Presentation on theme: "Instructional Strategies for Elementary Students with TBI Susan J. Roland."— Presentation transcript:
Instructional Strategies for Elementary Students with TBI Susan J. Roland
Areas for Interventions Everyday Instruction/Best Practices Executive Functions Organization Cognitive Flexibility Orientation Issues Problem Solving Memory and New Learning Attention Some Specifics for Behavior
Interventions for Students with TBI Follow principles of good instruction Are often beneficial to entire group Are highly specific to the individual needs of the student
4 Facts on Long-Term changes: No 2 students will be alike. Changes are unlikely to disappear fully over time; the students recovery will most likely only be partial. Negative consequences may not be seen immediately but only emerge when developmental demands reveal deficits and problems. An injured brain is less likely to meet the increasingly complex tasks all children face as they get older. Hibbard, M., Gordan, W., Martin, T., Raskin, B., Brown, M. (2001) Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification, Assessment and Classification, Assessment and Classroom Accommodations : NYC, NY 4 4
Best Practice for Instructions Demonstrate what you want the student to do (pair visuals with verbal) Use many positive and negative examples Show an example of what you want AND dont want Point out how the positive examples are the same - Point out the obvious - it most likely is NOT obvious to some
Best Practice: Instruction Use consistent language to reduce the chance for error Use Rubrics for grading - this is the easiest way to modify grades for the teacher and the best way to lay out expectations Monitor student performance to prevent errors in practice and responses Provide positive corrective feedback (The more we work on this, the easier this is going to get!) Include systematic reinforcement and correction in a positive way
Best Practice: Instruction Evaluate Your Teaching Starting level correct? Did you monitor the students performance? record the students progress Review student progress Change the instruction as needed until the student is making progress in the designated curriculum Madigan, K., Hall T.E.,& Glang, A., (1997). Effective Instructional Practices for students with ABI in Students with Acquired Brain Injury: The schools response. Glang, A., Singer, George, Todis, B. Eds. Brookes: Baltimore
Executive Function Strategies planning, organization, initiation, time management, working memory, flexibility cognition, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking; judgment; and problem-solving
Key Components of an Intervention Plan for EF: Get information from a variety of sources: interviews, behavior checklists, observations, and work samples along with formalized assessment List problem areas Link problem areas to the executive function that best describe the problem Match information across and between settings and domains Choose an executive function to work on, that will be meaningful to the student
Paul Paul has been having a difficult time at school socializing with his peers. He enjoys socializing and talking but classmates get frustrated with him because he only wants to talk about himself. When he tries to talk with his peers, they just ignore him. What has been observed is that he talks at length without allowing anyone else to speak. He only speaks about himself. Using his goal of wanting to talk to others and addressing Pauls needs to listen, and be more flexible in topic choice The areas are linked to help create Pauls intervention
What might be an intervention to try with Paul?
Paul Paul might set a goal of talking to others about something of interest to them. Paul works with the speech pathologist to generate a list, of topics of interest, specific to a targeted peer/individual He role plays/practices speaking to the target person with the guidance of the speech pathologist or other mentor Paul practices with other people using less and less adult coaching for increased flexibility in a variety of situations.
Evaluation of Pauls Intervention Examine the effectiveness of the intervention by documenting the following: Were the intervention and supports put into place? Duration Frequency How did it work? How many teacher prompts were needed? How natural was the conversation? Whats the plan for reducing the number of supports?
Students may grasp the main concepts but may be unable to show their knowledge because of EF difficulties
Teach Routine The day should be predictable but still fun! Routines within your daily schedule (stimulation breaks, set restroom breaks) Visual schedule (on the board for all, on desk for a few, or an individualized picture schedule - use clock faces if you need to) Creeds, chants, songs Utilize school organizational materials (planner, etc)
Moving to the Large Group Explicitly teach the EF skill needed in an applied setting Fade supports as soon as the student is able to accomplish the skills Use external reinforcements only as necessary Explicitly teach the skill needed in other settings to assist in generalization of skills Guide practice of skill through group coaching or mentoring Fade guidance as skill becomes internalized and guidance is no longer needed
Classroom Interventions for Executive Function Changes in the Environment Change the physical or social environment by Changing the level of background noise Changing the level of visual stimulation Changing the physical restrictions (walls, room size etc.) Use of lists or visual reminders Changing the amount of organizational structures
Can they answer the BIG 5? 1. Know when to start 2. How much to do 3. How to do it 4. What finished looks like 5. What to do next
Specific strategies for ORGANIZATION
Organization Use a planner or back and forth notebook with check-in and check-out system Help students develop methods to organize Materials – According file folders – Box on the floor rather than in the desk Easier to access and less of an opportunity for the black hole Ideas and information – Provide choices rather than open ended suggestions
Organizational strategies for note taking from lectures Cornell notes or two column notes Graphic organizers (i.e. Thinking Maps) Teacher provided note-taking templates Teacher provided guided notes Focused notes (main points - not everything) 21
Use of rubrics or other systemic methods of informing a student exactly what is expected for a job well done Show/display positive examples of completed assignments and products Strategies for writing Structured and organized Show/display examples and non- examples
Specific strategies for COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY
Strategies to Help with Cognitive Flexibility : Develop a daily routine that is maximally functional. homework in planner where and when to turn in homework each day schedule What is most important to you as the teacher, parent or student?
Practice identifying multiple meanings in words, jokes, and riddles Take advantage of on the spot teaching when ever the opportunity arises! Encourage students to generate multiple ways to solve problems or settle disputes Anticipate and plan for situations that require mental flexibility and thinking on ones feet (practice) 25
Encourage students to compare current problems to previous problems and look for similarities and differences (facilitate making those connections!) Shifting from one topic to another Picture or written schedules Verbally assist students with metaphors EXPLAIN commonly used slang assume they do NOT understand it
Self Monitoring and Checking Helps students learn self regulation Students need to know types of errors to look for how to check for these errors exactly how to correct the errors Give EXPLICIT instructions show an example hand-over-hand or after showing the class the example, go over to Mary and ask her to show you an example of how to correct an error
Cognitive Scripting Specifics Help children understand what it looks like to learn Teach turn taking Teach asking for help Use social stories (autism.org) SHOW what it looks like
Educational Accommodations for Orientation Issues Have student use assignment book or planner. Have student use assignment book or planner. Use peer buddies Maintain consistent room arrangement, materials. Label significant objects and materials. Teach child to look for permanent landmarks.
Educational Accommodations for Orientation Issues (Continued) Provide charts, schedules, maps, that describe daily routines and routes. Have child verbalize how to get a to place before going. Allow extra time in moving from one location to another.
Educational Accommodations for Problem Solving Role play cause and effect scenarios. Teach the structure and format of an activity. Raise questions about alternatives for behavior. Demonstrate application or problem solving skills across daily routines. Provide ongoing feedback.
Educational Accommodations for Problem Solving (Continued) Provide a highly structured learning environment. Provide assistance with alternate solutions and courses of actions. Provide assistance with sequencing tasks and prioritizing objectives. Provide clear expectations.
Commonsense Guidelines Always make your expectations clear. Keep focused on task on hand. Praise effort, not outcome. Pick your battles, do not force confrontations. Dont say no, say try again. Ask questions and give choices.
Commonsense Guidelines cont. Speak with respect: give choices not orders; speak calmly and firmly; and do things to help the child learn. Make a plan prior to every activity. Evaluate activities and outcomes frequently. Create an organized, structured learning environment. Describe and model behaviors that you want.
Specific Strategies for Memory & NEW LEARNING
Practice, Practice, Practice repeated practice spaced and varied intervals spiraled practice (come back to it in 1-3 months) Include pictures or visual cues with verbal information Provide a schedule of tests, reports, and assignments to parents several week prior to due dates
Due to difficulties of free recall of information, allow use of aids such as: a vocabulary list or a word bank open-book and open-notes test formats (with highlighted information) test questions in a multiple-choice or matching format 37
Focus the students attention on specific information: Im going to read a story and ask WHO is in the story. Draw connections between new information and prior knowledge Reduce the amount of information that you student is studying or working with to 5 or 6 main point rather than 9 or
Reading 39 Pair visual with audio Label everyday objects Write pg. # next to Qs to find answers Decrease independent silent reading Start-to-Finish Books
Reading (Continued) Injury prior to learning to read = early intervention to develop: To develop sound-symbol correspondence Pre-reading competencies Teach pattern word lists and sight words Pre-teach vocabulary Color code highlight (i.e. yellow for Main Idea or Topic Sentence, green for details, orange for explanations or definitions, etc.)
Math 41 Practice in natural settings Figure out when lunch or recess will begin Figure out how many bills and coins lunch will cost with 2 snacks Do not require copying from board Provide space for ALL computations - have student circle final answer at the end - no separate answer sheets
Math (Continued) Provide fact tables and number lines Provide lists of rules, formulas, steps to follow and examples - examples - examples Use MANIPULATIVES and visuals Use graph paper to enhance organization and spacing
Written Language 43 Use a clipboard to stabilize paper Dictate notes for the student to bring to your teammate down the hall Use of a scribe, fill-in-the blanks, true- false, and matching formats for test Assistive Technology Co-Writer Write Out-Loud
Written Language (Continued) Allow student to dictate the first draft of a writing assignment for a parent/teacher to type (word-for-word) student revises, makes additions and edits from this first draft Allow alternatives for written assignments: diorama theatrical presentation a model illustration
Educational Accommodations for Memory and New Learning Develop active learning situations Have child utilize visual imagery. Visualizing and Verbalizing (SRA) Have child use verbal rehearsal or self-talk. Use a sufficient range of examples: visual non-examples Use all resources of the curriculum ex. CDs Start-To-Finish Books
Have child role-play stories Provide sufficient practice. Provide cumulative review of previously taught material. Picture Schedule Clock face schedule Materials checklists Schedules and lists on a key ring or clipboard 46
Specific strategies for Attention
Educational Accommodations for Attentional Issues Limit Noise Remove distractions Provide concrete visual cues Limit amount of info on a page. Adjust assignments. Focus on most salient aspect of lesson. Maintain brisk pace. Repeat instructions
Use short and concise instructions. Reinforce on-task behavior. Give frequent breaks. Break assignments up. Set up personalized cuing system based in classroom system(s) 49
Emotional, Social Skills and Behavior: Strategies for Intervention
Reminders from previous presentations: For Younger Students Give clear and simple directions Avoid time outs (the student is NOT likely to independently regroup or calm down) Label the emotion and direct the student to show the acceptable behavior
For Older Students: Teach strategies and how to use them rather that offering assistance Discuss and practice age-appropriate behaviors in real life situations Assume limited ability to generalize from one setting to another
Proactive Communication Always give information. Tell the person: Where you are going. How much you want the person to do. How long you want the person to do something What does finished look like? What is next…. Write things down. Dont say no, say try again.
Even More Proactive Communication Ask Questions & Give Choices What did I say? Do you remember? What can you do now? What should you do now? Is this going to help you? How do you want me to help you? What do you want?
Coaching to help wit self image
Sometimes mis-perceptions can lead to a lot of misunderstandings. Thank you for taking the time to learn more about some of our most misunderstood and disguised kids.
PBS &TBI Often an excellent match Uses built in Routines Positive momentum Naturally occurring rewards and consequences that can make sense to students