.5 km.

27 UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE 3,000 ft SAME AS CONTROLLED AIRSPACE CLEAR OF CLOUD IN SIGHT OF THE SURFACE 1.5 km flight visibility

28 Definitions Altitude –The vertical distance of a level, point or object considered as a point, from mean sea level. Height –The vertical distance of a level, point or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified datum.

29 Visual and Pyrotechnic Signals Type of Signal Meaning Aircraft In Flight Aircraft on Ground Steady Green Light Cleared to land Cleared for Take- Off Steady Red Light Give Way to other STOP Aircraft and Continue circling. Series of Flashing Green Lights Return for a Landing Cleared to Taxi Series of Flashing Red Lights Aerodrome Unsafe, Taxi Clear of Landing Area DO NOT LAND in Use Series of Flashing White Lights Land at this Aerodrome Return to Starting Point on and Proceed to the Apron the Aerodrome Red Pyrotechnic Light or Red Flare Do not Land for the time being. CANCELS any previous permission to land

30 Air Traffic Control Regulations Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) –The Singapore AIP provides information on aeronautical facilities, regulations and ground organizations for the safe conduct of Civil Aviation in Singapore. Notams and Supplements –The AIP is supplemented by a service comprising NOTAMS and supplements. –Although NOTAMS are not specific amendments to the AIP, relevant information within the AIP is reflected in the NOTAM. –Temporary information is issued in NOTAMS but will not affect the AIP.

31 Ground-Air Visual Signal Code For Survivors No.MessageSymbol Code 1. Require AssistanceV 2. Require Medical assistanceX 3. No or NegativeN 4. Yes or AffirmativeY 5. Proceeding in this direction

32 General Flight Rules A/C CONVERGING

33 2) On the right In the right A/C WHICH ARE CONVERGING (In the air & on the ground)

34 General Flight Rules A/C APPROACH HEAD-ON (In the air & On the ground) EACH SHALL ALTER COURSE TO THE RIGHT

35 General Flight Rules A/C OVERTAKING (In the air) RIGHT OF WAY OUT OF THE WAY ALTER COURSE TO THE RIGHT ON THE GROUND: ALTER COURSE TO THE LEFT

36 DISPLAY OF LIGHTS BY AIRCRAFT RED 110 DEGREE GREEN 110 DEGREE WHITE 140 DEGREE

37 MAXIMUM AUTHORISED TOTAL WEIGHT 5,700 KG (12,500 LBS) OR LESS 1.GREEN LIGHT 2.RED LIGHT 3.WHITE LIGHT MORE THAN 5,700 KG 1.GREEN LIGHT 2.RED LIGHT 3.WHITE LIGHT 4.ANTI-COLLISION LIGHT

38 LOW FLYING 1,500 ft 2,000 ft

39 LOW FLYING 500 FT AN AIRCRAFT SHALL NOT FLY ANY CLOSER THAN 500 ft TO ANY PERSON,VESSEL, VEHICLE OR STRUCTURE.

40 RIGHT HAND TRAFFIC RULE *An aircraft which is flying in sight of the ground and following a road, railway, canal or coastline or any other land marks, shall keep such line of landmarks on its left.


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