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1 American Indians In early Arkansas For use in grades 1-5 classrooms Arkansasheritage.com

2 Arkansas frameworks related to American Indians in Arkansas The following frameworks are addressed in the following Power Point, grades K-5 The following frameworks are addressed in the following Power Point, grades K-5 –H.6.K.9: Understand the name of Arkansas originated from the Quapaw Indians –H : Recognize American Indian tribes of Arkansas: Osage, Quapaw and Caddo –H : Identify and describe the Arkansas Indian tribes: Osage, Quapaw, and Caddo –H : Identify the reasons for the decline of the native populations of Arkansas (e.g. influenza, small pox, competition for land) –H : Locate and describe the three main Indian cultures in Arkansas during the exploration period: Quapaw, Caddo and Osage Indians

3 Who are American Indians? American Indians were the first people to live in the Americas. They were here before the Europeans came and settled in the area we call the United States. American Indians were the first people to live in the Americas. They were here before the Europeans came and settled in the area we call the United States.

4 This map shows you where American Indians live today

5 There were three main American Indian tribes in early Arkansas Caddo Caddo Osage Osage Quapaw Quapaw

6 Lets find out about the Caddo Nation! The original name of the Caddo was Cadohadacho The original name of the Caddo was Cadohadacho When the Europeans came to North America, the Caddo lived in the present states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. When the Europeans came to North America, the Caddo lived in the present states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Today, most of the Caddo live in the state of Oklahoma. Today, most of the Caddo live in the state of Oklahoma.

7 The Caddo looked like this

8 Osage Nation The Osage Indians also lived in Arkansas The Osage Indians also lived in Arkansas –They originally lived in present day Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas and Arkansas. –Today, most of the people of the Osage Nation live in Oklahoma.

9 The Quapaw Tribe The name Quapaw (Ugakhpa or O-gah- pah) is translated as people who live downstream. The name Quapaw (Ugakhpa or O-gah- pah) is translated as people who live downstream. Our state is named for this American Indian tribe!

10 The Quapaw looked like this

11 Other early American Indians in Arkansas: Tunica-Biloxi Tribe and Chickasaw Nation The Tunica-Biloxi Tribe mainly lived in Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas. The Tunica-Biloxi Tribe mainly lived in Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas. Today the Tunica-Biloxi people are referred to as the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana and live in Louisiana. Today the Tunica-Biloxi people are referred to as the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana and live in Louisiana.

12 The people of the Chickasaw Nation lived in the northeast corner of the state. The Chickasaw primarily lived in the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri. The Chickasaw primarily lived in the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri. Today most of the Chickasaw live in the state of Oklahoma. Today most of the Chickasaw live in the state of Oklahoma.

13 Culture of the Caddo, Osage and Quapaw Culture is how a people live. It includes such things as the following: their language, clothing, hair styles, transportation, food, homes, how children are raised, music, arts, and folklore. Lets look at the culture of the these three tribes : the Caddo, Osage and Quapaw. Culture is how a people live. It includes such things as the following: their language, clothing, hair styles, transportation, food, homes, how children are raised, music, arts, and folklore. Lets look at the culture of the these three tribes : the Caddo, Osage and Quapaw.

14 First, the Caddo! Language Language Most Caddo speak English today but many also speak the Caddo language. Most Caddo speak English today but many also speak the Caddo language. Example: Kuaat(pronounced Koo- ah-aht) is a friendly greeting. Example: Kuaat(pronounced Koo- ah-aht) is a friendly greeting.

15 Caddo mens clothing Caddo men wore breechcloths Caddo men wore breechcloths and sometimes leather leggings. and sometimes leather leggings.

16 Caddo women Caddo women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of deerskin. They usually braided their hair or tied it back with ribbons. Caddo women wore wraparound skirts and poncho tops made of deerskin. They usually braided their hair or tied it back with ribbons. Both men and women wore earrings and moccasins. Both men and women wore earrings and moccasins.

17 Hair styles! Men wore their hair in a scalplock. (One long lock of hair on top of their head usually braided). Men wore their hair in a scalplock. (One long lock of hair on top of their head usually braided). Sometimes the men wore a roach or headpiece made of red-dyed deer hair and turkey beards. Sometimes the men wore a roach or headpiece made of red-dyed deer hair and turkey beards. turkey roach

18 Women and hair styles Caddo women usually wore their long hair in a bun. Caddo women usually wore their long hair in a bun. For special occasions they would add ornaments or ribbons to their bun. For special occasions they would add ornaments or ribbons to their bun.

19 Caddo transportation The Caddo preferred to travel by land but also made dugout canoes out of logs for travel by water. The Caddo preferred to travel by land but also made dugout canoes out of logs for travel by water.

20 What kind of food did the Caddo eat? The Caddo Indians were farmers and hunters. The Caddo Indians were farmers and hunters. –They grew corn, beans, pumpkins and sunflowers. –They hunted deer, buffalo and small game and fished.

21 Tools used by the Caddo To hunt they used bows and arrows To hunt they used bows and arrows They also made axes with a heavy stone head to chop wood. They also made axes with a heavy stone head to chop wood. When they fought other people, they used their bows and arrows and their tomahawk. When they fought other people, they used their bows and arrows and their tomahawk. Caddo ax

22 Caddo homes Caddo homes were tall, dome-shaped grass houses. Sometimes they were so large, 30 people could live in them! Caddo homes were tall, dome-shaped grass houses. Sometimes they were so large, 30 people could live in them!

23 How were Caddo children raised? Caddo children were busy doing chores for the family. They did not have much play time. Caddo children were busy doing chores for the family. They did not have much play time. –They did play with dolls and toys. A game they played was trying to throw a dart through a moving hoop. (hoop dart anyone?)

24 Caddo art The Caddo people were famous for their pottery. The Caddo people were famous for their pottery.

25 Caddo music The favorite Caddo musical instrument is the drum. As drums are played, other Caddo dance and sing.

26 Caddo Indian legends and folklore One story is called, Village Boy and Wild Boy. It is about mythical twins whose mother was killed by a monster. One story is called, Village Boy and Wild Boy. It is about mythical twins whose mother was killed by a monster. Another story is called Coyote. It is about a tricky figure who gets involved in different forms of mischief! Another story is called Coyote. It is about a tricky figure who gets involved in different forms of mischief!

27 Next is the Osage! What was their language? What was their language? As with the Caddo Indians, the Osage speak English today, but there is a renewed interest in learning the Osage language which is part of the Dhegihan language group. As with the Caddo Indians, the Osage speak English today, but there is a renewed interest in learning the Osage language which is part of the Dhegihan language group.

28 Osage clothing Osage women wore trade cloth dresses and leggings. Osage women wore trade cloth dresses and leggings. Both men and women wore moccasins and long buffalo hide robes in cold weather. Both men and women wore moccasins and long buffalo hide robes in cold weather. As with the Caddo, they wore tattoos. As with the Caddo, they wore tattoos. Osage women wore clothes similar to this.

29 Osage men Osage men wore breechcloths and leggings just like the Caddo men did. Osage men wore breechcloths and leggings just like the Caddo men did.

30 Hairstyles and headdresses Osage men either wore their hair long or in a scalplock fashion. Osage men either wore their hair long or in a scalplock fashion. If they had a scalp lock they would sometimes wear a roach. If they had a scalp lock they would sometimes wear a roach.

31 Osage Women Osage women wore their hair braided or tied back with ribbons. Osage women wore their hair braided or tied back with ribbons.

32 Osage transportation The Osage used dogs to carry heavy loads when they traveled. It would look something like this!

33 Osage food The Osage were big game hunters. They liked to hunt buffalo. Before they had horses, the men would drive the buffalo off a cliff to kill them. The Osage were big game hunters. They liked to hunt buffalo. Before they had horses, the men would drive the buffalo off a cliff to kill them. Osage women raised corn, beans, squash and pumpkins. Osage women raised corn, beans, squash and pumpkins.

34 Osage tools and weapons The Osage used bows and arrows and were known for their excellent long bows. The Osage used bows and arrows and were known for their excellent long bows. In battles they also fought with clubs and spears! In battles they also fought with clubs and spears!

35 Osage homes The Osage lived in settled villages and their homes were called lodges. Lodges were made of elm bark. The Osage lived in settled villages and their homes were called lodges. Lodges were made of elm bark.

36 Music of the Osage As with the Caddo, the Osage played drums and a flute-like instrument. As with the Caddo, the Osage played drums and a flute-like instrument.

37 Osage folklore A popular story among the Osage is The Spider and the People. This story is about how the spider became the symbol for the Osage. A popular story among the Osage is The Spider and the People. This story is about how the spider became the symbol for the Osage.

38 And now, the Quapaw! The Quapaw language The Quapaw language Like the Caddo and Osage Indians, the Quapaw speak English but many also speak their Quapaw language. Like the Caddo and Osage Indians, the Quapaw speak English but many also speak their Quapaw language.

39 What did the Quapaw men wear? Similarly to other Native Americans, the men wore breechcloths with leather leggings and buckskin shirts. Similarly to other Native Americans, the men wore breechcloths with leather leggings and buckskin shirts. Men and women both wore moccasins and long buffalo robes in cold weather. Men and women both wore moccasins and long buffalo robes in cold weather. In warm weather, the Quapaw wore less clothing, just like us! In warm weather, the Quapaw wore less clothing, just like us!

40 Quapaw women Quapaw women Quapaw women wore long deerskin dresses Quapaw women wore long deerskin dresses and wore their hair loose or braided.

41 Quapaw mens hairstyles and head coverings! Quapaw men often adorned their heads with a scalplock and wore a roach like Caddo and Osage men. Quapaw men often adorned their heads with a scalplock and wore a roach like Caddo and Osage men. Quapaw Leaders sometimes wore a headdress. Quapaw Leaders sometimes wore a headdress.

42 Tribal tattoos Native Americans had special tattoos depending on their tribe and their deeds. Native Americans had special tattoos depending on their tribe and their deeds. These tattoos had religious significance. These tattoos had religious significance. tattoos

43 Transportation The Quapaw knew how to make dugout canoes from cypress trees, but they usually traveled by land. The Quapaw knew how to make dugout canoes from cypress trees, but they usually traveled by land. They used dogs to pull a travois (like a sled) when they traveled by land. (The Osage did this also.) They used dogs to pull a travois (like a sled) when they traveled by land. (The Osage did this also.)

44 What did the Quapaw eat? The Quapaw ate basically the same things as the Caddo and Osage. The were farmers and ate corn, beans and squash. The Quapaw ate basically the same things as the Caddo and Osage. The were farmers and ate corn, beans and squash. The men provided meat through the hunting of small game and organized buffalo hunts. The men provided meat through the hunting of small game and organized buffalo hunts.

45 Tools and weapons The Quapaw used bows and arrows to hunt and to fight. They also used war clubs and spears. The Quapaw used bows and arrows to hunt and to fight. They also used war clubs and spears. War clubs could take many different forms. War clubs could take many different forms.

46 Quapaw homes Quapaw homes took time to build. They were made of river cane, wood and vines and coated with plaster. The roof was usually made of grass or tree bark. Quapaw homes took time to build. They were made of river cane, wood and vines and coated with plaster. The roof was usually made of grass or tree bark.

47 Quapaw children Quapaw children did the same thing that Caddo and Osage children did. They did chores and sometimes got to play with dolls or play games. Quapaw children did the same thing that Caddo and Osage children did. They did chores and sometimes got to play with dolls or play games. As with other Native Americans, Quapaw mothers carried a young child in a cradleboard on her back. As with other Native Americans, Quapaw mothers carried a young child in a cradleboard on her back. Image is courtesy of the Wisconsin Historical Society,

48 Art by the Quapaw This is Quapaw artwork. This is Quapaw artwork. Here is an example of Quapaw beadwork.

49 Music and the Quapaw Like the Caddo and Osage, the Quapaw enjoyed music and dancing. Like the Caddo and Osage, the Quapaw enjoyed music and dancing.

50 Quapaw stories and legends Storytelling was very important to the Quapaw. One of their stories is about a monster or ogre. Storytelling was very important to the Quapaw. One of their stories is about a monster or ogre.

51 What were the roles of men and women among these three Indian tribes? Primarily the women were farmers, child- care givers and cooks. Primarily the women were farmers, child- care givers and cooks. The men were the hunters and sometimes warriors if necessary. Chiefs were usually men. The men were the hunters and sometimes warriors if necessary. Chiefs were usually men. Both men and women participated in artwork, music, storytelling and medicine. Both men and women participated in artwork, music, storytelling and medicine.

52 What type of government did they have? Most Indian tribes/nations elected chiefs based on their character, family descent and ability. Most Indian tribes/nations elected chiefs based on their character, family descent and ability. –Chiefs were usually men but could be women. A tribal council actually governed the tribe or nation. A tribal council actually governed the tribe or nation.

53 Where are the American Indians of Arkansas today? Where are the American Indians of Arkansas today? There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Arkansas today. What are the reasons? There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Arkansas today. What are the reasons? –Disease American Indians did not have immunities from European introduced diseases such as influenza, small pox, measles, mumps, etc. American Indians did not have immunities from European introduced diseases such as influenza, small pox, measles, mumps, etc. Fifty to eighty percent of American Indians died in the first century of European contact. Fifty to eighty percent of American Indians died in the first century of European contact.

54 Decline of American Indian population, continued Warfare Warfare –Battles between American Indian tribes caused a decline –The introduction of firearms (guns) made battle more deadly

55 Decline of population (3) Enslavement Enslavement –Some American Indians were kidnapped and forced to be slaves in rich agricultural lands to the east

56 Decline of population (4) Desire for Indian land Desire for Indian land –After the purchase of the Louisiana territory by the U.S. government in 1803, many European settlers moved to the area. Treaties were signed that essentially took the land away from the American Indians. Treaties were signed that essentially took the land away from the American Indians. The land was a rich agricultural region desired by the new immigrants to the area The land was a rich agricultural region desired by the new immigrants to the area

57 Lets do a First the Caddo American Indians Review!

58 American Indian tribe LanguageClothing Hair & hair styles Caddo Originally they spoke the Caddo language. Today they speak English and many of them also speak the Caddo language. Men wore breechcloths and leather leggings. Women wore skirts and tops made of animal skins. Both wore moccasins and earrings. Men wore their hair long or in a style called a scalplock They sometimes wore a roach. Women wore long hair in a bun.

59 American Indian TribeTransportationFood Caddo The Caddo liked to travel by land, but also made dugout canoes for travel by water. They grew and ate corn, beans, pumpkins, and sunflowers. Also, they hunted deer, buffalo, small game and fished.

60 NativeTribe Tools and weapons Homes Homes Caddo Bows and arrows were used to hunt. Axes were used to chop wood. In battle they used bows and arrows and tomahawks. They were tall, dome-shaped grass houses.

61 American Indian tribe ChildrenArt Caddo They helped with chores. When they had time they played with dolls and toys and played games! The Caddo were famous for their very nice pottery.

62 American Indian tribe Music Legends and folklore Caddo The Caddo loved the drum. They also loved to dance and sing. The Caddo had legends and stories they passed down through their children.

63 Time to review the Osage!

64 American Indian tribeLanguage Clothing Clothing Hair styles Hair styles Osage The Osage spoke their own language, but now speak English. Many speak their native language also. Osage men wore breechcloths and leggings. Women wore deerskin dresses and leggings. Both wore moccasins and tattoos. Men wore their hair long or wore a scalp- lock. Sometimes they added a roach. Women wore their long hair loose or braided.

65 American Indian Tribe American Indian TribeTransportationFood Osage The Osage preferred to travel by land. They would use dog sleds to carry heavy loads when they traveled. This is called a travois. Osage people liked to hunt big game such as buffalo. The women raised corn, beans, squash and pumpkins.

66 American Indian tribe Tools and weapons Homes Osage The Osage used bows and arrows and longbows. They also used clubs and spears in battle. Osage homes were called a lodge. They were made of elm bark.

67 American Indian Tribe ChildrenArt Osage Osage children performed chores and had some time to play. When they played, they used dolls, toys and games. Pottery and beadwork were crafts at which the Osage excelled.

68 American Indian Tribe Music Folklore and legends Osage They played the drums and a flute- like instrument. Both men and women told stories to pass on information to the children. One special story was about how the spider became the symbol for the Osage.

69 And now, its the ???? Quapaw!

70 AmericanIndianTribeLanguageClothing Hair and hair styles Quapaw Like other native tribes, the Quapaw had their own language. Today they speak English and many speak their native language also The men wore breechcloths with leggings and buckskin shirts. Women wore long deerskin dresses. Both wore moccasins and tattoos. Quapaw men shaved their heads except for a scalp- lock. They also wore a roach. Women wore their long hair loose or braided.

71 American Indian tribe TransportationFood Quapaw The Quapaw made and traveled by dugout canoes. They also used dogs to pull a travois or sled when traveling with heavy loads by land. They also used dogs to pull a travois or sled when traveling with heavy loads by land. They ate corn, beans and squash. The men hunted small game and buffalo.

72 American Indian Tribe Tools and weapons Homes Quapaw The Quapaw people used bows and arrows and clubs and spears. Their homes were permanent and took time to build. They were made of wood, vine, river cane and had a roof of grass or tree bark.

73 American Indian tribe ChildrenArt Quapaw Quapaw children, like other children, helped with the family chores and sometimes got to play with toys or play games. The Quapaw were very good at making pottery and doing beadwork.

74 American Indian Tribe Music Legends and folktales Quapaw The Quapaw also liked to play musical instruments and to dance! Storytelling was important to the Quapaw as it was with the Caddo and Osage. One of their stories was about a monster!

75 Review: Why did American Indian population decline in Arkansas? Which are the correct answers? - attacks by savage animals -disease -storms -floods -desire for their land by European settlers -warfare -earthquakes -enslavement

76 Quapaw Osage Caddo That ends the Power Point on American Indians of Arkansas

77 The information in this power point was made possible through the many great sources on the internet and in books available. There are many internet sites and books on the Native Americans of Arkansas available from those who have worked hard to preserve Native American history. Each tribe has its own website to preserve its history and its culture.. A list of internet sites follows on the next two slides. I would like to thank Dr. Trey Berry, author of The Arkansas Journey, for his advice and guidance and the many people who have preserved information on the rich heritage of American Indians.

78 This power point was produced by Michele Wasson, Education Coordinator, Department of Arkansas Heritage. Matt Reed, Curator of American Indian Collections, Oklahoma Historical Society, edited and approved this Power Point for use in the elementary classroom.

79 Internet sources used oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&oe=&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih=823 oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&oe=&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih=823 oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&oe=&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih=823 oft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&oe=&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih= americans/ americans/ americans/ americans/ &tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi =g1&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= &tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi =g1&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= &tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi =g1&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai &tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi =g1&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai

80 Sources, continued &q=quapaw+indians&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g2&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= &q=quapaw+indians&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g2&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= &q=quapaw+indians&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g2&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai &q=quapaw+indians&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g2&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Caddo+Indians&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Caddo+Indians&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Caddo+Indians&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Caddo+Indians&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=&oq= &gs_rfai= ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=&oq= &gs_rfai= ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=&oq= &gs_rfai ch%3A1&sa=1&q=Tunica+indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=&oq= &gs_rfai


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