Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Eighth Edition © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning All rights reserved.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Eighth Edition © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Eighth Edition © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning All rights reserved. Message Appeals and Endorsers CHAPTER 9 INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION

2 1.Appreciate the efforts advertisers undertake to enhance the consumers motivation, opportunity, and ability to process ad messages. 2.Describe the role of endorsers in advertising. 3.Explain the requirements for an effective endorser. 4.Appreciate the factors that enter into the endorser- selection decision. 5.Discuss the role of Q Scores in selecting celebrity endorsers. 6.Describe the role of humor in advertising. 1.Appreciate the efforts advertisers undertake to enhance the consumers motivation, opportunity, and ability to process ad messages. 2.Describe the role of endorsers in advertising. 3.Explain the requirements for an effective endorser. 4.Appreciate the factors that enter into the endorser- selection decision. 5.Discuss the role of Q Scores in selecting celebrity endorsers. 6.Describe the role of humor in advertising. Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter you should be able to: © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–2

3 7.Explain the logic underlying the use of appeals to fear in advertising. 8.Understand the nature of appeals to guilt in advertising. 9.Discuss the role of sex appeals, including the downside of such usage. 10.Explain the meaning of subliminal messages and symbolic embeds. 11.Appreciate the role of music in advertising. 12.Understand the function of comparative advertising and the considerations that influence the use of this form of advertising. 7.Explain the logic underlying the use of appeals to fear in advertising. 8.Understand the nature of appeals to guilt in advertising. 9.Discuss the role of sex appeals, including the downside of such usage. 10.Explain the meaning of subliminal messages and symbolic embeds. 11.Appreciate the role of music in advertising. 12.Understand the function of comparative advertising and the considerations that influence the use of this form of advertising. Chapter Objectives (contd) After reading this chapter you should be able to: © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–3

4 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–4 Why Only Generalizations About the Creation of Advertising Messages Why advertising approaches are not effective across all products, services, and situations:Why advertising approaches are not effective across all products, services, and situations: Buyer behavior is complex, dynamic, and variable across situations Buyer behavior is complex, dynamic, and variable across situations Advertisements are themselves highly varied entities Advertisements are themselves highly varied entities Advertising products differ greatly in terms of technological sophistication and ability to involve consumers Advertising products differ greatly in terms of technological sophistication and ability to involve consumers

5 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–5 Enhancing Consumers Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability (MOA) to Process Advertisements Consumer Characteristics (MOA Factors) Brand Strength Choice of Influence Strategy

6 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–6 Enhancing Consumers Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information Figure 9.1

7 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–7 Enhancing Consumers Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information (contd) Figure 9.1

8 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–8 Motivation to Attend to Messages Voluntary AttentionVoluntary Attention Is engaged when consumers devote attention to an advertisement or other marcom message that is perceived as relevant to their current purchase- related goals Is engaged when consumers devote attention to an advertisement or other marcom message that is perceived as relevant to their current purchase- related goals Involuntary AttentionInvoluntary Attention Occurs when attention is captured by the use of attention-gaining techniques rather than by the consumers inherent interest in the topic at hand. Occurs when attention is captured by the use of attention-gaining techniques rather than by the consumers inherent interest in the topic at hand.

9 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–9 Attracting Voluntary Attention Appeals to Informational and Hedonic Needs Use of Intense or Prominent Cues Use of Novel Stimuli Use of Motion How Marcom Messages Attract Attention

10 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–10 An Appeal to Informational Needs Figure 9.2

11 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–11 Using Novelty to Attract Attention Figure 9.3

12 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–12 Using Intensity to Attract Attention Figure 9.4

13 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–13 Using Prominence to Attract Attention Figure 9.5

14 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–14 Using Motion to Attract Attention Figure 9.6

15 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–15 Motivation to Process Messages Enhance Consumer Processing Motivation By:Enhance Consumer Processing Motivation By: Increasing the relevance of brand to consumers Increasing the relevance of brand to consumers Increasing consumer curiosity about brand Increasing consumer curiosity about brand Relevance MethodsRelevance Methods Appealing to consumers fears Appealing to consumers fears Making dramatic presentations Making dramatic presentations Posing rhetorical questions Posing rhetorical questions Curiosity MethodsCuriosity Methods Using humor Using humor Presenting little information Presenting little information Creating suspense or surprise Creating suspense or surprise

16 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–16 Using Suspense to Enhance Processing Motivation Figure 9.7

17 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–17 Opportunity to Encode Information The Communicators GoalThe Communicators Goal To provide consumers with opportunities to encode information To provide consumers with opportunities to encode information Promoting Proper Encoding By:Promoting Proper Encoding By: Facilitating the repetition of brand information Facilitating the repetition of brand information Reducing consumer processing time through the use of pictures and distinct imagery to convey a message Reducing consumer processing time through the use of pictures and distinct imagery to convey a message

18 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–18 Using a Gestalt to Reduce Processing Time Figure 9.8

19 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–19 Ability to Encode Information The Communicators GoalThe Communicators Goal To increase consumers ability to encode information To increase consumers ability to encode information Promoting Encoding Ability By:Promoting Encoding Ability By: Using verbal framing to provide context for consumers in accessing brand-based knowledge structures Using verbal framing to provide context for consumers in accessing brand-based knowledge structures Creating knowledge structures to facilitate exempla- based learning Creating knowledge structures to facilitate exempla- based learning Analogies Analogies Demonstrations Demonstrations Concretizations Concretizations

20 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–20 The Use of Analogy to Create a Knowledge Structure Figure 9.9

21 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–21 Consumer Learning and Retrieval of Brand Information ConcretizingConcretizing Is the idea that it is easier for people to remember and retrieve tangible rather than abstract information Is the idea that it is easier for people to remember and retrieve tangible rather than abstract information Exemplar-based learning is accomplished by using concrete words and examples Exemplar-based learning is accomplished by using concrete words and examples

22 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–22 Exemplar-Based Learning with Concretization Figure 9.10

23 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–23 The Role of Celebrity Endorsers in Advertising EndorsementsEndorsements Celebrity endorsers Celebrity endorsers Typical-person endorsers Typical-person endorsers Endorser EffectivenessEndorser Effectiveness Credibility (internalization) Credibility (internalization) Consumers acceptance of the endorsers position on an issue as his or her own Consumers acceptance of the endorsers position on an issue as his or her own Attractiveness (identification) Attractiveness (identification) Identifying with the endorser and adopting of the endorsers attitudes, behaviors, interests, or preferences Identifying with the endorser and adopting of the endorsers attitudes, behaviors, interests, or preferences

24 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–24 Top Endorsement Incomes of American Athletes, 2007 Table 9.1

25 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–25 The Five Components in the TEARS Model of Endorser Attributes Table 9.2 T = Trustworthiness The property of being perceived as honest, believable, dependableas someone who can be trusted but not an expert. E = Expertise The characteristic of having specific skills, knowledge, or abilities with respect to the endorsed brand. A = Physical attractiveness The trait of being regarded as pleasant to look at in terms of a particular groups concept of attractiveness. R = Respect The quality of being admired or even esteemed due to ones personal qualities and accomplishments. S = Similarity (to the target audience) The extent to which an endorser matches an audience in terms of characteristics pertinent to the endorsement relationship (age, gender, ethnicity, etc.).

26 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–26 Endorser Selection Considerations: The No Tears Approach Factors in Selecting Celebrity Endorsers:Factors in Selecting Celebrity Endorsers: 1. Celebrity and Audience Matchup 2. Celebrity and Brand Matchup 3. Celebrity Credibility 4. Celebrity Attractiveness 5. Cost Considerations 6. Working Ease or Difficulty Factor 7. Saturation Factor 8. The Trouble Factor

27 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–27 Endorser Selection Considerations: The Role of Q Scores Performer Q (Quotient) ScoresPerformer Q (Quotient) Scores Based on representative panel responses to questionnaire: Based on representative panel responses to questionnaire: Have you heard of this person? (a measure of familiarity) Have you heard of this person? (a measure of familiarity) If so, do you rate him or her poor, fair, good, very good, or one of your favorites? (a measure of popularity) If so, do you rate him or her poor, fair, good, very good, or one of your favorites? (a measure of popularity) Calculation of Q Score: Calculation of Q Score: Percentage of panel rating performer as favorite Percentage of panel familiar with performer Percentage of panel rating performer as favorite Percentage of panel familiar with performer

28 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–28 The Role of Humor in Advertising Use of Humor in Ads:Use of Humor in Ads: Attracts attention to ads Attracts attention to ads Can increase recall of ads message points Can increase recall of ads message points Can elevate liking of ad and ads brand Can elevate liking of ad and ads brand Does not harm comprehension of an ad Does not harm comprehension of an ad Does not necessarily increase ads persuasion Does not necessarily increase ads persuasion Does not enhance source credibility Does not enhance source credibility Is appropriate for established products which are already viewed positively Is appropriate for established products which are already viewed positively Has variable effects on different individuals, audiences, and in different cultures Has variable effects on different individuals, audiences, and in different cultures Can be too distracting to receivers Can be too distracting to receivers

29 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–29 The Use of Humor in Magazine Advertising Figure 9.11

30 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–30 Appeals to Consumer Fears Social Disapproval (Not using the advertised brand) Physical Danger (Engaging in unsafe behavior) Consumers Motivation to Avoid Negative Consequences Fear-Appeal Logic Stimulate audience involvement with a message Promote acceptance of message arguments Appropriate Intensity of Threat Level Scarcity: Psychological Reluctance (Fear of losing out)

31 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–31 Appeals to Consumer Guilt Guilt:Guilt: Breaking rules Breaking rules Violating standards or beliefs Violating standards or beliefs Appeal:Appeal: Feelings of guilt can be relieved by product Feelings of guilt can be relieved by product Ineffective Guilt AdsIneffective Guilt Ads If guilt appeal lacks credibility If guilt appeal lacks credibility If ad is perceived as manipulative If ad is perceived as manipulative

32 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–32 The Use of Sex in Advertising What Role Does Sex Play in Advertising?What Role Does Sex Play in Advertising? Initial attentional lurethe stopping power role of sex Initial attentional lurethe stopping power role of sex Enhance recall of message points Enhance recall of message points Evoke emotional responses such as feelings of arousal or lust. Evoke emotional responses such as feelings of arousal or lust. To elicit a positive reaction, sexual content must be appropriately relevant to the subject matter. To elicit a positive reaction, sexual content must be appropriately relevant to the subject matter. Potential Downside of Sex AppealsPotential Downside of Sex Appeals Interference with processing of message arguments and reduction in message comprehension Interference with processing of message arguments and reduction in message comprehension Demeaning to females and males Demeaning to females and males

33 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–33 An Appropriate Use of Sex in Advertising Figure 9.12

34 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–34 Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds Subliminal DefinedSubliminal Defined The presentation of stimuli at a speed or visual level that is below the conscious threshold of awareness The presentation of stimuli at a speed or visual level that is below the conscious threshold of awareness Forms of Subliminal StimulationForms of Subliminal Stimulation Visual stimulation using a tachistoscope Visual stimulation using a tachistoscope Accelerated speech in auditory messages Accelerated speech in auditory messages Embedding of hidden symbols Embedding of hidden symbols Does Subliminal Advertising Work?Does Subliminal Advertising Work? A variety of practical problems prevent embedding from being effective in a realistic marketing context A variety of practical problems prevent embedding from being effective in a realistic marketing context

35 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–35 The Functions of Music in Advertising Attracting Attention Promoting a Positive Mood Increasing Receptivity of Message Communicating Meanings Communication Functions of Music

36 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–36 The Role of Comparative Advertising Comparative AdvertisingComparative Advertising Is the practice in which advertisers directly or indirectly compare their products against competitive offerings and claim superiority Is the practice in which advertisers directly or indirectly compare their products against competitive offerings and claim superiority Varies in the direct explicitness of comparisons Varies in the direct explicitness of comparisons Is illegal in some countries Is illegal in some countries

37 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–37 Illustration of a Direct Comparison Advertisement Figure 9.13

38 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–38 Illustration of an Indirect Comparison Advertisement Figure 9.14

39 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–39 Is Comparative Advertising More Effective? Effectiveness of Comparative Advertising Less believable than noncomparative advertising Enhances brand name recall Better recall of message arguments Creates stronger purchase intentions Generates more purchases Creates more favorable attitudes for brand

40 © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.9–40 Considerations Dictating the Use of Comparative Advertising Situational Factors The Credibility Issue Distinctive Advantages Assessing Effectiveness Issues in Deciding to Use Comparative Advertising


Download ppt "PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Eighth Edition © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning All rights reserved."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google