Presentation on theme: "Motivational Interviewing in Tobacco Cessation and Chronic Diseases"— Presentation transcript:
1 Motivational Interviewing in Tobacco Cessation and Chronic Diseases Physicians’ InstituteCopyright Berger Consulting, LLCA Program of the Cease Smoking Today Partnership.1
2 The Problem Current models of care are paternalistic Communication is practitioner-centered, not patient-centeredInformation giving vs information exchangeSave the patient vs patients save themselvesLabeling of patient: in denial, difficult, etcCompliance vs adherenceDictate rather than negotiate behavior change
3 The Problem (cont.)Resistance is dealt with as a flaw rather than useful information that needs to be exploredWe don’t spend time identifying how patients make sense of illness and treatment and how we can helpwhat benefits do they derive from tobacco?What do they know and understand about the risk of not treating the illness?Schools teach HCPs that they are the expertNew models of communicating with patients are needed
4 Motivational Interviewing Defined: Miller and Rollnick (1) Motivational interviewing is a person-centered (Rogers) directive (guided) method of communication for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence and resistance.Note: focus on ambivalence and resistance this is the key.
5 Key PointsMotivational interviewing is concerned with assessing a patient’s motivation for change, not motivating the patientThe skills used in motivational interviewing are matched to the patient’s motivation (or readiness) for changeCreate a climate that is safe to change and safe to learnAssist the patient in making the argument for changeA look over the fence: smoker, weight lossWhat would have to change?
6 Key Points (cont.)Be honest and truthful with patients so they can make informed choicesBP of 160/110Be patient-centeredIdentify and respond to patient’s core concerns and line of reasoning“Disease management”High cholesterol patient
7 The Spirit of Motivational Interviewing AgapeCaringCollaborationPatient is the focus, not meAsthma patient, 27-year-old male smoker“You people”“I only signed up for the decrease in premiums and no, I don’t want to quit smoking”
8 Key Concepts: Decisional Balance Health behaviors involve voluntary behavior changePatients develop an internal decisional balance about the change (pros and cons, benefits and risks, etc)This balance may be subjective, but it must be explored and “tilted” in favor of the benefits if change is to take placeThe balance is quantitative and qualitativeExploring the decisional balanceBenefits or prosDownside or risks or consData on barriers to adherence are conflicting.
9 Key Concepts: Resistance and Ambivalence When people resist change, the worst strategy is persuasionit forces them to defend the very behavior you are trying to changeWhen people are ambivalent, the pros=consWhen they are resistant, the cons >prosWhen faced with ambivalence or resistance, exploredon’t explain2 types of resistanceIssueRelationalData on barriers to adherence are conflicting.
10 Issue Resistance “I am not ready to quit smoking. It relaxes me.” StrategyEmpathize with the core concern (issue) and explore the line of reasoning
11 Relational Resistance “I am so tired of you people hounding me about my smoking. Everyone acts like it’s so easy.”StrategyRespect the resistance, roll with it, apologize, and, when appropriate, shift
12 Relational Resistance Issue-Based Resistance 2 Forms of ResistanceRelational ResistanceIssue-Based Resistance
13 Relational Resistance Issue-Based Resistance What MI DoesRelational ResistanceIssue-Based ResistanceInfo #1Info #2Info #3Info #4
14 Relational Resistance Issue-Based Resistance What MI Does: 2 StepsRelational ResistanceIssue-Based ResistanceCommitmentInfo #1Info #2Change TalkInfo #3Info #4
15 Inappropriate Responses to Resistance PersuasionThe Righting ReflexProduces paradoxical responsesMore information
16 Key Concepts: Dissonance Anxiety or discomfort when goals, thoughts, and behaviors don’t match upWe want to create dissonance in our patients between where they are now in their health behaviors and where they need to be regarding healthCreating dissonanceA look over the fenceRealistic goals and then behaviors that don’t matchDiscrepancies in what patients say vs what they doData on barriers to adherence are conflicting.
17 Key Concepts: Face and Face Loss What do people do when they fear they are losing face?2 types of face lossAutonomy face loss: Patient’s blood pressure is still up. “You need to quit smoking (take your medicine)…we have been over this before.”Competency, approval face loss: Patient doesn’t think chew is as bad as smoking. “Do you think I would tell you it was bad for you if it wasn’t?”Motivational interviewing does not cause face lossData on barriers to adherence are conflicting.
18 Other Key Concepts Importance, confidence, and readiness Autonomy RespectSusceptibility or riskUnderstanding of the illness and treatmentTreatment options: the menuCore concern: what is the primary concern of the patient?Line of reasoning: how does the patient make sense of things?Core concern and line of reasoning must be addressed or you will not move forwardData on barriers to adherence are conflicting.
19 F-I-G Follow (reflect) Inform (ask permission) and identify Reflect back your understanding of core concerns and line of reasoningInform (ask permission) and identifyAsk permission to give information, make suggestions, or clarifyIdentify the core concernsGuide: present a menu of options and determine what the patient wants to work onData on barriers to adherence are conflicting.
20 Case Study: Asthma Julie Stockton is a 37-year-old Caucasian female Her daughter, Sara, is 10 years old and has been in the emergency room 4 times in the past yearShe has not been using her chronic inhaler for her asthmaWhen asked about this, Julie says defensively, “I don’t want Sara using a steroid and don’t bother to talk to me about my smoking. I smoke outside so it doesn’t affect Sara.”
21 Motivational Interviewing Skills READS principlesRoll with resistanceExpress empathyAvoid argumentationDevelop discrepancySupport self-efficacyImportance, confidence rulersThe envelopeThe insurance cardA look over the fence19
23 Roll With ResistancePatient: I just don’t see how I can quit smoking when my wife smokes too and she won’t quit.HCP: You suspect that it will be much more difficult for you to quit smoking if your wife continues to smoke.Patient: Right…I just don’t see that working.HCP: How important is it for you to quit right now?23
25 Empathy Starters “You seem_____” “In other words…” “You feel ___ because ___”“It seems to you…”“You seem to be saying…”“I gather that…”“You sound…”
26 Express EmpathyPatient: Everyone makes it sound so easy…just take the medicine, quit smoking, change your diet, and exercise more!HCP: You sound frustrated. You have been asked to make a lot of changes to control your diabetes and blood pressure and people don’t seem to appreciate how overwhelming and difficult all of it can be.23
27 Express Empathy (cont.) Patient: I know smoking is bad for me, it’s just that all of my friends smoke and we hang out together.HCP: You realize that smoking can have harmful effects on your health, yet it has been difficult for you to quit because your friends smoke and they are important to you.23
28 Express Empathy (cont.) Expressing empathy to prevent face lossPatient: Other people have blood pressure that is much higher than mine. Mine is not so bad.HCP: You are right…there are many people whose blood pressure is quite a bit higher. May I tell you what concerns me?21
29 Ways to Express Empathy Repeating back the words with the feelingSlight paraphrasingMajor paraphrasingFramingTo clarify the motivational issue21
31 Avoid ArgumentationPatient: My doctor says I need to lose weight, take the medicine, quit smoking, and reduce the salt in my diet. I don’t think I need to quit smoking, do you? How about cutting back?HCP: It sounds like a lot to do. It’s great that you are willing to take your medicine and watch your salt intake. Cutting back on your smoking would be a great first step. Ultimately, quitting smoking would be the healthiest thing to do. What are your thoughts?23
33 Develop DiscrepancyPatient: I want to lower my blood pressure and reduce my risk of stroke or heart attack.HCP: On the one hand, taking your medicine as you do really supports your goal of lowering your blood pressure. On the other hand, smoking raises your blood pressure and interferes with your goal.23
34 Develop Discrepancy (cont.) HCP: On the one hand, you hate feeling ashamed because you keep going back to smoking. On the other hand, you actually started to feel better when you quit, but stress in your life triggers your smoking.23
35 Develop Discrepancy (A Look Over the Fence) “If you were to wake up tomorrow and you were no longer a smoker, what would you like about that? What would be the benefits to you?”“If you could snap your fingers and be at the weight you wanted to be at, what would you like about that? What would you see as the benefits?”23
37 Supporting Self-Efficacy Patient: I don’t think I am ready to walk 4 days a week, but I am willing to try twice a week.HCP: That sounds like a great start and will really help with your osteoporosis.23
38 Supporting Self-Efficacy (cont.) Patient: I’ve thought a little more about what you said about quitting smoking.HCP: Great. Tell me more about what you have been thinking. What’s got you thinking about it?23
39 2 Forms of Resistance Relational Resistance Issue-Based Resistance Roll with resistanceExpress empathyAvoid argumentationIssue-Based ResistanceExpress empathyDevelop discrepancySupport self-efficacy
40 Rulers 2 concepts Scale from 1 to 7 or 1 to 10 ImportanceConfidenceScale from 1 to 7 or 1 to 10How important is this change for you?How confident are you that you can make this change if you want to?Why did you choose a ____, not a 1?Elicits change talk
41 The Envelope“If I were to hand you an envelope, what would the message inside have to say for you toConsider quitting smoking.”Take your medicine as prescribed.”Monitor your blood sugar twice a day?”
42 The Insurance CardPatient: We’ve all got to die some time. Might as well go out doing something I enjoy.HCP: You really enjoy smoking and no one can live forever any way.Patient: Right.HCP: May I tell you what concerns me?
43 MI Summary ExamplePatient: I know smoking is bad for me. I know I should quit.HCP: Then why don’t you? (biomedical)
44 Possible MI ResponsesIt sounds like you know smoking is bad for you, yet it is difficult for you to quit. If you were to wake up tomorrow and were no longer a smoker, what would you see as the benefits? What would you like about that?You see long-term negative effects to smoking. What concerns you the most?What would have to change for you to consider quitting?What makes it most difficult for you to quit?On the one hand, you see smoking as bad for your health, but on the other hand, you are not ready to quit.
45 Possible MI Responses (cont.) On a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 is not at all important and 7 is very important, how important is it for you to quit smoking?May I tell you what concerns me about your continuing to smoke?You are certainly right about smoking being bad for you. Tell me more about that.Earlier, you told me that you have a goal of reducing your risk of stroke and heart attack. On the other hand, smoking increases those risks. What are your thoughts about that?It has been hard to quit smoking even though you are concerned about its impact on your health.
46 SummaryWhat does the patient know and understand about the illness and its treatment?What is the patient’s understanding of what can happen if the illness (behavior) is not changed?What are the patient’s goals?What options are available to the patient?What does he/she want to work on first?
47 Summary (cont.) Explore the decisional balance Respond to the patient’s core concern(s)Focus on one issue at a time, based upon what is of paramount importance to the patientRespond with empathy throughout (be explicit)Stay in the spirit
48 Suggested ReadingsMiller, WR, and Rollnick, S. Motivational Interviewing. The Guilford Press, New York, nd edition.Rollnick, S, Miller, WR, Butler, CC. Motivational Interviewing in Health Care. The Guilford Press, New YorkBerger, BA, APhA. Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Washington, DC, 3rd edition.Rollnick, S, Mason, P, and Butler, C. Health Behavior Change. Churchill Livingstone, London