Presentation on theme: "In early Arkansas For use in grades 1-5 classrooms"— Presentation transcript:
1In early Arkansas For use in grades 1-5 classrooms American IndiansIn early ArkansasFor use in grades 1-5 classroomsArkansasheritage.com
2Arkansas frameworks related to American Indians in Arkansas The following frameworks are addressed in the following Power Point, grades K-5H.6.K.9: Understand the name of Arkansas originated from the Quapaw IndiansH : Recognize American Indian tribes of Arkansas: Osage, Quapaw and CaddoH : Identify and describe the Arkansas Indian tribes: Osage, Quapaw, and CaddoH : Identify the reasons for the decline of the native populations of Arkansas (e.g. influenza, small pox, competition for land)H : Locate and describe the three main Indian cultures in Arkansas during the exploration period: Quapaw, Caddo and Osage Indians
3Who are American Indians? American Indians were the first people to live in the Americas. They were here before the Europeans came and settled in the area we call the United States.
4This map shows you where American Indians live today This slide will give the students an idea of where Native Americans live today. Key: white areas is less than 2%; turquoise is 2-5%; purple is 5-18%; red is 18-25% and green is more that 25%.
5There were three main American Indian tribes in early Arkansas CaddoOsageQuapawPower point in based on Social studies framework, H Slides 1-11 are for grade 2 and review for grades 3-4.
6Let’s find out about the Caddo Nation! The original name of the Caddo was CadohadachoWhen the Europeans came to North America, the Caddo lived in the present states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.Today, most of the Caddo live in the state of Oklahoma.Grade 2 framwork:
7The Caddo looked like this The Caddo Native Americans formed a Confederacy of all their tribes. The man on the left is wearing a “roach” or sometimes called a porcupine roach.
8Osage Nation The Osage Indians also lived in Arkansas They originally lived in present day Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas.Today, most of the people of the Osage Nation live in Oklahoma.
9The Quapaw TribeThe name Quapaw (Ugakhpa or O-gah-pah) is translated as “people who live downstream.”Our state is named for this American Indian tribe!This slide satisfies the framework for lst grade students knowing the origin of the name of our state.
11Other early American Indians in Arkansas: Tunica-Biloxi Tribe and Chickasaw Nation The Tunica-Biloxi Tribe mainly lived in Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas.Today the Tunica-Biloxi people are referred to as the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana and live in Louisiana.The Tunica Indians are not part of the state frameworks but were a Native American group that was present in Arkansas along with the Caddo, Osage and Quapaw
12Today most of the Chickasaw live in the state of Oklahoma. The people of the Chickasaw Nation lived in the northeast corner of the state.The Chickasaw primarily lived in the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri.Today most of the Chickasaw live in the state of Oklahoma.
13Culture of the Caddo, Osage and Quapaw Culture is how a people live. It includes such things as the following: their language, clothing, hair styles, transportation, food, homes, how children are raised, music, arts, and folklore. Let’s look at the culture of the these three tribes : the Caddo, Osage and Quapaw.
14First, the Caddo!Most Caddo speak English today but many also speak the Caddo language.Example: “Kua’at”(pronounced Koo-ah-aht) is a friendly greeting.Language
15Caddo men’s clothing Caddo men wore breechcloths and sometimes leather leggings.
16Caddo womenCaddo women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of deerskin. They usually braided their hair or tied it back with ribbons.Both men and women wore earrings and moccasins.
17Hair styles!Men wore their hair in a scalplock. (One long lock of hair on top of their head usually braided).Sometimes the men wore a “ roach” or headpiece made of red-dyed deer hair and turkey beards.In order to achieve a scalplock, men plucked the hair away using tweezers.“turkey roach”
18Women and hair stylesCaddo women usually wore their long hair in a bun.For special occasions they would add ornaments or ribbons to their bun.
19Caddo transportationThe Caddo preferred to travel by land but also made dugout canoes out of logs for travel by water.
20What kind of food did the Caddo eat? The Caddo Indians were farmers and hunters.They grew corn, beans, pumpkins and sunflowers.They hunted deer, buffalo and small game and fished.
21Tools used by the Caddo To hunt they used bows and arrows They also made axes with a heavy stone head to chop wood.When they fought other people, they used their bows and arrows and their tomahawk.Caddo ax
22Caddo homesCaddo homes were tall, dome-shaped grass houses. Sometimes they were so large, 30 people could live in them!
23How were Caddo children raised? Caddo children were busy doing chores for the family. They did not have much play time.They did play with dolls and toys. A game they played was trying to throw a dart through a moving hoop. (hoop dart anyone?)
24Caddo art The Caddo people were famous for their pottery. There are websites to visit that focus on Caddo pottery.
25Caddo musicThe favorite Caddo musical instrument is the drum. As drums are played, other Caddo dance and sing.
26Caddo Indian legends and folklore One story is called, “Village Boy and Wild Boy.” It is about mythical twins whose mother was killed by a monster.Another story is called “Coyote.” It is about a tricky figure who gets involved in different forms of mischief!There are websites on which to find these myths and legends
27Next is the Osage! What was their language? As with the Caddo Indians, the Osage speak English today, but there is a renewed interest in learning the Osage language which is part of the Dhegihan language group.The Osage have developed their own alphabet that more accurately depicts the sound of their language.
28Osage clothing Osage women wore trade cloth dresses and leggings. Both men and women wore moccasins and long buffalo hide robes in cold weather.As with the Caddo, they wore tattoos.The Osage people are known for their intricate ribbon work that is placed on clothing and blankets.Osage women wore clothes similar to this.
29Osage menOsage men wore breechcloths and leggings just like the Caddo men did.
30Hairstyles and headdresses Osage men either wore their hair long or in a scalplock fashion.If they had a scalp lock they would sometimes wear a “roach.”This is a scalplock style
31Osage WomenOsage women wore their hair braided or tied back with ribbons.
32Osage transportationThe Osage used dogs to carry heavy loads when they traveled.It would look something like this!
33Osage foodThe Osage were big game hunters. They liked to hunt buffalo. Before they had horses, the men would drive the buffalo off a cliff to kill them.Osage women raised corn, beans, squash and pumpkins.
34Osage tools and weapons The Osage used bows and arrows and were known for their excellent long bows.In battles they also fought with clubs and spears!
35Osage homesThe Osage lived in settled villages and their homes were called lodges. Lodges were made of elm bark.
36Music of the OsageAs with the Caddo, the Osage played drums and a flute-like instrument.
37Osage folkloreA popular story among the Osage is “The Spider and the People.” This story is about how the spider became the symbol for the Osage.
38And now, the Quapaw! The Quapaw language Like the Caddo and Osage Indians, the Quapaw speak English but many also speak their Quapaw language.
39What did the Quapaw men wear? Similarly to other Native Americans, the men wore breechcloths with leather leggings and buckskin shirts.Men and women both wore moccasins and long buffalo robes in cold weather.In warm weather, the Quapaw wore less clothing, just like us!
40Quapaw women Quapaw women wore long deerskin dresses and wore their hair loose or braided.
41Quapaw men’s hairstyles and head coverings! Quapaw men often adorned their heads with a scalplock and wore a “roach” like Caddo and Osage men.Quapaw Leaders sometimes wore a headdress.
42Tribal tattoosNative Americans had special tattoos depending on their tribe and their deeds.These tattoos had religious significance.tattoos
43TransportationThe Quapaw knew how to make dugout canoes from cypress trees, but they usually traveled by land.They used dogs to pull a travois (like a sled) when they traveled by land. (The Osage did this also.)
44What did the Quapaw eat?The Quapaw ate basically the same things as the Caddo and Osage. The were farmers and ate corn, beans and squash.The men provided meat through the hunting of small game and organized buffalo hunts.
45Tools and weaponsThe Quapaw used bows and arrows to hunt and to fight. They also used war clubs and spears.War clubs could take many different forms.
46Quapaw homesQuapaw homes took time to build. They were made of river cane, wood and vines and coated with plaster. The roof was usually made of grass or tree bark.
47Quapaw childrenQuapaw children did the same thing that Caddo and Osage children did. They did chores and sometimes got to play with dolls or play games.As with other Native Americans, Quapaw mothers carried a young child in a cradleboard on her back.Remind the students that parents still carry their babies on their back today in a similar fashionImage is courtesy of the Wisconsin Historical Society,
48Art by the Quapaw This is Quapaw artwork. Here is an example of Quapaw beadwork.
49Music and the QuapawLike the Caddo and Osage, the Quapaw enjoyed music and dancing.
50Quapaw stories and legends Storytelling was very important to the Quapaw. One of their stories is about a monster or ogre.
51What were the roles of men and women among these three Indian tribes? Primarily the women were farmers, child- care givers and cooks.The men were the hunters and sometimes warriors if necessary. Chiefs were usually men.Both men and women participated in artwork, music, storytelling and medicine.
52What type of government did they have? Most Indian tribes/nations elected chiefs based on their character, family descent and ability.Chiefs were usually men but could be women.A tribal council actually governed the tribe or nation.
53Where are the American Indians of Arkansas today? There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Arkansas today. What are the reasons?DiseaseAmerican Indians did not have immunities from European introduced diseases such as influenza, small pox, measles, mumps, etc.Fifty to eighty percent of American Indians died in the first century of European contact.
54Decline of American Indian population, continued WarfareBattles between American Indian tribes caused a declineThe introduction of firearms (guns) made battle more deadly
55Decline of population (3) EnslavementSome American Indians were kidnapped and forced to be slaves in rich agricultural lands to the east
56Decline of population (4) Desire for Indian landAfter the purchase of the Louisiana territory by the U.S. government in 1803, many European settlers moved to the area.Treaties were signed that essentially took the land away from the American Indians.The land was a rich agricultural region desired by the new immigrants to the area
57First the Caddo American Indians Let’s do aReview!First the Caddo American Indians
58Language Clothing Hair & hair styles Caddo American Indian tribeLanguageClothingHair & hair stylesCaddoOriginally they spoke the Caddo language.Today they speak English and many of them also speak the Caddo language.Men wore breechcloths and leather leggings.Women wore skirts and tops made of animal skins.Both wore moccasins and earrings.Men wore their hair long or in a style called a scalplockThey sometimes wore a “ roach”.Women wore long hair in a bun.
59Food Transportation Caddo American IndianTribeTransportationFoodCaddoThe Caddo liked to travel by land, but also made dugout canoes for travel by water.They grew and ate corn, beans, pumpkins, and sunflowers.Also, they hunted deer, buffalo, small game and fished.
60Native Tribe Tools and weapons Caddo Homes Bows and arrows were used to hunt. Axes were used to chop wood.In battle they used bows and arrows and tomahawks.They were tall, dome-shaped grass houses.
61Children Art American Indian tribe Caddo They helped with chores. When they had time they played with dolls and toys and played games!The Caddo were famous for their very nice pottery.
62Music American Indian tribe Legends and folklore Caddo The Caddo loved the drum. They also loved to dance and sing.The Caddo had legends and stories they passed down through their children.
64Osage men wore breechcloths and leggings. American IndiantribeLanguageClothingHair stylesOsageThe Osage spoke their own language, but now speak English. Many speak their native language also.Osage men wore breechcloths and leggings.Women wore deerskin dresses and leggings.Both wore moccasins and tattoos.Men wore their hair long or wore a scalp- lock. Sometimes they added a “roach.”Women wore their long hair loose or braided.
65American Indian Tribe Transportation Food Osage The Osage preferred to travel by land. They would use dog sleds to carry heavy loads when they traveled. This is called a travois.Osage people liked to hunt big game such as buffalo. The women raised corn, beans, squash and pumpkins.
66American Indian tribe Tools and weapons Homes Osage The Osage used bows and arrows and longbows.They also used clubs and spears in battle.Osage homes were called a lodge. They were made of elm bark.
67American Indian Tribe Children Art Osage Osage children performed chores and had some time to play. When they played, they used dolls, toys and games.Pottery and beadwork were crafts at which the Osage excelled.
68American Indian Tribe Music Folklore and legends Osage They played the drums and a flute- like instrument.Both men and women told stories to pass on information to the children. One special story was about how the spider became the symbol for the Osage.
70Language Clothing Hair and hair styles Quapaw American Indian Tribe Like other native tribes, the Quapaw had their own language.Today they speak English and many speak their native language alsoThe men wore breechcloths with leggings and buckskin shirts.Women wore long deerskin dresses.Both wore moccasins and tattoos.Quapaw men shaved their heads except for a scalp- lock. They also wore a roach.Women wore their long hair loose or braided.
71American Indian tribe Transportation Food Quapaw The Quapaw made and traveled by dugout canoes.They also used dogs to pull a travois or sled when traveling with heavy loads by land.They ate corn, beans and squash.The men hunted small game and buffalo.
72American Indian Tribe Homes Tools and weapons Quapaw The Quapaw people used bows and arrows and clubs and spears.Their homes were permanent and took time to build. They were made of wood, vine, river cane and had a roof of grass or tree bark.
73American Indian tribe Children Art Quapaw Quapaw children, like other children, helped with the family chores and sometimes got to play with toys or play games.The Quapaw were very good at making pottery and doing beadwork.
74American Indian Tribe Music Legends and folktales Quapaw The Quapaw also liked to play musical instruments and to dance!Storytelling was important to the Quapaw as it was with the Caddo and Osage.One of their stories was about a monster!
75Review: Why did American Indian population decline in Arkansas? Which are the correct answers?-attacks by savage animals-disease-storms-floods-desire for their land by European settlers-warfare-earthquakes-enslavementThe correct answers are disease, desire for land by European settlers, warfare and enslavement
76That ends the Power Point on American Indians of Arkansas CaddoOsageQuapaw
77The information in this power point was made possible through the many great sources on the internet and in books available. There are many internet sites and books on the Native Americans of Arkansas available from those who have worked hard to preserve Native American history. Each tribe has its own website to preserve its history and its culture.. A list of internet sites follows on the next two slides. I would like to thank Dr. Trey Berry, author of The Arkansas Journey, for his advice and guidance and the many people who have preserved information on the rich heritage of American Indians.The information in this power point was made possible through the many great sources on the internet and in books available. There are many internet sites and books on the Native Americans of Arkansas available from those who have worked hard to preserve Native American history. Each tribe has its own website to preserve its history and its culture.. A list of internet sites follows on the next two slides. I would like to thank Dr. Trey Berry, author of The Arkansas Journey, for his advice and guidance and the many people who have preserved information on the rich heritage of American Indians.
78This power point was produced by Michele Wasson, Education Coordinator, Department of Arkansas Heritage.Matt Reed, Curator of American Indian Collections, Oklahoma Historical Society, edited and approved this Power Point for use in the elementary classroom.