Presentation on theme: "Finest Differences in Self/Other Perceptions and Personality Randall H. Lucius & Carolyn Turknett Turknett Leadership Group Atlanta, GA."— Presentation transcript:
finest Differences in Self/Other Perceptions and Personality Randall H. Lucius & Carolyn Turknett Turknett Leadership Group Atlanta, GA
finest 2 Abstract n Personality differences between those who rated themselves higher than how others perceive them (over raters) and those who rated themselves lower than how others perceive them (under raters) on a 360 leadership instrument were studied. n Results found that over raters are more extroverted than under raters, while under raters are more anxious than over raters
finest 3 Introduction n Most studies of self/other differences in 360 assessments argue over accuracy vs. value of variation from multiple raters n What about individual differences in self/other difference scores? n This study explored personality differences associated with those who over or under rate themselves.
finest 4 Introduction (cont.) n Past Findings: u MBTI: ISs have most accurate self perception (Roush & Atwater, 1992) u Self-Esteem: those low in self- esteem less likely to over-rate (Baird, 1977) u Those high in Intelligence, nAch, internal locus of control are more accurate (Mabe & West, 1982). u Gender differences equivocal.
finest 5 Introduction (cont.) n Importance u Accurate self-perceivers make better decisions (Bass & Yammarino, 1991) u Inaccurate self-perceivers more likely to deny problems, give up, and fear failure (Wohlers & London, 1989) u Moderates leader performance (Atwater & Yammarino, 1992) u Can strain CEO/TMT relationship and affect strategy (Ashford, 1989)
finest 6 Method n Subjects: 186 executives who participated in the Turknett Executive Development Program. u 25% female u Age range: 37 to 55; Avg=44 n 360 instrument: Coworker Rating Scale (Hagberg, 1984). u measures 47 different behaviors F E.g. decisiveness, thoroughness, forthrightness, consideration, adaptable, self-confidence, motivating others, empowerment
finest 7 Method (cont.) n Personality: Jackson Personality Inventory (Jackson, 1994) & Personality Research Form (Jackson, 1989). n Difference score computation: u co-worker ratings (superior, peer, subordinate) were averaged together by item and subtracted from self score. u An average difference score across items was computed
finest 8 Method (cont.) n Difference score computation (cont.): u Two groups were formed: those who tend to overrate themselves and those who underrate. n Differences between over and under raters on the JPI and PRF were assessed via t-tests.
finest 9 Results n 7 out of 35 possible relationships emerged from the specific scales n 1 of 7 factors also emerged
finest 10 Results (cont.) n Under raters suffer from a higher amount of anxiety than those who over rate themselves n Over raters scored high on traits related to extroversion u Risk Taking, Sociability, Social Confidence, Play n Over raters also have greater breadth of interests
finest 11 Discussion n Those who are socially confident and extroverted tend to have inflated images of themselves. u Extroverts are more action oriented than deep thinking oriented u Extroverts are less introspective than Introverts F may lead to inaccurate self perception
finest 12 Discussion (cont.) n Those with a large breadth of interests also tend to over rate. u Is related to Extroversion, but also Openness to Experiences n Those who are anxious may undervalue themselves. u Similar findings have been found with individuals low in self-esteem (Baird, 1977; Farh and Dobbins, 1989)
finest 13 Discussion (cont.) n Knowledge of ones personality can help practitioners know what to expect. u E.g. for someone who is extroverted, the practitioner can expect them to have inflated images of themselves and prepare 360 feedback accordingly to soften the blow
finest 14 Discussion (cont.) n Extroverts may need more self- awareness training u Highlights importance of using both 360 and personality measures n Introverts may under value themselves and their abilities u The issue for these people may not be their deficiencies as identified in a 360, but rather self confidence.
finest 15 Discussion (cont.) n Under estimators anxiety may also tie in to lack of confidence and regard for self. n While humility is often valued as a positive leadership trait, too much may have negative consequences.
finest 16 Implications for Future Research n Discussion points need to be more carefully examined before any firm conclusions can be made n More sophisticated methodology should be explored. u E.g. Polynomial regression n Other correlates with over/under rating oneself should be explored u E.g. job performance