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Voice over IP.

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Presentation on theme: "Voice over IP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Voice over IP

2 IP Networking Overview
Catatan : IP assumes delay and packet ordering problems

3 Delay budget deals with one-way delay, not a round-trip!
Voice Delay with IP One-Way, Mouth-to-Ear Delay Description 1-150 ms Suitable for most delay sensitive applications like voice. ms Still acceptable, but starts to influence voice quality. Communication can be annoying if no actions are taken. 400 ms and greater Unacceptable for most delay sensitive applications. Delay budget deals with one-way delay, not a round-trip! Catatan :

4 Understanding VoIP Catatan :

5 Major VoIP Protocols Catatan : VoIP Protocol Description H.323
ITU standard protocol for interactive conferencing. Evolved from H.320 ISDN standard. Flexible, complex. Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) Emerging standard for Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) gateway control, thin device control. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) IETF protocol for interactive and non-interactive conferencing. Simpler, but less mature, than H.323. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) IETF standard media streaming protocol. Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) Protocol that provides out-of-band control information for an RTP flow. Catatan : Low Latency Queuing (LLQ) Priority queuing technique that uses priority queuing-class-based weighted fair queuing (PQ-CBWFQ).

6 The PBX seizes a trunk line to the router, and forwards dial digits.
Signaling from PBX to the Router Catatan : The PBX seizes a trunk line to the router, and forwards dial digits.

7 Signaling Between Routers
The Dial Plan Mapper reads the dial digits, and finds the address of the remote IP peer. The H.323 agent initiates a Q.931 call to the remote peer. Catatan :

8 Signaling from Router to PBX
The remote H.323 agent seizes a PBX trunk, returns a Q.931 acknowledgment to the origin, and forwards dial digits to the PBX Catatan :

9 VoIP Bandwidth Consumption
Coded Frame Size (bytes) Voice Frames in VoIP Packet IP+UDP+RTP Header Size (bytes) Layer 2 Header Size (bytes) Voice Bandwidth (Kbps) Layer 2 Technology Used Total Bandwidth Required Coding Algorithm G.711 64 160 2 40 Ethernet II 26 90.4 G.711 64 160 2 40 MLPPP 7 82.8 G.711 64 160 2 2 (cRTP) MLPPP 7 67.6 Ethernet II (Cisco Default) G.729 8 20 2 40 26 34.4 G.729 8 20 2 40 MLPPP 7 26.8 Catatan : G.729 8 20 2 2 (cRTP) MLPPP 7 11.6

10 VoIP QoS Building Blocks
Devices Affected IP Network Issue Solutions Backbone speed and scale Backbone routers High-performance routers Packet classification Edge routers IP Precedence Bandwidth management and admission control Edge routers Voice compression Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) header compression Gatekeepers Congestion management Edge routers Backbone routers Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) Catatan : Queue management Edge routers Backbone routers Low Latency Queuing (LLQ) Other queuing techniques

11 RTP Header Compression
RTP Headers are almost always 2 Bytes long when compressed. RTP header compression saves bandwidth by compressing packet headers across WAN links. Catatan :

12 Low Latency Queuing Catatan :

13 Configuring IP Precedence
Precedence Definition 7 Network control 6 Internetwork control 5 Critical 4 Flash-override 3 Flash 2 Immediate 1 Priority 0 Routine Catatan :

14 Example: VoIP over PPP Configuration
Catatan :

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