Presentation on theme: "Leader in Enterprise Productivity Solutions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Leader in Enterprise Productivity Solutions September 23, 2003Leader in Enterprise Productivity SolutionsOnline Learning in the Age of SCORM Claude Ostyn Learning Standards StrategistAspen | ToolBook | Consulting | Implementation | Solutions
12 Where can learning technology standards help? To design and implement:Competency requirementsAdaptive instructional strategiesFlexible and reconfigurableContent gathering automationContent reuse, cannibalizationQuick deployment, regardless of platformsAccessibility, ADA complianceAssessment data collectionReusable Competency DefinitionsSimple sequencing, SCORM 1.3SCORMIEEE Metadata, SCORM metadataSCORM, IEEE APIIMS Accessibility profilesIEEE content object communication
13 A closer look at two standards initiatives WhichReusable Competency Definitions (RDCEO)SCORMPoint of viewHow they can impact learning
14 General competency data framework Competency data may includeReusable (generic) definition of the competencyEvidence of competency (e.g. result of assessment)Context within which the competency is defined, or that defines the competency (e.g. social or work context)Dimensions (e.g. proficiency on a scale, duration of a certification)ContextDefinitionEvidenceDimensions
15 Reusable Competency Definition For different peopleIn different contextsWith different evidenceWith different metricsExample“Can diagnose a fault in a Cat5 network cable”
16 For example X001 is the identifier of a competency definition Here is an activity designed to learn X001Here is a learning object designed to learn X001Here is a different learning object designed to learn X001; this one is a video clipHere is someone who is an expert resource on X001Here is a learning object designed to practice X001Here is an assessment designed to test X001Here is some evidence that Ann knows how to do X001Here is some evidence that Joe was assessed on X001, using instrument XYZ on June 2, 2003, with a 72% score
17 Application exampleUnique identifiers of competency definitions, regardless of the content of the definition, can be used as “currency” in learning system operations.ContextDimensionsDimensionsEvidenceDefinitionsSkill gap analysisSystem view = “This learner needs A, B, and Q but not P”Human view = Understand what is defined by A, B, Q, P, etc.
18 Shareable Content Object Reference Model SCORMShareable Content Object Reference ModelAdvanced Distributed Learning initiativeDept. of Defense, Dept. of Labor, Industry, EducationInitial focus: Distributed learning accessible through a web browserDeliver and track through any LMS, any browser, anywhere
19 Shareable Content Object Reference Model SCORMShareable Content Object Reference ModelAdvanced Distributed Learning initiativeDept. of Defense, Dept. of Labor, Industry, EducationInitial focus: Distributed learning accessible through a web browserDeliver and track through any LMS, any browser, anywhereSCORM 1.2How to package content to make it portableMetadata (information about it)How a LMS launches the content in a browserHow content communicates with the LMSWhat is being communicated
20 SCORM works today Adopted by all major LMS & LCMS vendors Used by Fortune 1000 enterprisesMandated by DoD, other federal agenciesContent vendors are slower to adoptTime to deploy contentBefore SCORM: Weeks, months…With SCORM: Seconds, minutes…Cost of content integrationBefore SCORM with SCORM
21 SCORM 1.2 – Instructional design perspective AdvantagesReusable content objectsThe learner choosesFlexible aggregation modelUse your favorite nomenclatureShortened timeline allow more timely contentBroader deployment options and better longevity allow better ROI for desirable but expensive content (e.g. simulations)No restriction on pedagogical approachLimitationsNo sequencing between content objects – the learner choosesNo guided learningAdaptive learning strategies must be built inside the content objectsNo standard for collaborative learningSome tools are only beginning to catch up
22 SCORM evolvesSCORM 1.3Focus on activities that use content, rather than content as suchSequencing of activitiesAdaptive sequencing optionsExpected final version: Late 2003SCORM 1.2How to package content to make it portableMetadata (information about it)How a LMS launches the content in a browserHow the content communicates with the LMSWhat is being communicatedIn use today
23 SCORM 1.3 – Instructional design perspective AdvantagesAdvantages of SCORM 1.2Designer can choose to sequence the activities that use the content objectsSequencing rules based on success and/or completionSupports tracking & assessment of competenciesCan mix guided learning with discovery and free playAdaptive learning strategies can be defined for all levels of the activity treeAllows visual continuityLimitationsCollaborative learning is out of scopeNo support for interacting with “persistent” simulations (but it’s in the works)High level design and authoring tools to really take advantage of SCORM 1.3 will take a while to appearMain problem: Failure of imagination
24 For exampleThe following slides illustrate some simple sequencing scenarios in SCORM 1.3Except as otherwise noted, these scenarios are not supported by SCORM 1.2, but must be supported by every SCORM 1.3 conformant player.This functionality is defined in the current SCORM 1.3 draft and is stable. Other aspects of the SCORM 1.3 draft are subject to change before the final version is released.
25 A designed learning activity “cluster” Unit XPre-testTutorialTopic 1Topic 2Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
26 Activities associated to competency definitions Relevant for: SKILLSET1also SKILL1, SKILL2, SKILL3Unit XPre-testRelevant for: SKILLSET1also SKILL1, SKILL2, SKILL3TutorialTopic 1Relevant for: SKILL1Topic 2Relevant for: SKILL2Topic 3Relevant for: SKILL3Post-testRelevant for: SKILLSET1also SKILL1, SKILL2, SKILL3Unit X+1Note: SCORM 1.3 does not specify or require theuse of competency definitions, but it dovetails neatly with that specification by allowing you to associate custom objective identifiers with one or more activities.
27 Resource associationEach “leaf” activity (activity that does not have sub-activities) typically uses a learning resource: Content, assessment, ILT course, …In SCORM 1.2, the user can choose any activity in any order.SCORM assumes that every leaf activity uses a resource accessible through a web server.Unit XPre-testTutorialTopic 1Topic 2Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
28 Navigation mode: Choice The learner can choose any activity, in any order.This is the only navigation mode that can be assumed in SCORM 1.2Unit XPre-testTutorialTopic 1Topic 2Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
29 Navigation mode: Guided flow The designer enables the “flow” mode.This guides the learner through each activity in a predictable sequence.Unit XPre-testTutorialTopic 1Topic 2Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
30 Navigation mode: Choice + Flow The learner can choose any activity, in any order.The learner can also follow the guided flow. For example, just clicking a “Continue” button will go to the next activity in the flow.Two different learning styles can be accommodated by this simple combination. Field independent learners do not want to follow a flow, but field dependent learners tend to use the guided flow.Unit XPre-testTutorialTopic 1Topic 2Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
31 The design may also embed rules Unit XRetry until successfulPre-testUse pre-test to determine which topics to suggest to the user in the guided flowCan be taken only onceIf passed, skip to next unitTutorialTopic 1Topic 2In the tutorialSkip topics already masteredSkip all if pre-test passedTopic 3Post-testOnce post-test taken, learner can no longer take the pretest.Unit X+1
32 Tracking data model for each activity SuccessSuccessful?How successful? (“score”)Applies to activity objective.The objective can be implicit or explicit (e.g. reference to a reusable competency definition)CompletionCompleted?
33 Example: Learner tries, fails, tries again RulesUnit XRetry until successfulPre-testUse pre-test to determine which topics to suggest to the user in the guided flowCan be taken only onceIf passed, skip to next unitTutorialTopic 1Topic 2In the tutorialSkip topics already masteredSkip all if pre-test passedTopic 3Post-testOnce post-test taken, learner can no longer take the pretest.Unit X+1
34 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity Unit XUser masters every objective in the pre-testPre-testPretest resultsTutorialObjective SKILL1Topic 1Objective SKILL2Objective SKILL3Topic 2Objective SKILLSET1Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
35 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity Unit XUser masters 2 of 3 objectives in the pre-testPre-testPretest resultsTutorialObjective SKILL1Topic 1Objective SKILL2Objective SKILL3Topic 2Objective SKILLSET1Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
36 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity Unit XUser masters none of the 3 objectives in the pre-testPre-testPretest resultsTutorialObjective SKILL1Topic 1Objective SKILL2Topic 2Objective SKILL3Objective SKILLSET1Topic 3Post-testUnit X+1
37 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity User skips the pre-test and chooses some activityUnit XPre-testPretest resultsTutorialObjective SKILL1Topic 1Objective SKILL2Topic 2Objective SKILL3Objective SKILLSET1Topic 3The post-test may update the status of the objectives even if the pre-test was not takenPost-testUnit X+1
38 Example: Different strategy second time around RulesUnit XRetry until successfulPre-testUse pre-test to determine which topics to suggest to the user in the guided flowCan be taken only onceIf passed, skip to next unitTutorialTopic 1Topic 2In the tutorialSkip topics already masteredSkip all if pre-test passedTopic 3Post-testOnce post-test taken, learner can no longer take the pretest.Unit X+1
39 Example: Use different method on retry RulesOn 1st pass, use Method 1; on 2nd pass, use Method 2; on 3rd pass, use Method 3; on any subsequent pass, use the Else method.Topic 1 (cluster)3rd pass1st pass2nd passIntroductionSkip if completed previouslyMethod 1Skip if completed previouslyExit cluster when completedMethod 2Method 3Else…(no special rule)Next in flow
40 Applications of the SCORM activity model The SCORM 1.3 simple sequencing model and rule can be applied to various scales and purposesA curriculumA courseA gameThe workflow through a taskPatterns of activity rules may become reusable strategy templatesIndependent of the goalIndependent of the learning resources usedConceptual challengeThink in terms of “skip and retry, and check status” rather than traditional CBT “branching”.
41 Activities and competency management Existing competency records may affect sequencingE.g. Skip activity if existing records show that the objective has been mastered alreadyA “learning plan” is no longer tied to specific learning resourcesWhatever resource can achieve the same objective will doContent can be modified and updated without having to lose user tracking information, because competency records are keyed to competency definitions, not to specific learning resources.
42 Summary Before, effective design meant Active engagement of the learnerAdaptability to learner’s knowledge and traitsAlignment with training goals and objectivesCreating a nice piece of contentStrong graphic design and continuityProgressive, planned elaboration of conceptual knowledge and skills.5 year plansNow, effective design meansActive engagement of the learnerAdaptability to learner’s knowledge and traitsAlignment with business goals and objectivesUsing whatever means will lead to learning, often in a blended approachMTV approach –learning is a discontinuous process.Guerilla learning – whatever works, when it needs to work
43 So, where to start Focus on the goals What are the business drivers? Which competencies or skills do we need to build?Where do they apply?Are they already defined somewhere? (if so, reuse those definitions; otherwise create them)What resources are already available? (are there learning objects described by standard metadata we can search)Then do itEasier said than done, need tools and platforms. A traditional LMS is no longer enoughLet learners be the guide—if they need it they’ll use it
44 (See next slide for some acronyms, buzzword definitions and links) Thank you(See next slide for some acronyms, buzzword definitions and links)
45 Acronyms and buzzwords SCORM (explained in this presentation)AICC – Aviation Industry CBT Committee ( One of the first organizations that published CBT technology standards for the aviation industry. SCORM is based in part on some elements of an AICC specification.IMS – IMS Global Learning Consortium ( Consortium of higher education, industry and government organizations to develop E-learning standards. SCORM is based in part on IMS specifications.IEEE LTSC -- Learning Technology Standards Committee of the International Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards association. ( An international accredited standards organization. SCORM is based in part on IEEE standards and drafts.ISD – Instructional System Design A methodology that was developed a few decades ago large size military and industrial instructional design and training deployment, to try to guarantee that a standard process is followed and documented. Hotly debated for years.HR-XML Consortium ( A consortium of corporations and HR services vendors, that specified XML schemas for exchange and storage of HR information