Presentation on theme: "Broken Windows James Q. Wilson and George L. Kellings By Arturo Gonzalez."— Presentation transcript:
Broken Windows James Q. Wilson and George L. Kellings By Arturo Gonzalez
James Q. Wilson - Received PHD (1959) and Masters(1957) at the University of Chicago and BA from Univ. of Redlands(1952). - Ronald Reagan Professor of Public Policy at Pepperdine, Professor of Government(1961-87) at Harvard. - White House Taskforce on Crime(1966), Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Presidential Medal of Freedom(2003) - Books Include: Crime and Human Nature, City Politics, Variety of Police Behavior and Negro Politics George L. Kelling -Received PHD for Social Welfare from U. of Wisconsin and BA from Stolaf College in Northfield Minnesota. - Professor at Rutgers University, Research Fellow at Harvard, Adjunct Fellow at Manhattan Institute. - Once a Child Care Counselor as well as Probation Officer
Police on Foot Patrol in New Jersey - Foot patrols implemented in 28 cities, concentrated in Newark - Generally discredited by Police as creating response difficulty and weakened HQ control. - Police Foundation evaluation found crime had not been reduced - But local surveys found residents felt more safe and had a more favorable opinion of law enforcement. Police had elevated level of public order. - Kelling had walked with Police in Newark and found a recognition between regulars and strangers. He assessed it was their duty to keep an eye on the strangers and regulate disreputable regulars to maintain social order.
Broken Windows and Informal Social Order -Disorder and Crime are Inextricably Linked. - Actual and perceived crime may be totally separate - No difference in Urban anxiety caused by the thought of actual violent crime occurring or a distasteful encounter. -Zombardo study in Palo Alto/Bronx (car left w/hood up) - In Palo Alto people better understand private property and behavioral consequences, in the Bronx there is an anonymity and past experience of nobody caring; but when sense of order was reduced both cars were stripped and vandalized. -Untended property leads to Breakdown of Community - Loss of sense of Mutual Regard and Lack of Civility causes community to cease functioning, neighbors dont get involved and community becomes susceptable to criminal invasions.
Examples of Discreprencies Between Actual Crime and Disorderly Conduct -Baltimore Housing Project Residents reported playground where youth drank and hung as most dangerous in the area, despite it having an almost nonexistent crime rate (especially in comparison to the rest of the projects). - In Public Housing Projects in Boston, residents noted in a survey that public disorder and incivility as their main concerns.
Nathan Glazer writings on NYC Subway Graffiti - Although harmless to many, graffiti helped create sense of disorder amongst riders and led to a perception of crime crime ridden subways. -The underlying statement was that riders were forced to see and endure the knowledge of being in a place of non-control, Where disorderly conduct runs amock.
Robert Taylor Homes, Chicago -20,000 residents, almost all black; 92 acres, opened in 1962 - Initial troubles with community and police about insensitive and brutal treatment of residents. - Police were much more effective after courting and working with local community more crime dropped. - Local gangs remained, but community helped police them informally. - Officers noted the mere presence or harassment by gangsters destroyed any semblance of community, and were able to concentrate on this through community input/action as well as more focused resources.
Law Enforcement History - History as vigilante (wild west) and volunteer watchmen to protect villagers from wild animals, fires, and unwanted activity. -Was to maintain order, not solving crimes. Crimes began to be solved by private detectives who worked on a contingency fee and were eventually incorporated into Municipal PD. - Spikes in 60s and 70s pushed more focus on crime fighting. -- Much of Law enforcement forgot link between order maintenance and crime prevention. - Patrolling by car creates barriers between officers and community, this interaction is vital as it creates a sense of importance among community members. - Patrolling by car destroys the community interaction and breaks down informal control mechanisms.
Urban Decay -Has existed in cities for centuries, but is now much harder to fight as mobility ensures many will merely escape the problem rather than address it. - Previous urban problems had built-in self correcting mechanisms, basically the lack of mobility forced residents to address the problems with unified community action. Previous leniency on police abuse also provided a strong reaction. - Police must engage communities to address problems and restore informal social control mechanisms. - Neighborhoods on the verge are integral. - Some Projects hire off duty police to secure area and create informal social mechanisms of control.