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1 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 1.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 1

2 2 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 2 “ An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers and manages the computer hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software ” software application software

3 3 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 3 แนะนำรายวิชา เนื้อหาวิชาครอบคลุมการศึกษา บทบาทและหน้าที่ของระบบปฏิบัติการที่มี ความสำคัญต่อระบบคอมพิวเตอร์ องค์ประกอบของระบบปฏิบัติการ การ จัดการโพรเซส การจัดการหน่วยความจำ การจัดการระบบแฟ้มข้อมูล การจัดการ อุปกรณ์อินพุตและเอาท์พุต การควบคุม การเข้าถึงข้อมูล รวมทั้งระบบปฏิบัติการ สำหรับเครือข่าย และระบบปฏิบัติการ สำหรับระบบมัลติโพรเซสเซอร์

4 4 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 4 ข้อตกลงในชั้นเรียน เวลาเข้าเรียนไม่ต่ำกว่าร้อยละ 80 – ขาดได้ไม่เกิน 3 ครั้ง – มาสายกว่าเวลาเรียนครึ่งชั่วโมง 2 ครั้ง ถือ ว่าขาด 1 ครั้ง ส่งงานที่ได้รับมอบหมายทั้งหมดครบ และตรงตามระยะเวลาที่กำหนด การแต่งกาย ให้เป็นไปตามระเบียบ มหาวิทยาลัยกำหนด หากฝ่าฝืนจะ ไม่ได้รับอนุญาตให้เข้าชั้นเรียน

5 5 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 5 ข้อตกลงในการกำหนด คะแนน ระหว่างภาค (50%) แบ่งเป็น – ความสนใจ ( การเข้าเรียน จริยธรรม และ การแต่ง กาย ) 10% – งานที่ได้รับมอบหมาย 20% – สอบกลางภาค 30% ปลายภาค (50%) – สอบปลายภาค 50%

6 6 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 6 หนังสือที่ใช้ในการทบทวน TextBook Operating System 8 th Edition Silberschatz (Yale University ), Peter B. Galvin (Corporate Technologies), Greg Gagne (Westminster College) July 2008, ©2009 E-Learning htpp//ele.kbu.ac.th/Boonyong http://elc.kbu.ac.th/users/index.php

7 7 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 7 Chapter 1 Introduction

8 8 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 8 Objectives To describes the Operating system. To describes each Componets of an Operating System. To discuss Development of an Operating System. To explain the Operation of Different type of Operating System.

9 9 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 9 Topic Covered What is an Operating System? What are the components of an OS? What does an OS do? Short History of OSs Different types of OSs

10 10 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 10 What is an Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Operating system goals: –Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier. –Make the computer system convenient to use. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

11 11 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 11 Computer System Components 1.Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2.Operating system – controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. 3.Applications programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4.Users - (people, machines, other computers).

12 12 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 12 Abstract View of System Components

13 13 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 13 System Components The operating system run in kernel or supervisor mode - protected from user tampering Compilers, editors and application programs run in user mode Instruction Set Architecture Physical devices grouped together to form functional units Integrated circuit chips, power supply, CRT Hides the complexity of machine language from programmer

14 14 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 14 Functions of an OS User Environment - OS layer transforms bare hardware machine into higher level abstractions –Execution environment - process management, file manipulation, interrupt handling, I/O operations, language. –Error detection and handling –Protection and security –Fault tolerance and failure recovery

15 15 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 15 Functions of an OS Resource Management –Time management CPU and disk transfer scheduling –Space management main and secondary storage allocation –Synchronization and deadlock handling IPC, critical section, coordination –Accounting and status information resource usage tracking

16 16 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 16 History of Operating Systems Pre-electronic –Charles Babbage (1792-1871) “analytical machine” –Purely mechanical, failed because technology could not produce the required wheels, cog, gears to the required precision First generation 1945 - 1955 –Aiken, von Neumann, Eckert, Mauchley and Zuse –programming done via plugboards, no OS or language –vacuum tubes

17 17 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 17 History of Operating Systems Second generation 1955 - 1965 –transistors more reliable than vacuum tubes –jobs read in via punched cards –batch systems introduced to reduce wasted time in setting up and running jobs bring cards to 1401 read cards to tape offline put tape on 7094 which does computing put tape on 1401 which prints output offline

18 18 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 18 History of Operating Systems Third generation 1965 – 1980 –IBM System/360: combine business and scientific computers into one machine –Computer will grow with client(memory, processor speed, number of I/O devices etc.) –Forerunner of 370, 4300, 3080 and 3090 –Use of integrated circuits provided major price/performance advantage over 2nd generation –OS/360 had to meet conflicting needs which resulted in enormous and complex operating system –Introduced multiprogramming to make most efficient use of CPU –Spooling: read jobs from cards to disk ready to load into memory and queue output to disk for printing

19 19 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 19 History of Operating Systems In batch, total time from submitting a job to getting the output was a few hours, very unproductive for programmers Timesharing (a variant of multiprogramming) provides for user interaction with the computer system –On-line communication between the user and the system is provided; when the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next “control statement” from the user’s keyboard. –The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). takes advantage of the idle CPU switch occurs so frequently that the user can interact with each program as it is running each command is short so only a little CPU time is needed for each user each user is given the impression that the entire system is dedicated to his use Batch jobs could be running in background CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System - MIT) was first success Minicomputers and the development of UNIX –UNIX was stripped down, one user version of MULTICS (extension of CTSS) –Numerous variants : System V, BSD, POSIX (IEEE), MINIX, Linux

20 20 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 20 History of Operating Systems Fourth generation 1980 – present –Large Scale Integrated chips –personal computers –1974: Intel developed 8080 chip (8 bit CPU), Gary Kildall wrote CP/M OS (Intel gave him the rights) and formed Digital Research –Early 1980s: IBM designed IBM PC. Bill Gates had BASIC interpreter and recommended DR as an OS. Kildall sent subordinate to meeting and refused to sign non-disclosure. Gates was asked for an OS, bought DOS from Seattle Computer Products and offered IBM DOS/BASIC package. Renamed it MS -DOS –Early Windows versions ran on top of DOS, Windows 95 and beyond and NT were full fledged OSs –Network Operating Systems (user sees multiple computers) –Distributed Operating Systems (user sees one processor)

21 21 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 21 Mainframe Systems First computers used to solve many commercial and scientific applications –evolved from batch  time shared systems Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs –serial card readers were initial input device then disks enabled job scheduling by the operating system Automatic job sequencing – automatically transfers control from one job to another. –first rudimentary operating system. –CPU often idle because of great differences in speed between mechanical I/O vs. electronic devices Early OS called resident monitor –initial control in monitor –control transfers to job –when job completes control transfers pack to monitor –eliminated intervention by programmer

22 22 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 22 Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System

23 23 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 23 Multiprogrammed Batch Systems Several jobs from the pool of all submitted jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

24 24 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 24 OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming Why multiprogramming? –Increases CPU utilization by trying to always keep the CPU busy processing some job –I/O of one job causes switch to another job Memory management – the system must allocate the memory to several jobs. CPU scheduling – the system must choose among several jobs ready to run. Allocation of devices.

25 25 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 25 Desktop Systems Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a single user. I/O devices – keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers. User convenience and responsiveness. Can adopt technology developed for larger operating systems. Often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Linux)

26 26 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 26 Parallel Systems Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU in close communication. Tightly coupled system – processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory. Advantages of parallel system: –Increased throughput with more processors –Economical – share peripherals, mass storage, power etc. as opposed to individual PCs –Increased reliability graceful degradation / fault tolerant –failure of one processor will slow down but not halt the system –other processors pick up the slack

27 27 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 27 Parallel Systems (Cont.) Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) –Each processor runs and identical copy of the operating system. –Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration. –Most modern operating systems support SMP Asymmetric multiprocessing –Each processor is assigned a specific task; controlling processor schedules and allocates work to other processors. –More common in extremely large systems

28 28 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 28 Distributed Systems Distribute the computation among several physical processors. Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. Advantages of distributed systems. –Resource sharing –Computation speed up – load sharing –Reliability –Communications between processors and processes

29 29 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 29 Distributed Systems (cont) Requires networking infrastructure. –TCP/IP is the most common network protocol Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN) May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems.

30 30 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 30 Real-Time Systems Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Well-defined, fixed time constraints. Hard real-time: –Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM) –Not supported by general-purpose operating systems. Soft real-time –Limited utility in industrial control of robotics –Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.

31 31 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 31 Handheld Systems Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Cellular telephones Issues: –Limited memory (512KB to 8MB) requires efficient management –Slow processors –Small display screens.

32 32 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 32 Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features

33 33 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 33 Assignment (1) BOOTABLE DISK BOOTABLE CD BOOTABLE FLASH DRIVE

34 34 CS.217 Operating System By Ajarn..Sutapart Sappajak,METC,MSIT Chapter 1 Introduction Slide 34 Assignment (2) UNIX,MAC,SOLARY,SYMBIAN Operating System - History - Design Principles - System Components - Environmental Subsystems - File system - Networking - Programmer Interface The Linux Operating System - History - Design Principles - Kernel Modules - Process Management - Scheduling - Memory Management - File Systems - Input and Output - Intercrosses Communication - Network Structure Windows Operating System - History - Design Principles - System Components - Environmental Subsystems - File system - Networking - Programmer Interface


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