2Respiration Ventilation: Movement of air into and out of lungs External respiration: Gas exchange between air in lungs and bloodTransport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodInternal respiration: Gas exchange between the blood and tissues
3Respiratory System Functions Gas exchange: Oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leavesRegulation of blood pH: Altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels (increase CO2 = decrease pH)Voice production: Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speechOlfaction: Smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into nasal cavityProtection: Against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them from respiratory surfaces.
4Respiratory System Divisions Upper tract: nose, pharynx and associated structuresLower tract: larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and the tubing within the lungs
5Nose (Nasus) and Nasal Cavities External nose (visible part – includes hyaline cartilage plates & nasal bones )Nasal cavityFrom nares (nostrils) to choanae (openings into the pharynx)Vestibule: just inside nares – lined with stratified squamous epithelium – continuous with skinHard palate: floor of nasal cavity – separates nasal cavity from oral cavity – covered by mucous membraneNasal septum: partition dividing cavity. Anterior cartilage; posterior vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid (divides nasal cavity into right & left parts)Choanae: bony ridges on lateral walls with meatuses (passageways) between. Openings to paranasal sinuses and to nasolacrimal duct
6Functions of Nasal Cavity: Passageway for air (open even if mouth full of food)Cleans the air [vestibule lined with hair & this traps particles / mucous membrane consists of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (mucus)]Humidifies( moisture from mucous membranes & from excess tears that drains into nasal cavity through nasolacrimal duct), warms air ( warm blood flowing through mucous membranes - this prevents damage to respiratory passages caused by cold air)Smell [superior part of nasal cavity consists of olfactory epithelium (sensory receptors)]Along with paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
7Pharynx:Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems (connected to respiratory at larynx & to digestive at esophagus)Three regionsNasopharynx:a. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells.b. Mucous and debris from nasal cavity is swallowed.c. Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes – air that passes through them to equalize air pressure between atmosphere & middle ear.d. Floor is soft palate (separates nasopharynx from oropharynx), uvula is posterior extension of the soft palate – prevents swallowed materials from entering nasopharynx & nasal cavityOropharynx: shared with digestive system (extends from soft palate to epiglottis). Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium – air, food, & drink passes through.Laryngopharynx: epiglottis to esophagus. Lined with moist stratified squamous epithelium – food & drink pass through here to esophagus (very little air passes /too much air = gas)
9Larynx - base of tongue to trachea / passageway for air Unpaired cartilagesThyroid: largest, Adam’s appleCricoid: most inferior, base of larynx (other cartilages rest here)Epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue. Elastic rather than hyaline cartilagePairedArytenoids: attached to cricoidCorniculate: attached to arytenoidsCuneiform: contained in mucous membraneLigaments extend from arytenoids to thyroid cartilageVestibular folds or false vocal foldsTrue vocal cords or vocal folds: sound production. Opening between is glottis - laryngitis is an inflammation of mucosal epithelium of vocal folds
10Functions of LarynxMaintain an open passageway for air movement: thyroid and cricoid cartilagesEpiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx – during swallowing, epiglottis covers the opening of larynx so, food & liquid slide over epiglottis toward esophagus. Also, closure of vestibular folds can also prevent the passage of air----when person holds breath.Vocal folds are primary source of sound production. Greater the amplitude of vibration, louder the sound (force of air moving past vocal cords determines amplitude). - Frequency of vibration determines pitch. Also, length of vibrating segments of vocal folds affect ex: when only anterior parts of folds vibrate, higher pitched tones are produced & when longer sections of vibrate, lower tones result.- Arytenoid cartilages and skeletal muscles determine length of vocal folds and also abduct the folds when not speaking (only breathing) to pull them out of the way making glottis larger (allows greater movement of air).The pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (lines larynx) traps debris, preventing their entry into the lower respiratory tract.
12Trachea - windpipeMembranous tube of dense regular connective tissue and smooth muscle; supported by hyaline cartilage C-shaped rings (protects & maintains open passageway for air) . Posterior surface is devoid of cartilage & contains elastic ligamentous membrane and bundles of smooth muscle called the trachealis.Contracts during coughing-----this causes air to move more rapidly through trachea, which helps expel mucus & foreign objects.Inner lining: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Mucus traps debris, cilia push it superiorly toward larynx and pharynx.Divides to formLeft and right primary bronchi (each extends to a lung)Carina: cartilage at bifurcation (forms ridge). Membrane of carina especially sensitive to irritation and inhaled objects initiate the cough reflex
13Tracheobronchial Tree and Conducting Zone Trachea to terminal bronchioles which is ciliated for removal of debris.Trachea divides into two primary bronchi. (right is larger in diameter & more in line with trachea than left)Primary bronchi divide into secondary (lobar) bronchi (one/lobe) which then divide into tertiary (segmental) bronchi.Bronchopulmonary segments: defined by tertiary bronchi.Tertiary bronchi further subdivide into smaller and smaller bronchi then into bronchioles (less than 1 mm in diameter), then finally into terminal bronchioles.Cartilage: holds tube system open; smooth muscle controls tube diameter-----ex: during exercise, diameter increases, decreases resistance to airflow, increases volume of air movedduring asthma attack, diameter decreases, increases resistance to airflow, decreases volume of air flowAs tubes become smaller, amount of cartilage decreases, amount of smooth muscle increases------ex: terminal bronchioles have no cartilage & only have smooth muscle.
14Respiratory Zone: Respiratory Bronchioles to Alveoli Respiratory zone: site for gas exchangeRespiratory bronchioles branch from terminal bronchioles. Respiratory bronchioles have very few alveoli (small, air filled chambers where gas exchange between air & blood takes place). Give rise to alveolar ducts which have more alveoli. Alveolar ducts end as alveolar sacs that have 2 or 3 alveoli at their terminus.Tissue surrounding alveoli contains elastic fibers (alveoli expand during inspiration & recoil during expiration)No cilia, but debris removed by macrophages. Macrophages then move into nearby lymphatics or into terminal bronchioles.
15The Respiratory Membrane Three types of cells in membrane.Type I pneumocytes. Thin squamous epithelial cells, form 90% of surface of alveolus. Gas exchange.Type II pneumocytes. Round to cube-shaped secretory cells. Produce surfactant (makes it easier for alveoli to expand during inspiration).Dust cells (phagocytes)Layers of the respiratory membraneThin layer of fluid lining the alveolusAlveolar epithelium (simple squamous epitheliumBasement membrane of the alveolar epitheliumThin interstitial spaceBasement membrane of the capillary endotheliumC apillary endothelium composed of simple squamous epitheliumTissue surrounding alveoli contains elastic fibers that contribute to recoil.
16Lungs Two lungs: Principal organs of respiration Base sits on diaphragm, apex at the top, hilus (hilum) on medial surface where bronchi and blood vessels enter the lung. All the structures in hilus called root of the lung.Right lung: three lobes. Lobes separated by fissures (deep & prominent)Left lung: Two lobesRight lung is larger & heavier than leftDivisionsLobes (supplied by secondary bronchi), each lobe is subdivided into bronchopulmonary segments (supplied by tertiary bronchi and separated from one another by connective tissue partitions), bronchopulmonary segments are subdivided into lobules (supplied by bronchioles and separated by incomplete partitions).Note: 9 bronchopulmonary segments present in left lung & 10 present right lungNote: Individual diseased bronchopulmonary segments can be surgically removed, leaving the rest of lung intact, because major blood vessels & bronchi do not cross connective tissue partitions.
18Thoracic WallThoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum and associated musclesThoracic cavity: space enclosed by thoracic wall and diaphragmDiaphragm separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity
19Inspiration and Expiration Inspiration: diaphragm, external intercostals, pectoralis minor, scalenesDiaphragm: dome-shaped with base of dome attached to inner circumference of inferior thoracic cage. Central tendon: top of dome which is a flat sheet of connective tissue.Quiet inspiration: accounts for 2/3 of increase in size of thoracic volume. Inferior movement of central tendon and flattening of dome. Abdominal muscles relaxOther muscles: elevate ribs and costal cartilages allow lateral rib movementExpiration: muscles that depress the ribs and sternum: such as the abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.Quiet expiration: relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals with contraction of abdominal musclesLabored breathing: all inspiratory muscles are active and contract more forcefully. Expiration is rapid
21PleuraPleural cavity surrounds each lung and is formed by the pleural membranes. Filled with pleural fluid.Visceral pleura: adherent to lung. Simple squamous epithelium, serous.Parietal pleura: adherent to internal thoracic wall.Pleural fluid: acts as a lubricant and helps hold the two membranes close together (adhesion).Mediastinum: central region, contains contents of thoracic cavity except for lungs.
22Blood and Lymphatic Supply Two sources of blood to lungs: Pulmonary & BronchialPulmonary artery brings deoxygenated blood to lungs from right side of heart to be oxygenated in capillary beds that surround the alveoli. Blood leaves via the pulmonary veins and returns to the left side of the heart.Bronchial arteries provide oxygenated systemic blood to lung tissue. They arise from the aorta & run along the branching bronchi. Part of this now deoxygenated blood exits through the bronchial veins to the azygous (drains chest muscles); part merges with blood of alveolar capillaries and returns to left side of heart.Blood going to left side of heart via pulmonary veins carries primarily oxygenated blood, but also some deoxygenated blood from the supply of the walls of the conducting and respiratory zone.Two lymphatic supplies: superficial and deep lymphatic vessels. Exit from hilusSuperficial drain superficial lung tissue and visceral pleuraDeep drain bronchi and associated C.T.No lymphatics drain alveoliPhagocytic cells within lungs phagocytize carbon particles & other debris from inspired air & move them to lymphatic vesselsOlder people & smokers lungs appear gray to black because accumulation of these particlesCancer cells from lungs can spread to other parts of body through lymphatic vessels.
23Ventilation Movement of air into and out of lungs Air moves from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure (requires a pressure gradient)If barometric pressure (atmospheric pressure) is greater than alveolar pressure, then air flows into the alveoli.Boyle’s Law : P = k/V, where P = gas pressure,V = volume, k = constant at a given temperatureIf diaphragm contracts, then size of alveoli increases. Remember P is inversely proportionate to V; so as V gets larger (when diaphragm contracts), then P in alveoli gets smaller.
24Alveolar Pressure Changes: (Note: Barometric air pressure is Alveolar Pressure Changes: (Note: Barometric air pressure is always assigned a value of zero)
25Changing Alveolar Volume: Lung Recoil ( Lung recoil & changes in pleural pressure cause changes in alveolar volume which results in changes in pressure )Causes alveoli to collapse resulting fromElastic recoil: elastic fibers in the alveolar wallsSurface tension: film of fluid lines the alveoli. Where water interfaces with air, polar water molecules have great attraction for each other with a net pull in toward other water molecules. Tends to make alveoli collapse.(attracted molecules of fluid = surface tension = draws alveoli to their smallest possible dimension)Surfactant: Reduces tendency of lungs to collapse by reducing surface tension. Produced by type II pneumocytes.Respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease). Common in infants with gestation age of less than 7 months. Not enough surfactant produced.
26Pleural Pressure ( pressure in pleural cavity) : Negative pressure can cause alveoli to expandAlveoli expand when pleural pressure is low enough to overcome lung recoilPneumothorax is an opening between pleural cavity and air that causes an increase of pleural pressure (air gets into pleural cavity by an opening in the thoracic wall or lung can be caused by penetrating trauma ex: knife, bullet, broken rib or by non-penetrating trauma ex: blow to chest, medical procedure (inserting catheter to withdraw pleural fluid), infections.Causes part or all of the lung to collapse.
28Compliance Measure of the ease with which lungs and thorax expand The greater the compliance, the easier it is for a change in pressure to cause expansionA lower-than-normal compliance means the lungs and thorax are harder to expandConditions that decrease compliancePulmonary fibrosis: deposition of inelastic fibers in lung (emphysema)Pulmonary edema (the alveoli fill with fluid instead of air, preventing oxygen from being absorbed into your bloodstream)Respiratory distress syndromeIncreased resistance to airflow caused by airway obstruction (asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer)Deformities of the thoracic wall (kyphosis (hunchback), scoliosis)
29Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities Spirometry: measures volumes of air that move into and out of respiratory system. Uses a spirometerTidal volume: amount of air inspired or expired with each breath. At rest: 500 mLInspiratory reserve volume: amount that can be inspired forcefully after inspiration of the tidal volume (3000 mL at rest)Expiratory reserve volume: amount that can be forcefully expired after expiration of the tidal volume (100 mL at rest)Residual volume: volume still remaining in respiratory passages and lungs after most forceful expiration (1200 mL)
30Pulmonary Capacities The sum of two or more pulmonary volumes Inspiratory capacity: tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volumeFunctional residual capacity: expiratory reserve volume plus residual volumeVital capacity: sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volumeTotal lung capacity: sum of inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes plus tidal volume and residual volume.* Factors such as sex, age, body size, and physical conditioning cause variations in respiration & capacities from one individual to another. Ex: males, younger people, thin people, tall people, athletes have greater vital capacities.
32Minute Ventilation and Alveolar Ventilation Minute ventilation: total air moved into and out of respiratory system each minute; tidal volume X respiratory rateRespiratory rate (respiratory frequency) (f): number of breaths taken per minuteAnatomic dead space: formed by nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles (part of respiratory system where gas exchange does NOT take place)Physiological dead space: anatomic dead space plus the volume of any alveoli in which gas exchange is less than normal. (these are nonfunctional alveoli few exist in healthy individual)Alveolar ventilation (VA): volume of air available for gas exchange/minute VA = f ( VT – VD)VT = tidal volume VD = dead space
33Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Partial pressureThe pressure exerted by each type of gas in a mixtureex: atmospheric pressure = 760 mmHg(contains: nitrogen 79% & oxygen 21%)Dalton’s law: in a mixture of gases, the percentage of each gas is proportionate to its partial pressureN2 = 79% =79/100 = partial pressure = 0.79 x 760 mmHg = 600mmHgpartial pressure is denoted---- PN2Water vapor pressure: pressure exerted by gaseous water in a mixture of gases (water evaporated into air)Air in the respiratory system contains humidity because of mucus lining systemDiffusion of gases through liquids (gas molecules move from air into liquid, or from a liquid into air, because of partial pressure gradient----ex: partial pressure of gas in the air is greater than in the liquid, movement of gas molecules into the liquid)Henry’s Law: Concentration of a gas in a liquid is determined by its partial pressure and its solubility coefficient (solubility coefficient is a measure of how easily the gas dissolves in the liquid. Ex: solubility coefficient for oxygen is 0.024; carbon dioxide is CO2 is 24 times more soluble than O2 )
34Physical Principles of Gas Exchange Diffusion of gases through the respiratory membrane depends upon three thingsMembrane thickness. The thicker, the lower the diffusion rate (diseases can cause an increase in thickness)Diffusion coefficient of gas (measure of how easily a gas diffuses through a liquid or tissue). This takes into account the solubility of the gases & size of gas molecules (molecular weight). CO2 is 20 times more diffusible than O2Surface area. Diseases like emphysema and lung cancer reduce available surface areaPartial pressure differences. Gas moves from area of higher partial pressure to area of lower partial pressure. Normally, partial pressure of oxygen is higher in alveoli than in blood. Opposite is usually true for carbon dioxide
35Relationship Between Alveolar Ventilation and Pulmonary Capillary Perfusion Increased ventilation or increased pulmonary capillary blood flow increases gas exchangeShunted blood: blood that is not completely oxygenatedPhysiologic shunt is deoxygenated blood returning from lungs. Two sources:Blood returning from bronchi bronchiolesBlood from capillaries around alveoli* 1% - 2% of cardiac output makes up the physiological shuntRegional distribution of blood flow determined primarily by gravity, but can also be determined by alveolar PO2.Low PO2 causes arterioles to constrict so that blood is shunted to a region of the lung where the alveoli are better ventilated. Ex: when bronchus becomes partially blockedIn other tissues of the body, low PO2 causes arterioles to dilate to deliver more blood to the tissues.
36Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Diffusion Gradients Moves from alveoli into blood. Blood is almost completely saturated with oxygen when it leaves the capillaryPO2 in blood decreases because of mixing with deoxygenated blood (because blood from pulmonary capillaries mixes with deoxygenated blood from bronchial veins)Oxygen moves from tissue capillaries into the tissuesCarbon dioxideMoves from tissues into tissue capillariesMoves from pulmonary capillaries into the alveoli
38Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport Oxygen is transported by hemoglobin (98.5%) and is dissolved in plasma (1.5%)Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve: describes the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen at any given PO2Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve at rest shows that hemoglobin is almost completely saturated when PO2 is 80 mm Hg or above. At lower partial pressures, the hemoglobin releases oxygen.Thus, as tissues use more oxygen, hemoglobin releases more oxygento those tissues.
39Bohr EffectEffect of pH on oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve: as pH of blood declines, amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin at any given PO2 also declinesOccurs because decreased pH yields increase in H + that combines with hemoglobin changing its shape and oxygen cannot bind to hemoglobin
40Effects of CO2 and Temperature Increase in PCO2 causes decrease in p HCarbonic anhydrase causes CO2 and water to combine reversibly and form H2CO3 (carbonic acid) which ionizes to H + and HCO3- (bicarbonate ion)Increase temperature: decreases tendency for oxygen to remain bound to hemoglobin, so as metabolism goes up, more oxygen is released to the tissues.
41Effect of BPG2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG): released by RBCs as they break down glucose for energyBinds to hemoglobin and increases release of oxygen (reduces its affinity for oxygen)Ex: High altitudes = decrease barometric pressure = partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli decreased = % saturation of blood with oxygen in pulmonary capillaries decreased = less oxygen in blood to be delivered to tissuesBPG helps increase oxygen delivery to tissues because increased levels of BPG increase the release of oxygen in tissues.
43Transport of Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ions (70%) in combination with blood proteins (23%: primarily alpha & beta globin chains of hemoglobin) and in solution with plasma (7%)Hemoglobin that has released oxygen binds more readily to carbon dioxide than hemoglobin that has oxygen bound to it ( Haldane effect)In tissue capillaries, carbon dioxide combines with water inside RBCs to form carbonic acid which dissociates to form bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions
44Carbon Dioxide Transport and Chloride Movement (a) Tissue capillaries: as C O2 enters red blood cells, reacts with water to form bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. C hloride ions enter the RB C and bicarbonate ions leave: chloride shift. H ydrogen ions combine with hemoglobin. (pH of RBC does not decrease bec. hemoglobin is a buffer ) Lowering the concentration of bicarbonate and hydrogen ions inside red blood cells promotes the conversion of C O2 to bicarbonate ion.(b) Pulmonary capillaries: C O2 leaves red blood cells, resulting in the formation of additional C O2 from carbonic acid. The bicarbonate ions are exchanged for chloride ions, and the hydrogen ions are released from hemoglobin.Increased plasma carbon dioxide lowers blood p H. The respiratory system regulates blood p H by regulating plasma carbon dioxide levels
45Respiratory Areas in the Brainstem Medullary respiratory centerDorsal groups stimulate the diaphragmVentral groups stimulate the intercostal and abdominal musclesThis section is especially sensitive during infancy, and the neurons can be destroyed if the infant is dropped and/or shaken violently. The result can be death due to "shaken baby syndrome”Pontine (pneumotaxic) respiratory groupInvolved with switching between inspiration and expiration (fine tunes the breathing pattern-----there is a connection with medullary resp. center but precise function unknown)
46Rhythmic Ventilation Starting inspiration Increasing inspiration Medullary respiratory center neurons are continuously activeCenter receives stimulation from receptors (that monitor blood gas levels) and simulation from parts of brain concerned with voluntary respiratory movements and emotionCombined input from all sources causes action potentials to stimulate respiratory musclesIncreasing inspirationMore and more neurons are activated (to stimulate respiratory muscles)Stopping inspirationNeurons stimulating the muscles of respiration also stimulate the neurons in the medullary respiratory center that are responsible stopping inspiration. They also receive input from pontine group and stretch receptors in lungs. Inhibitory neurons activated and relaxation of respiratory muscles results in expiration.Note: although the medullary neurons establish the basic rate & depth of breathing, their activities can be influenced by input from other parts of the brain & by input from peripherally located receptors.
47Rhythmic Ventilation Chemical control Carbon dioxide is major regulator, but indirectly through p H changeIncrease or decrease in pH can stimulate chemo-sensitive area, causing a greater rate and depth of respirationOxygen levels in blood affect respiration when a 50% or greater decrease from normal levels existsCO2.Hypercapnia: too much CO2Hypocapnia: lower than normal CO2Apnea. Cessation of breathing. Can be conscious decision, but eventually PCO2 levels increase to point that respiratory center overridesHyperventilation. Causes decrease in blood PCO2 level, which causes respiratory alkalosis (high blood pH). Fainting, leads to changes in the nervous system fires and leads to the paresthesia (pins & needles)Cerebral (cerebral cortex)and limbic system. Respiration can be voluntarily controlled and modified by emotions (ex: strong emotions can cause hyperventilation or produce the sobs & gasps of crying)
49Chemical Control of Ventilation Chemoreceptors: specialized neurons that respond to changes in chemicals in solutionCentral chemoreceptors: chemosensitive area of the medulla oblongata; connected to respiratory centerPeripheral chemoreceptors: carotid and aortic bodies. Connected to respiratory center by cranial nerves IX and X (9 & 10)Effect of pH : chemosensitive area of medulla oblongata and carotid and aortic bodies respond to blood pH changesChemosensitive areas respond indirectly through changes in carbon dioxideCarotid and aortic bodies respond directly to p H changes
50Chemical Control of Ventilation Effect of carbon dioxide: small change in carbon dioxide in blood triggers a large increase in rate and depth of respiration- ex: an increase PCO2 of 5 mm Hg causes an increase in ventilation of 100%.Hypercapnia: greater-than-normal amount of carbon dioxideHypocapnia: lower-than-normal amount of carbon dioxideChemosensitive area in medulla oblongata is more important for regulation of PCO2 and pH than the carotid & aortic bodies (responsible for 15% - 20% of response)During intense exercise, carotid & aortic bodies respond more rapidly to changes in blood pH than does the chemosensitive area of medulla
51Chemical Control of Ventilation Effect of oxygen: carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors respond to decreased PO2 by increased stimulation of respiratory center to keep it active despite decreasing oxygen levels (50% or greater decrease bec. of oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve at any PO2 above 80 mm Hg nearly all of hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen)Hypoxia: decrease in oxygen levels below normal values
53Hering-Breuer ReflexLimits the degree of inspiration and prevents overinflation of the lungsDepends on stretch receptors in the walls of bronchi & bronchioles of the lung.It is an inhibitory influence on the respiratory center & results in expiration. (as expiration proceeds, stretch receptors no longer stimulated)InfantsReflex plays a role in regulating basic rhythm of breathing and preventing overinflation of lungsAdultsReflex important only when tidal volume large as in exercise
54Effect of Exercise on Ventilation Ventilation increases abruptlyAt onset of exerciseMovement of limbs has strong influence (body movements stimulate proprioceptors in joints of the limbs)Learned component (after a period of training, the brain “learns” to match ventilation with the intensity of exercise)Ventilation increases graduallyAfter immediate increase, gradual increase occurs (4-6 minutes it levels off)Anaerobic threshold: highest level of exercise without causing significant change in blood pH. If exercise intensity is high enough to exceeded anaerobic threshold, lactic acid produced by skeletal muscles
55Other Modifications of Ventilation Activation of touch, thermal and pain receptors affect respiratory centerSneeze reflex (initiated by irritants in the nasal cavity), cough reflex (initiated by irritants in the lungs)Increase in body temperature yields increase in ventilation
56Respiratory Adaptations to Exercise Athletic trainingVital capacity increases slightly; residual volume decreases slightlyAt maximal exercise, tidal volume and minute ventilation increasesGas exchange between alveoli and blood increases at maximal exerciseAlveolar ventilation increasesIncreased cardiovascular efficiency leads to greater blood flow through the lungs
57Effects of AgingVital capacity and maximum minute ventilation decrease (these changes are related to weakening of respiratory muscles & decreased compliance of thoracic cage caused by stiffening of cartilage & ribs)Residual volume and dead space increaseAbility to remove mucus from respiratory passageways decreasesGas exchange across respiratory membrane is reduced