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Personal vs. Situational Leadership (Hersey & Blanchard) DMH Leadership Training Institute September 9, 2010 Felix Vincenz, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Personal vs. Situational Leadership (Hersey & Blanchard) DMH Leadership Training Institute September 9, 2010 Felix Vincenz, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personal vs. Situational Leadership (Hersey & Blanchard) DMH Leadership Training Institute September 9, 2010 Felix Vincenz, Ph.D.

2 2 Assignment Complete the Leader Analysis Behavior II (LBAII) –Self Perceptions of Leadership Style

3 3 Management vs. Leadership Leadership - occurs whenever one person attempts to influence the behavior of an individual, regardless of the reason Management – process of working with and through individuals to accomplish organizational goals Management ALWAYS involves Leadership

4 4 Leadership Competencies D iagnosing Cognitive Competence – understanding what the situation is now what it will be/can be in the future Cognitive Competence – understanding what the situation is now what it will be/can be in the future Ad apting Behavioral Competence – adapting actions and resources to close gap between current performance and ultimate objectives Behavioral Competence – adapting actions and resources to close gap between current performance and ultimate objectivesCommunicating Process Competence – conveying information so that followers can understand and accomplish the goal Process Competence – conveying information so that followers can understand and accomplish the goal

5 5 Leadership Skills Technical Use of knowledge, methods, techniques and equipment necessary for specific tasks Use of knowledge, methods, techniques and equipment necessary for specific tasks Acquired through experience, education, training Acquired through experience, education, training Human Skills Ability and judgment in working with and through people Ability and judgment in working with and through people Understanding motivation sufficiently to influence others Understanding motivation sufficiently to influence others

6 6 Leadership Skills (con.) Conceptual Skills Planning – setting goals, objectives, work maps Planning – setting goals, objectives, work maps Organizing/Integrating Resources - people, capital, equipment – to effectively accomplish goals Organizing/Integrating Resources - people, capital, equipment – to effectively accomplish goals Controlling – providing feedback and adjusting processes to ensure outcomes Controlling – providing feedback and adjusting processes to ensure outcomes

7 7 Skill Mix – Up the Organizational Chain

8 8 Bottom Line Ef fective leadership Does not happen by accident but is the result of deliberate actions that can be learned Does not happen by accident but is the result of deliberate actions that can be learned Meets the needs of the followers Meets the needs of the followers Not based in technical knowledge but in facilitating knowledge, skill and experience, specifically the ability to diagnose, adapt and communicate Not based in technical knowledge but in facilitating knowledge, skill and experience, specifically the ability to diagnose, adapt and communicate Conceptual and human skills increase in importance as one moves up the continuum from non- supervisory to leadership positions Conceptual and human skills increase in importance as one moves up the continuum from non- supervisory to leadership positions

9 9 The Quadrant

10 10 Task Behavior Leaders spells out the duties and responsibilities of the individual or the group Involves what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, and who is to do it Involves what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, and who is to do it Involves one-way communication from the leader to the follower Involves one-way communication from the leader to the follower Not concerned with the followers feelings so much as directing them to achieve the goal

11 11 Relationship Behavior Extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multi-way communication Behaviors include listening, facilitating, and supporting High amount of relationship behavior is required when an impasse is reached in an assignment

12 12 Situational Leadership - Basic Principles Situation Leadership is an interplay among the - Amount of guidance and direction a leader provides = task behavior Amount of guidance and direction a leader provides = task behavior Amount of social-emotional support a leader providers = relationship behavior Amount of social-emotional support a leader providers = relationship behavior Readiness level of the follower in performing a specific task, function or objective Readiness level of the follower in performing a specific task, function or objective

13 13 Situational Leadership – Basic Principles (con.) Focus is on the behavior of the leader in relation to the followers – followers are the most crucial factor in any leadership event (Fillmore Sanford) No best way to influence people – leadership styles MUST change based on the readiness of the followers the leader is attempting to influence

14 14 Task Behavior Leaders spells out the duties and responsibilities of the individual or the group Involves what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, and who is to do it Involves what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, and who is to do it Involves one-way communication from the leader to the follower Involves one-way communication from the leader to the follower Not concerned with the followers feelings so much as directing them to achieve the goal

15 15 Relationship Behavior Extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multi-way communication Behaviors include listening, facilitating, and supporting High amount of relationship behavior is required when an impasse is reached in an assignment

16 16 The Quadrant

17 17 The Whole Point! No one style is effective in all situations! Nomenclature – Task and Relationship behavior may not always be the appropriate or most comfortable terms based on setting Task behavior AKA guidance or direction Task behavior AKA guidance or direction Relationship behavior AKA supportive or facilitating Relationship behavior AKA supportive or facilitating

18 18 Diagnosis Why is Diagnosis Important? - To maximize the leader-follower relationship, leaders Must determine Must determine The task-specific outcomes followers are to accomplish Both on an individual and group basis Assess follower readiness and the specific leadership style required Assess follower readiness and the specific leadership style required

19 19 What is Readiness? Readiness is NOT a personality trait Readiness IS a situational state Based on the task to accomplish Based on the task to accomplish The motivation and expectancies of the follower The motivation and expectancies of the follower No connections between the readiness of the group and any of its individual members

20 20 Components of Readiness Ability Knowledge: understanding of a task Knowledge: understanding of a task Skill: proficiency in a task Skill: proficiency in a task Experience: ability gained from performing the task Experience: ability gained from performing the taskWillingness Confidence: assurance in ability to perform the task Confidence: assurance in ability to perform the task Commitment: Duty to perform the task Commitment: Duty to perform the task Motivation: desire to perform the task Motivation: desire to perform the task

21 21 Willingness and Ability Interacting Influence System A change in one will affect the other and the overall readiness of the whole A change in one will affect the other and the overall readiness of the whole Combinations can be arrayed along a continuum Combinations can be arrayed along a continuum

22 22 R1 – Unable and Unwilling or Insecure Does not perform task to acceptable levels Does not perform task to acceptable levels Unclear about direction Unclear about direction Avoids task or passes the buck Avoids task or passes the buck Unable and UnwillingUnable and Insecure Defensive, argumentativeBody language signs of discomfort ComplainingConfused Resistant, performs only to exact request Procrastinates with fear of failure

23 23 R2 – Unable but Willing or Confident New task and with no experience New task and with no experience Excited and enthusiastic, but anxious Excited and enthusiastic, but anxious Interested, attentive and responsive, listening carefully Interested, attentive and responsive, listening carefully Receptive to input and seeks clarity Receptive to input and seeks clarity Accepts tasks and acts quickly Accepts tasks and acts quickly Preoccupied with end results rather than incremental steps Preoccupied with end results rather than incremental steps

24 24 R3 – Able and Unwilling or Insecure Demonstrated knowledge and ability Demonstrated knowledge and ability Appears hesitant or reluctant to finish or take next step Appears hesitant or reluctant to finish or take next step Able but UnwillingAble but Insecure ResistantQuestions own ability Seeks reinforcementFocuses on potential problems Feels over-obligated or over-workedSolicits frequent feedback Concerned that assignment is punishment for past competence Encourages leader to stay involved

25 25 R4 – Able and Willing or Confident Operates autonomously Operates autonomously Results oriented and takes charge of tasks Results oriented and takes charge of tasks Makes effective decisions regarding tasks Makes effective decisions regarding tasks Keeps boss informed of progress Keeps boss informed of progress Shares creative ideas and willing to help others Shares creative ideas and willing to help others Completes responsibilities on time or early Completes responsibilities on time or early Streamlines operations Streamlines operations

26 Matching Leadership Style to Readiness

27 27 S1 – Telling (AKA Guiding, Directing, Structuring) Defines roles and provide specifics – who, what, when, where & how Defines roles and provide specifics – who, what, when, where & how KISS – keep it simple and specific KISS – keep it simple and specific Close supervision and accountability Close supervision and accountability Incremental supervision Incremental supervision Unable and UnwillingUnable and Insecure Explicit task requestsProvide direction in small steps Positively reinforce small successReduce fear of mistakes Keep emotional level in checkHelp step by step Consider consequences for refusalFocus on instruction

28 28 S2 – Selling (AKA Explaining, Persuading, Clarifying) Follower is still unable but is trying & confident Follower is still unable but is trying & confident Leader provides relationship behavior as well as task behavior to support followers motivation and commitment Leader provides relationship behavior as well as task behavior to support followers motivation and commitment Provide specifics (who, what, where and how), but also answers the why questions Provide specifics (who, what, where and how), but also answers the why questions Encourage two-way behavior Encourage two-way behavior Discuss details and reinforce improvement Discuss details and reinforce improvement Seek buy in through persuasion Seek buy in through persuasion

29 29 S3 – Participating (AKA Facilitating, Collaborating, Committing) Leader provides high amount of supportive behavior, but low amounts of guidance Leader provides high amount of supportive behavior, but low amounts of guidance Encourages input and supports risk-taking Encourages input and supports risk-taking Actively listens Actively listens Compliments work Compliments work Able but UnwillingAble but Insecure Share responsibility for decisionsEncourage and support Feed followers need to knowReduce fear of mistakes Focus on resultsAssist with identification of next steps Involve follower in outcomes of taskDiscuss apprehension

30 30 S4 – Delegating (AKA Observing, Monitoring) Follower is able, willing and confident and has sufficient experience at the task Follower is able, willing and confident and has sufficient experience at the task Leader provides freedom & opportunity Leader provides freedom & opportunity Delegates tasks and activities and resists over- burdening Delegates tasks and activities and resists over- burdening Encourages autonomy and risk-taking Encourages autonomy and risk-taking Observes and monitors activities, listens to updates, and remains accessible Observes and monitors activities, listens to updates, and remains accessible

31 31 Probability of Success when Leader Style Mismatched to Follower Readiness Things to Remember It is the follower who determines leadership behavior It is the follower who determines leadership behavior Changes in follower behavior MUST result in the leader reassessing and modifying his leadership style accordingly Changes in follower behavior MUST result in the leader reassessing and modifying his leadership style accordingly ReadinessS1S2S3S4 R1HighMed. HighMed. LowLow R2Med. HighHighMed. LowLow R3LowMed. HighHighMed. Low R4LowMed. LowMed. HighHigh

32 32 Natural Style The natural style of a leader is often the least effective Why? We tend to work more diligently and practice that which is not natural to us We tend to work more diligently and practice that which is not natural to us We tend to pay more attention to the details We tend to pay more attention to the details What does it mean if your natural style is not S4?

33 Putting it All Together

34 34 Scoring the LBA II Style Flexibility Grid Circle the letter corresponding to your answers for questions 1 – 20 Circle the letter corresponding to your answers for questions 1 – 20 Total up the # circled under each leadership style S1 – S4 in the TOTALS Total up the # circled under each leadership style S1 – S4 in the TOTALS Subtract 5 from each score S1 – S4 and enter the ABSOLUTE vale in the boxes, adding up the final score in SUBTOTAL box Subtract 5 from each score S1 – S4 and enter the ABSOLUTE vale in the boxes, adding up the final score in SUBTOTAL box

35 35 Scoring the LBA II Results (con.) Subtract SUBTOTAL from 30 to get your FLEXIBILITY SCORE Subtract SUBTOTAL from 30 to get your FLEXIBILITY SCORE Put an arrow on the Style Flexibility Graph next to your Flexibility Score Put an arrow on the Style Flexibility Graph next to your Flexibility Score Score closer to 0 reflect less leadership flexibility, and are product of using one or two styles in every situation, regardless of follower readiness Score closer to 30 reflects greater leadership flexibility and is a product of using each of the four leadership styles in response to different readiness levels

36 36 Scoring the LBA II Results (con.) Style Matrices Primary Style: Enter the highest score S1 – S4 into the appropriate quadrant Primary Style: Enter the highest score S1 – S4 into the appropriate quadrant Secondary Style: Enter any other scores S1 – S4 that are higher than 3 into the appropriate quadrant(s) Secondary Style: Enter any other scores S1 – S4 that are higher than 3 into the appropriate quadrant(s) Developing Style: All scores <4 are entered into the appropriate quadrant Developing Style: All scores <4 are entered into the appropriate quadrant Represent styles you need to further develop

37 37 Scoring the LBA II Results (con.) Style Effectiveness Circl e the letter corresponding to your answers for questions 1 – 20 Circl e the letter corresponding to your answers for questions 1 – 20 Total up the # of circles under each column – Poor (P), Fair (F), Good (G), and Excellent (E) Total up the # of circles under each column – Poor (P), Fair (F), Good (G), and Excellent (E) Multiply the totals under each column by the number below those totals and enter the products into the box, summing them for the Style Effectiveness Score Multiply the totals under each column by the number below those totals and enter the products into the box, summing them for the Style Effectiveness Score

38 38 Scoring the LBA II Results (con.) Put an arrow on the Style Effectiveness Graph next to your Style Effectiveness Score Put an arrow on the Style Effectiveness Graph next to your Style Effectiveness Score Score closer to 20 indicates low style effectiveness, suggesting that the leadership style selected does not generally correspond to readiness level of the follower Score closer to 80 indicates high style effectiveness, suggesting that the leadership style selected is appropriate to the readiness level of the follower

39 39 Scoring the LBA II Results (con.) Style Diagnosis Review the Poor and Fair columns under the Style Effectiveness Grid and identify any items circled Review the Poor and Fair columns under the Style Effectiveness Grid and identify any items circled The number in right-hand corner signifies the Leadership Style selected The number in right-hand corner signifies the Leadership Style selected Add up the # of each Leadership Style selected and enter that into the appropriate quadrant of the Style Diagnosis Matrix Add up the # of each Leadership Style selected and enter that into the appropriate quadrant of the Style Diagnosis Matrix

40 40 Scoring the LBA II Results (con.) Add up the # of each Leadership Style selected and enter that into the appropriate quadrant of the Style Diagnosis Matrix Add up the # of each Leadership Style selected and enter that into the appropriate quadrant of the Style Diagnosis Matrix Any quadrant score higher than 2 suggests a consistent pattern of selecting a leadership style inappropriate to the readiness level of the follower Analyze your answer sheet to identify the nature of that pattern

41 41 Q & A ?


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