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GridPix Een Detector R & D project voor: - Large TPC for ILC - GOSSIP & the ATLAS SCT Upgrade Harry van der Graaf NIKHEF, Amsterdam Electronische Afdeling,

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Presentation on theme: "GridPix Een Detector R & D project voor: - Large TPC for ILC - GOSSIP & the ATLAS SCT Upgrade Harry van der Graaf NIKHEF, Amsterdam Electronische Afdeling,"— Presentation transcript:

1 GridPix Een Detector R & D project voor: - Large TPC for ILC - GOSSIP & the ATLAS SCT Upgrade Harry van der Graaf NIKHEF, Amsterdam Electronische Afdeling, Nikhef April 4, 2007

2 Time Projection Chamber (TPC): 2D/3D Drift Chamber The Ultimate Wire (drift) Chamber E-field (and B-field) Wire Plane + Readout Pads track of charged particle Wire plane Pad plane

3 Problem With wires: measure charge distribution over cathode pads: c.o.g. is a good measure for track position; With GEMs or Micromegas: narrow charge distribution (only electron movement) wire avalanche Cathode pads GEM Micromegas Solutions:- cover pads with resisitive layer - ‘Chevron’ pads - many small pads: pixels!

4 The MediPix2 pixel CMOS chip x 256 pixels - pixel pitch: 55 x 55 μm 2 - Within each pixel: - preamp + shaper + discr - 14-bits counter - discr. thresholds - Developed by MediPix Consortium, CERN We apply the ‘naked’ MediPix2 chip without X-ray convertor!

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6 MediPix2 pixel sensor Brass spacer block Printed circuit board Aluminum base plate Micromegas Cathode (drift) plane 55 Fe Baseplate Drift space: 15 mm MediPix2 & Micromegas Very strong E-field above (CMOS) MediPix!

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8 He/Isobutane 80/20 Modified MediPix δ-ray! Efficiency for detecting single electrons: < 95 %

9 Integrate GEM/Micromegas and pixel sensor: InGrid ‘GEM’ ‘Micromegas’ By ‘wafer post processing’

10 InGrid VS Micromegas Micromegas Electroforming tech. –Large areas –Large pillar Ø (250 µm) –Hybrid detector Manual mounting InGrid Micro-electronic tech. –Wafer scale areas –Minimum pillar Ø (30 µm) –Integrated detector Compact / Mass producible –All geometric parameters accurately controlled Gap, Holes, Supporting structures

11 Processing InGrids Strips Litho. 50 µm SU8UV Exposure 0.8 µm Al Holes Litho. Development Suspended membrane 50 µm above the wafer

12 Prototypes 19 different fields of 15 mm Ø 2 bonding pads / fields Square / Walls Square / Pillars Hex / Pillars

13 Experimental Setup Cathode to HV Grid to HV Anode to ground 55 Fe collimated source Gas sealed chamber Connectors to 10 MΩ resistors in series with electrodes

14 Energy resolution in Argon IsoC 4 H 10 80/20 Observation of two lines: K 5.9 keV K 6.4 keV FWHM of the K α distribution 16.7 % Gain fluctuations < 5% Very good energy resolution: Very precise dimensions d < 0.1 μm

15 Other applications of GridPix: - μ-TPC - Transition Radiation Detectors - GOSSIP: tracker for intense radiation environment

16 The ATLAS Detector

17 ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT)

18 Inner Tracker: record all tracks of charged particles For instance: lifetime measurement Heavy quark mesons…. Lifetime measured from secondary vertex c  ~ 100 micron Take Lorentz boost into account

19 ALEPH event display

20 Vertexing High spatial resolution low mass low power fast  Semiconductor pixel detector Vertex determination Few points accuracy O( mm)

21 Semiconductor (pixel, strip) detectors Depleted Si, 300 μm (pixel) chip with preamps, shapers, discriminators V bias = 150 V electron-hole pairs

22 ATLAS pixel: basic element C-C support sensor Flex Hybrid bumps MC C Side view not to scale Wire-bonding FE’s Wire-bonding MCC FE chip Flex module 2.x

23 The ATLAS Vertex Pixel Detector ~2.0 m 2 of sensitive area with 0.8  10 8 channels 50  m  400  m silicon pixels (50  m  300  m in the B- layer) Three barrel layers Three disk layers

24 Barrel SCT unit EndCap SCT unit

25 barrel SCT Two of the SCT barrel support structures

26 Barrel and EndCap SCT

27 Transition Radiation Tracker e-e- π-π- X-ray quanta

28 Si (vertex) track detector GOSSIP CMOS chip Si depletion layer V bias Si strip detectors Si pixel detectors MAPs Gas: 1 mm as detection medium 99 % chance to have at least 1 e- Gas amplification ~ 1000: Single electron sensitive All signals arrive within 16 ns Cluster3 Cathode (drift) plane Integrated Grid (InGrid) Cluster2 Cluster1 Slimmed Silicon Readout chip Input pixel 1mm, 100V 50um, 400V 50um

29 GOSSIP: Gas On Slimmed SIlicon Pixels CMOS pixel array MIP InGrid Drift gap: 1 mm Max drift time: 16 ns MIP CMOS chip ‘slimmed’ to 30 μm Cathode foil

30 Gas instead of Si Pro: - no radiation damage in sensor: gas is exchanged - modest pixel (analog) input circuitry: low power, little space - no bias current: simple input circuit - CMOS pixel chip main task: data storage & communication (rad hard) - low detector material budget: 0.06 % radiation length/layer typical: Si foil. New mechanical concepts: self-supporting pressurized co-centric balloons; ‘laundry line’ - low power dissipation : little FE power (2 μW/pixel); no bias dissipation - operates at room temperature (but other temperatures are OK) - less sensitive for neutron and X-ray background - 3D track info per layer if drift time is measured Con : - Gaseous chamber: discharges (sparks): destroy CMOS chip - gas-filled proportional chamber: ‘chamber ageing’ - Needs gas flow - Parallax error: 1 ns drift time measurement may be required

31 Discharges Vonken

32 CMOS Chip protection against - discharges - sparks - HV breakdowns - too large signals Emperical method: Try RPC technology Amorph Si (segmented) Silicon Protection: SiProt

33 Met 3 μm SiProt: - ‘Directe’ schade door heet plasma: afwezig - te groot ladingssignaal voor pixel electronica  - Dikkere SiProt laag (20, 30, 40, 50 μm ! ) - Protectie circuit in pixel - SiProt aan onderkant van InGrid !!Als dikkere SiProt niet werkt: - MPW test (Gossipo-3) kE nodig voor nieuwe full-scale pixel chip!! MediPix+SiProt+InGrid Levensduur: 12 h He/Isobutane

34 A-Si not adequate? Then TwinGrid

35 Irradiation with 8 keV X-rays: No rate effects up to anode current density of 0.2 / mm 2  very fast track counting possible! Irradiation with 8 keV X-rays: No rate effects up to anode current density of 0.2 μA / mm 2  very fast track counting possible! After 0.3 Coulomb/mm2:  (eq. 3.7 x MIPs/cm 2 !!) deposit of carbon polymer on anode is clearly visible. Micromegas is clean (!?) Little deposit on cathode, and…… Chamber still worked! Ageing

36 Nieuwe Pixel Chips voor GridPix/Gossip

37 Very low (parasitic) capacitance at the input (C par → 10 fF). C par = 10fF…50fF Coaxial-like layout of the input- feedback interconnection. Parasitic metal-to-metal fringe capacitances. Input pad Substrate C fb =1fF Ground plane Output M1 M2 M3 M6 LM Ground GOSSIPO-1: - test of preamp-shaper-discriminator for GOSSIP - ‘MultiProjectWafer’ in 0.13 μm technology GOSSIPO chip Submitted December 2005.

38 - match extreme small source capacity: 10 fF - peaking time: 40 ns - noise (expected: 60 e- input eq.) - power: 2 μW/pixel (!) - Triple Well technology: separation of analog and digital ground - Threshold setting (6 x 60 e-) fine! - Effect of digital switching on pixel analog signal negligible GOSSIPO (RO-FE) chip design 100 MHz clock close to analog circuit V threshold = 350 e- discriminator output

39 Maart – Juni 2006: Gossip-DAQ werkgroep

40 test of preamp-shaper-discriminator and 700 MHz TDC per pixel 0.13 μm technology containing 16 x 16 pixels Submission Nov 29, 2006 Can be used for GOSSIP demo ! GOSSIPO-2 3 x 2 mm 2

41 Proposed FE architecture for data communication avalanche input pad AmpShaDisc 700 MHz oscillator start stop BXcounter BX clock 40 MHz memory 1 BX-ID +T drift +T time-over-threshold 16 bits DAQ bus valid BX pixel-ID + T drift + T timeOverthreshold memory 2 BX-ID +T drift +T time-over-threshold 16 bits pixel

42 New mechanical concept (virtual) target: pixel SLHC 1.Inventarisation of all services to detector units 2.Integration of services, detectors and support mechanics services: - cooling - power - data communication - gas

43 New mechanics + cooling concepts for Gossip - As little as possible material - detector consists of foil! - less power required (  less cooling) w.r.t. Si string: power, chip support, cooling in 2030…. ‘balloon’ ‘laundry line’

44 Minimum Material Budget (% rad length) Z = 0 mmZ = +/-600 mm Gossip detector (50 μm Si) Cooling (stainless steel tube) Power (max 0.28 mm aluminium) Data transfer (max 1.7 mm kapton) total0.061 angle correctionx √20.09x 2 x √23

45 New concepts for optical fiber data transfer laser Interferometer - rates up to 40 Gb/s - geen materiaal en dissipatie op chip - met 240 Gb/s: ‘all data to shore’: trigger possible FE chip

46 - Ladder strings fixed to end cones - Integration of beam pipe, end cones & pixel vertex detector - 5 double layers seems feasible Virtual goal: ATLAS pixel vertex

47 Stainless steel tube: - string - power - CO 2 cooling Gossip chip + InGrid drift gap cathode foil ladder cross section data lines (Cu/kapton) casted aluminium ladder side view ladder top view

48 First practical GOSSIP with CMS Vertex Pixel FE chip: PSI 46 (+ ATLAS FE pixel chip?) - apply A-Si protection layer - apply InGrid - mount Gossips on pcb: ‘ beam telescope’ - Testbeam end 2006 Nijmegen, NIKHEF (,PSI?)

49 Gossip projects at NIKHEF/Univ. Twente/Saclay/CERN - Discharge protection - InGrid/TwinGrid/TripleGrid - Construction of detector: MediPix2 + SiProt + InGrid NewNext-1! - Construction of detector: TimePix + SiProt + InGrid NewNext-1 - Gossipo chip developments - Development of ‘beam telescope’ Gossip demo - Vertex track simulations: signal development, DAQ data streams - Study of ‘services’ required for Gossip/SLHC: assume dose rate of 12 tracks/(cm2. 25 ns) definition of cooling; definition of data transfer connection; definition of power lines - Ladder prototype: thermal modeling; Design of SS/Alu multifunctional string; test (mech + thermal) of mechanical model - CO 2 cooling: ATLAS/NIKHEF project - Ageing studies


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