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NJIT Executive MBA Organizational Behavior Team Project

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Presentation on theme: "NJIT Executive MBA Organizational Behavior Team Project"— Presentation transcript:

1 NJIT Executive MBA Organizational Behavior Team Project
“Understanding Motivation” Team: Alan Weinberg, Stilianos Roussis, Tennille Miller, Tyema Waddy December 10, 2005

2 Motivation Project Objectives
Introduction to Motivation Motivation Defined Motivation Theories Project Purpose Project Methodology Results and Discussions Conclusions and Implications Workforce Applications Summary Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

3 Introduction to Motivation
There is a great need to focus on motivating employees. They are vital to the survival and growth of every company or organization. It behooves managers to identify what are the primary factors that motivate each employee. The most common roadblock leaders face when motivating employees is a tendency to assume that all are motivated by the same thing. To maximize the effectiveness, employers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Managers and non-managers may not be motivated by the same factors and those factors constantly change especially as social needs and interest change. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

4 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Motivation Defined “The willingness to do something, conditioned by this action’s ability to satisfy some need for the individual.” Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

5 Theories of Motivation
Many methods of employee motivation have been developed. Five key approaches that have led our focus of motivation are: Maslow's need-hierarchy theory: Employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self-actualizing. Maslow argued that in order to motivate employees, the lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level. Herzberg's two- factor theory: Two motivation factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as: achievement, advancement, responsibility and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as: pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. If we want people to be satisfied, the intrinsic factors must be highlighted. McClelland’s Theory of Needs: Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. People have to a different extent a need for: Achievement (nAch): drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards Power (nPow): need to control other people’s behavior Affiliation (nAff): desire for friendly/close interpersonal relationships Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

6 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

7 Theories of Motivation
Expectancy Theory: Suggests the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. It includes three variables: Attractiveness : The importance the individual places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. This variable considers the unsatisfied needs of the individual Performance-Reward Linkage: The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of desired outcome Effort-Performance Linkage: The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance Goal Setting Theory: States that intentions, expressed as goals, can be a major source of work motivation. Specific and difficult rather than “do your best” goals lead to higher performance. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

8 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Project Purpose The purpose of this project was multi-dimensional. The project objectives were to: To describe the importance of certain factors in motivating employees currently at work. Specifically, the project sought to describe the ranked importance of the following 12 motivating factors: 1) money, 2) job title promotion, 3) plaque/certificate 4) professional development, 5) time off, 6) sense of accomplishment, 7) flexible work schedule, 8) public praise, 9) telecommuting, 10) childcare/health benefits, 11) increased job responsibility, and 12) job security To examine whether senior management is motivated by different factors than the general population. To assess senior management’s perception of what they believe motivates employees/general population, and contrast it with what “does” motivate this population. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

9 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Project Methodology The team developed a descriptive anonymous questionnaire which included demographic information, multiple choice, and rankings questions, to ensure that all questions could be answered. Data was collected through use of a 1 page front and back questionnaire hand-delivered to participants and returned in sealed unmarked envelopes. The study included a sample of 22 non-management and 26 management employees within 3 private companies and 1 government agency, within New Jersey. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

10 Motivation Questionnaire: Part I - Demographics
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

11 Questionnaire: Part II
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12 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Overall Findings Money is the # 1 motivator among all groups. Pay increase motivates 72.92%. 60.42% stated they would like to change their salaries. 31.25% feel people in their company are most interested in money. 72.92% feel money motivates non-managers Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

13 Comparison of Questions: All Participants
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

14 Question Findings- All Participants
Q1. Majority (47.9%) feel a sense of Accomplishment motivates them at work Q2. Majority (68.75%) feel the reason they stay late at work is because they want to complete the project.* Q3. Majority (77.08%) answered they like their job.* Q4. Majority (31.25% ) feel people at their company are most interested in money. Q5. Majority (37.5%) feel job security motivates people at their company. Q6. Majority (66.67%) feel people motivate themselves at work.* Q7. Majority (72.92%) feel people would enjoy a pay increase at their job with the same title.* Q8. Majority (43.75%) feel their company is average at motivating employees. Q9. Majority (60.42%) answered people would like to change their salaries* Q10. Majority (35.42%) answered they would like to be recognized either annually or semi annually. Q11. Majority (43.75%) feel the need for achievement is what everyone thinks motivates managers. Q12. Majority (72.92%) feel that everyone thinks money motivates non-managers.* Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

15 Analysis- All Participants
A sense of achievement/success was second to money as a motivator in their company. 47.9% are motivated by a sense of accomplishments. 43.75% felt that the need for achievement is what motivates managers in their companies. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

16 Motivation: Management vs. Non-Management
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

17 Analysis- Managers vs. Non Managers
Managers are: more motivated by the almighty dollar. equally concerned with job security. slightly more motivated by sense of accomplishments, flexible work schedules, time off, praise, and telecommuting than non-managers. less concerned with child/healthcare benefits & development. not motivated at all by plaques/certificates; where non-managers are somewhat motivated. less motivated by titles (most likely because they have one already.) more motivated by having time off and a flexible work schedule than non-managers. Mon Managers are: more motivated by health/childcare benefits than a sense of accomplishment. motivated less by more responsibility than managers more motivated by training and development conferences than managers. more motivated by a flexible work schedule than time off No one is really motivated by praise and plaques. Telecommuting is not a good motivator for either group. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

18 What do You think Motivates Others? Management vs. Non-management
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

19 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Analysis Everyone is still thinking about ! 41.67% of the managers seems to think that non-managers are motivated by obtaining a title. But only 16.67% said they were motivated by having/obtaining a title. Both groups equally think the other is motivated by having time off. 33.33% of management felt that non-management was motivated by a need for achievement. But non-management does not think management is only motivated by a need for achievement. Only16.67% of non-management felt that way. Managers underestimated the importance of job security, child/healthcare benefits, and increased responsibilities. Managers overestimated the importance of titles and flexible work schedules to non-managers. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

20 Analyzing & Comparing Survey Variables
Men vs. Women Married vs. Unmarried Government vs. Private Children vs. No Children Motivates Me vs. Motivates Others Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

21 Some Variables Were Similar...
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

22 Some Variables Were Similar...
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

23 Some Variables Were Different…
Childcare/Benefits No Children Importance Rating Have Children Importance Rating Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

24 Motivation: Government vs. Private
Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

25 Some Variables Were Different…
Money Money Motivates Me Importance Money Motivates Others Importance Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

26 Some Variables Were Different…
Title Title Motivates Me Importance Title Motivates Others Importance Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

27 Some Variables Were Different…
How Good is Your Company at Motivating People? Question #8 (1 = Excellent vs. 4 = Terrible) Government Private Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

28 Conclusions and Implications
Maslow's need-hierarchy theory: was supported by our findings. Employees need lowest level (physiological) needs met first through healthcare benefits and money for food. Then people need next level (safety) needs met through job security. Once each lower level is met, it will lead to a higher level met and ending with motivation. Herzberg's two- factor theory: was supported by our findings Two motivation factors: Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as: achievement, job title/advancement, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as: pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. If we want people to be satisfied, the intrinsic factors of acheivement and job title advancement must be highlighted; while sustaining hygiene factors of pay and job security. Goal Setting Theory: was supported by our findings. The theory states that intentions, expressed as goals, can be a major source of work motivation. One needs to set goals and fulfill them in order to succeed in a company. If someone sets goals for themselves, it would push them further to make these goals and increase their performance. It is a great motivator. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

29 Conclusions and Implications cont’d
McClelland’s Theory of Needs: Our findings support McClellands theory in the following ways: Achievement (nAch): Accomplishment was ranked #2 by Managers and #4 by Non Mangers. People are motivated by a need to excel and achieve. Power (nPow): Many people are motivated by having/obtaining titles; which is a perceived power and authority. Among non-managers Title was tied for #2 rank. For managers it ranked #7, most likely because they already have a coveted title. Affiliation (nAff): With money, power, titles and success, it will lead to a need for affiliations. One needs to network, or make friends in high places in order to spread their power and success. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

30 Conclusions and Implications cont.
The Expectancy Theory: can also be supported. The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. It includes three variables: Attractiveness : The importance the individual places on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. This variable considers the unsatisfied needs of the individual. Performance-Reward Linkage: The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of desired outcome. Effort-Performance Linkage: The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. Since everyone is motivated by the all mighty dollar, the reward here is definitely money. Making more money is very attractive to anyone. If people need to be at a certain performance level, or if they need more responsibility, or more goals to get to that higher pay check or bonus then they will do what ever it takes to get that rewards. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

31 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Summary Across the board, Money is the biggest motivator, but is not the only motivator. Job security is equally important and a high motivator to both managers and non-managers. Sense of Accomplishment/Achievement is also high for both. Plaques and certificates are not motivators for either groups. Yet, are so widely used. Senior management and non-management were primarily motivated by the same thing: Money. However, senior management are slightly more motivated. There is certainly a disconnect in what managers think the general population is motivated versus what truly is. Specifically, managers underestimated the importance of job security, child/healthcare benefits, and responsibility among non-managers. Additionally, managers overestimated that titles and flexible work schedules were higher ranked motivators among non-managers. Communication is key to assessing what employees value, need, and want in order to be more effective and motivated contributors. Informed Motivated managers can promote motivated employees. Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

32 Workforce Applications
Enhancing employee motivation has become a business imperative and is essential to compete effectively in today’s market. Managers need to… Ask, Ask, Ask and then Do whatever is possible Recognize individual differences & individualize rewards Use multiple channels to motivate; everyone is different Attitude starts the process & sets the environment Allocate sufficient resources to be proactive instead of reactive Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project

33 Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project
Q & A Questions ??? Thank You Organizational Behavior- EMBA Team Project


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