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Leader in Enterprise Productivity Solutions

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1 Leader in Enterprise Productivity Solutions
September 23, 2003 Leader in Enterprise Productivity Solutions Online Learning in the Age of SCORM Claude Ostyn Learning Standards Strategist Aspen | ToolBook | Consulting | Implementation | Solutions

2 Copyright © 2003 Click2learn, Inc. – All rights reserved
Synopsis This presentation was designed to achieve the following objectives: Provide a synopsis of SCORM 1.2 and 1.3 Provide a synopsis of Reusable Competency Definitions Describe some of the ways SCORM and Reusable Competency Definitions affect instructional design Explore one or more simple sequencing scenarios Relate sequencing and competency management Copyright © 2003 Click2learn, Inc. – All rights reserved

3 Not the 20th Century E-learning anymore
The push model

4 Not the 20th Century E-learning anymore
ISD

5 This is not your parent’s E-learning anymore
Working = Learning

6 Working = Learning = Working = Learning

7 Evolution From Focus on Instruction To Focus on Outcomes Know it all
Just in time CBT Blended learning From Individual pedagogy To Social pedagogy Lone Learner Learning together e-learning Learning

8 Is there still a place for ISD?
Yesterday’s model

9 Is there still a place for ISD?
Yesterday’s model Today’s model Start Here

10 Is there still a place for ISD?
Yesterday’s model Today’s model

11 The Content Delivery Challenge

12 Where can learning technology standards help?
To design and implement: Competency requirements Adaptive instructional strategies Flexible and reconfigurable Content gathering automation Content reuse, cannibalization Quick deployment, regardless of platforms Accessibility, ADA compliance Assessment data collection Reusable Competency Definitions Simple sequencing, SCORM 1.3 SCORM IEEE Metadata, SCORM metadata SCORM, IEEE API IMS Accessibility profiles IEEE content object communication

13 A closer look at two standards initiatives
Which Reusable Competency Definitions (RDCEO) SCORM Point of view How they can impact learning

14 General competency data framework
Competency data may include Reusable (generic) definition of the competency Evidence of competency (e.g. result of assessment) Context within which the competency is defined, or that defines the competency (e.g. social or work context) Dimensions (e.g. proficiency on a scale, duration of a certification) Context Definition Evidence Dimensions

15 Reusable Competency Definition
For different people In different contexts With different evidence With different metrics Example “Can diagnose a fault in a Cat5 network cable”

16 For example X001 is the identifier of a competency definition
Here is an activity designed to learn X001 Here is a learning object designed to learn X001 Here is a different learning object designed to learn X001; this one is a video clip Here is someone who is an expert resource on X001 Here is a learning object designed to practice X001 Here is an assessment designed to test X001 Here is some evidence that Ann knows how to do X001 Here is some evidence that Joe was assessed on X001, using instrument XYZ on June 2, 2003, with a 72% score

17 Application example Unique identifiers of competency definitions, regardless of the content of the definition, can be used as “currency” in learning system operations. Context Dimensions Dimensions Evidence Definitions Skill gap analysis System view = “This learner needs A, B, and Q but not P” Human view = Understand what is defined by A, B, Q, P, etc.

18 Shareable Content Object Reference Model
SCORM Shareable Content Object Reference Model Advanced Distributed Learning initiative Dept. of Defense, Dept. of Labor, Industry, Education Initial focus: Distributed learning accessible through a web browser Deliver and track through any LMS, any browser, anywhere

19 Shareable Content Object Reference Model
SCORM Shareable Content Object Reference Model Advanced Distributed Learning initiative Dept. of Defense, Dept. of Labor, Industry, Education Initial focus: Distributed learning accessible through a web browser Deliver and track through any LMS, any browser, anywhere SCORM 1.2 How to package content to make it portable Metadata (information about it) How a LMS launches the content in a browser How content communicates with the LMS What is being communicated

20 SCORM works today Adopted by all major LMS & LCMS vendors
Used by Fortune 1000 enterprises Mandated by DoD, other federal agencies Content vendors are slower to adopt Time to deploy content Before SCORM: Weeks, months… With SCORM: Seconds, minutes… Cost of content integration Before SCORM with SCORM

21 SCORM 1.2 – Instructional design perspective
Advantages Reusable content objects The learner chooses Flexible aggregation model Use your favorite nomenclature Shortened timeline allow more timely content Broader deployment options and better longevity allow better ROI for desirable but expensive content (e.g. simulations) No restriction on pedagogical approach Limitations No sequencing between content objects – the learner chooses No guided learning Adaptive learning strategies must be built inside the content objects No standard for collaborative learning Some tools are only beginning to catch up

22 SCORM evolves SCORM 1.3 Focus on activities that use content, rather than content as such Sequencing of activities Adaptive sequencing options Expected final version: Late 2003 SCORM 1.2 How to package content to make it portable Metadata (information about it) How a LMS launches the content in a browser How the content communicates with the LMS What is being communicated In use today

23 SCORM 1.3 – Instructional design perspective
Advantages Advantages of SCORM 1.2 Designer can choose to sequence the activities that use the content objects Sequencing rules based on success and/or completion Supports tracking & assessment of competencies Can mix guided learning with discovery and free play Adaptive learning strategies can be defined for all levels of the activity tree Allows visual continuity Limitations Collaborative learning is out of scope No support for interacting with “persistent” simulations (but it’s in the works) High level design and authoring tools to really take advantage of SCORM 1.3 will take a while to appear Main problem: Failure of imagination

24 For example The following slides illustrate some simple sequencing scenarios in SCORM 1.3 Except as otherwise noted, these scenarios are not supported by SCORM 1.2, but must be supported by every SCORM 1.3 conformant player. This functionality is defined in the current SCORM 1.3 draft and is stable. Other aspects of the SCORM 1.3 draft are subject to change before the final version is released.

25 A designed learning activity “cluster”
Unit X Pre-test Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

26 Activities associated to competency definitions
Relevant for: SKILLSET1 also SKILL1, SKILL2, SKILL3 Unit X Pre-test Relevant for: SKILLSET1 also SKILL1, SKILL2, SKILL3 Tutorial Topic 1 Relevant for: SKILL1 Topic 2 Relevant for: SKILL2 Topic 3 Relevant for: SKILL3 Post-test Relevant for: SKILLSET1 also SKILL1, SKILL2, SKILL3 Unit X+1 Note: SCORM 1.3 does not specify or require the use of competency definitions, but it dovetails neatly with that specification by allowing you to associate custom objective identifiers with one or more activities.

27 Resource association Each “leaf” activity (activity that does not have sub-activities) typically uses a learning resource: Content, assessment, ILT course, … In SCORM 1.2, the user can choose any activity in any order. SCORM assumes that every leaf activity uses a resource accessible through a web server. Unit X Pre-test Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

28 Navigation mode: Choice
The learner can choose any activity, in any order. This is the only navigation mode that can be assumed in SCORM 1.2 Unit X Pre-test Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

29 Navigation mode: Guided flow
The designer enables the “flow” mode. This guides the learner through each activity in a predictable sequence. Unit X Pre-test Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

30 Navigation mode: Choice + Flow
The learner can choose any activity, in any order. The learner can also follow the guided flow. For example, just clicking a “Continue” button will go to the next activity in the flow. Two different learning styles can be accommodated by this simple combination. Field independent learners do not want to follow a flow, but field dependent learners tend to use the guided flow. Unit X Pre-test Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

31 The design may also embed rules
Unit X Retry until successful Pre-test Use pre-test to determine which topics to suggest to the user in the guided flow Can be taken only once If passed, skip to next unit Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 In the tutorial Skip topics already mastered Skip all if pre-test passed Topic 3 Post-test Once post-test taken, learner can no longer take the pretest. Unit X+1

32 Tracking data model for each activity
Success Successful? How successful? (“score”) Applies to activity objective. The objective can be implicit or explicit (e.g. reference to a reusable competency definition) Completion Completed?

33 Example: Learner tries, fails, tries again
Rules Unit X Retry until successful Pre-test Use pre-test to determine which topics to suggest to the user in the guided flow Can be taken only once If passed, skip to next unit Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 In the tutorial Skip topics already mastered Skip all if pre-test passed Topic 3 Post-test Once post-test taken, learner can no longer take the pretest. Unit X+1

34 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity
Unit X User masters every objective in the pre-test Pre-test Pretest results Tutorial Objective SKILL1 Topic 1 Objective SKILL2 Objective SKILL3 Topic 2 Objective SKILLSET1 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

35 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity
Unit X User masters 2 of 3 objectives in the pre-test Pre-test Pretest results Tutorial Objective SKILL1 Topic 1 Objective SKILL2 Objective SKILL3 Topic 2 Objective SKILLSET1 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

36 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity
Unit X User masters none of the 3 objectives in the pre-test Pre-test Pretest results Tutorial Objective SKILL1 Topic 1 Objective SKILL2 Topic 2 Objective SKILL3 Objective SKILLSET1 Topic 3 Post-test Unit X+1

37 Scenario 1: “Test out” of the learning activity
User skips the pre-test and chooses some activity Unit X Pre-test Pretest results Tutorial Objective SKILL1 Topic 1 Objective SKILL2 Topic 2 Objective SKILL3 Objective SKILLSET1 Topic 3 The post-test may update the status of the objectives even if the pre-test was not taken Post-test Unit X+1

38 Example: Different strategy second time around
Rules Unit X Retry until successful Pre-test Use pre-test to determine which topics to suggest to the user in the guided flow Can be taken only once If passed, skip to next unit Tutorial Topic 1 Topic 2 In the tutorial Skip topics already mastered Skip all if pre-test passed Topic 3 Post-test Once post-test taken, learner can no longer take the pretest. Unit X+1

39 Example: Use different method on retry
Rules On 1st pass, use Method 1; on 2nd pass, use Method 2; on 3rd pass, use Method 3; on any subsequent pass, use the Else method. Topic 1 (cluster) 3rd pass 1st pass 2nd pass Introduction Skip if completed previously Method 1 Skip if completed previously Exit cluster when completed Method 2 Method 3 Else… (no special rule) Next in flow

40 Applications of the SCORM activity model
The SCORM 1.3 simple sequencing model and rule can be applied to various scales and purposes A curriculum A course A game The workflow through a task Patterns of activity rules may become reusable strategy templates Independent of the goal Independent of the learning resources used Conceptual challenge Think in terms of “skip and retry, and check status” rather than traditional CBT “branching”.

41 Activities and competency management
Existing competency records may affect sequencing E.g. Skip activity if existing records show that the objective has been mastered already A “learning plan” is no longer tied to specific learning resources Whatever resource can achieve the same objective will do Content can be modified and updated without having to lose user tracking information, because competency records are keyed to competency definitions, not to specific learning resources.

42 Summary Before, effective design meant
Active engagement of the learner Adaptability to learner’s knowledge and traits Alignment with training goals and objectives Creating a nice piece of content Strong graphic design and continuity Progressive, planned elaboration of conceptual knowledge and skills. 5 year plans Now, effective design means Active engagement of the learner Adaptability to learner’s knowledge and traits Alignment with business goals and objectives Using whatever means will lead to learning, often in a blended approach MTV approach –learning is a discontinuous process. Guerilla learning – whatever works, when it needs to work

43 So, where to start Focus on the goals What are the business drivers?
Which competencies or skills do we need to build? Where do they apply? Are they already defined somewhere? (if so, reuse those definitions; otherwise create them) What resources are already available? (are there learning objects described by standard metadata we can search) Then do it Easier said than done, need tools and platforms. A traditional LMS is no longer enough Let learners be the guide—if they need it they’ll use it

44 (See next slide for some acronyms, buzzword definitions and links)
Thank you (See next slide for some acronyms, buzzword definitions and links)

45 Acronyms and buzzwords
SCORM (explained in this presentation) AICC – Aviation Industry CBT Committee (http://www.aicc.org) One of the first organizations that published CBT technology standards for the aviation industry. SCORM is based in part on some elements of an AICC specification. IMS – IMS Global Learning Consortium (http://imsglobal.org) Consortium of higher education, industry and government organizations to develop E-learning standards. SCORM is based in part on IMS specifications. IEEE LTSC -- Learning Technology Standards Committee of the International Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards association. (http://ltsc.ieee.org) An international accredited standards organization. SCORM is based in part on IEEE standards and drafts. ISD – Instructional System Design A methodology that was developed a few decades ago large size military and industrial instructional design and training deployment, to try to guarantee that a standard process is followed and documented. Hotly debated for years. HR-XML Consortium (http://hr-xml.org) A consortium of corporations and HR services vendors, that specified XML schemas for exchange and storage of HR information


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