Presentation on theme: "Re-visioning Intervention: RtI2 in Secondary"— Presentation transcript:
1Re-visioning Intervention: RtI2 in Secondary Nancy Frey, Ph.D.San Diego State UniversityPowerPoint available at
2There’s no “magic in a box” for RtI First, the bad news…There’s no “magic in a box” for RtI
3Everyone expects that you’re a magician! Even worse…Everyone expects that you’re a magician!
4What is Response to Intervention? Required by IDEA, 2004A multi-tiered approach to identifying learning disabilities in reading and mathematicsProvides an alternative to discrepancy modelsAllows proactive intervention before identificationBoth a policy and a practiceAllocates up to 15% of special education funding formula for proactive interventionRegulations went into effect October 2006
5Problems with LD Identification Traditional approaches to identification through discrepancy models were inadequateLed to misdiagnosis of oral expression, listening comprehension, reading and math difficultiesLarge increases in students identified as having a learning disability
6Two possible reasons for reading difficulties Cognitive processing factorsInherent limitations in reading related to cognitive difficulties that make it difficult for a student to acquire foundational reading skillsExperiential and instructional factorsDeficiencies in the student’s literacy skills and/or literacy instructionF. R. Vellutino, et al, 2003 RtI Symposium
8Traditional approach Definition by discrepancy Definition by exclusion IQ/Achievement discrepancy (“s/he should be doing better”)Definition by exclusionuse of exclusionary criteria (“it can’t be anything else”)
9Type I and Type II Errors Traditional approach failed to discriminate between experiential/instructional inadequacies and true disabilitiesLed to misidentification of students with learning disabilities (Type I: “false negatives” and Type II: “false positives”)
14Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI2) Tier 1: Quality core instructionTier 2: Supplemental interventionTier 3: Intensive interventionTier 2:20-30%Tier 1: 70+%Tier 3:5-15%Manipulate variables…Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instructionand intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
15What Variables Can You Control? Frequency (time)Duration (time)Assessment (instruction)Group size (instruction)Access to expertise (instruction)Staff collaboration (instruction)Student Monitoring Team (instruction)Others?
16Tier 1: Quality Core Instruction 20-30%Tier 3:5-15%Manipulate variables…Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instructionand intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
17Gradual Release of Responsibility Model TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYGradual Release of Responsibility ModelFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
18Red flags for Tier 1Less than 70% of the school at or near grade levelToo much whole-group instructionNo evidence of flexible groupingBlaming students for failure“This is how I’ve always done it”
19Tier 2: Supplemental intervention 20-30%Tier 1: 70+%Tier 3:5-15%Manipulate variables…Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instructionand intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
20What does Tier 2 look like? PROGRAMSpecialized instructionGROUPINGHomogeneous small groupsASSESSMENT1-2 times monthlyWHO?General education teacher, reading specialist, S/LPWHERE?General education classroomDESIGNED TO ACCELERATE LEARNING
21Examples of Tier 2 Supplemental Instruction and Intervention Additional guided instructionLower group size (2-5 students)Afterschool tutorialsIncreased expertise (teacher, S/LP, reading specialist, etc.)Curriculum Based Measures (CBM) for progress monitoringFamily involvementStudent Monitoring Team feeds forward to improve instruction
22Small group guided instruction Additive--done in addition to core programFrequency--should be daily*Intensity--specialized approaches targeted at specific areas of difficultyDuration--typically 20 weeks* Daily instruction can come froma team of Tier 2 interventionists
23Red flags for Tier 2 Replacement instead of supplementary instruction Disconnected from curriculumNo mechanism for communication between professionalsUsed as a Band-aid to fix other schoolwide woes
24Tier 3: Intensive intervention 5-15%Tier 1: 70+%Tier 2:20-30%Manipulate variables…Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instructionand intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
25What does Tier 3 look like? PROGRAMIntensive interventionGROUPINGindividualsASSESSMENT1-2 times monthlyWHO?General education teacher, reading specialist, S/LP, outside interventionistWHERE?Designated by schoolSTUDENTS WHO ARE “NON-RESPONSIVE” MAY BE REFERRED FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION TESTING
26Red flags for Tier 3 A rush to refer to special education Lack of patienceToo much reliance on scripted programsToo much reliance on special education staffCan’t support decisions with data
27Examples of Tier 3 Intensive Instruction and Intervention One-to-one instructionIncreased duration and frequencyFrequent CBM for progress monitoringExperts provide instruction--every certificated adult on campus has studentsSpecialized assessmentsIncreased family involvementStudent Monitoring Team feeds forward to improve programmatic effortsTeacher remains central figure in these efforts
29RtI2 in action California public charter high school with 450 students 62% free/reduced lunch55% English language learners; 14% unredesignated12 languages spokenUrban community9% are students with disabilitiesFully inclusive
30The problem… How could students at risk be supported? How could we avoid the iatrogenic* effect?
31Iatrogenic: The surgery was successful but the patient died.
32Tier 1 in actionCommitment to a gradual release of responsibility model of instruction in classroomsScaffolds student learningProvides a means for Tier 2 interventionsGrading based on competencies only, with 10% +/- for participation, etc.
33Competencies for English 9 and 10 Fall CompetenciesLiteracy lettersEssential Question essay: What is Race and Does It Matter?Persuasive techniquesEssential Question essay: Can You Buy Your Way to Happiness?Oral language (retelling and dramatic monologue)Spring CompetenciesEssential question essay: Who Am I? Why Do I Matter?SummarizingPoetryEssential Question presentation: Health Is…
34Tier 2 in action Additional guided instruction in the classroom Classroom teacher, special education support teacher, English language learner support teacherAcademic RecoveryStudent grades are monitored by the Academic Recovery coordinatorWeekly 90 minute small group sessions scheduled for the entire grade level
35Tier 3 in action One-to-one tutorials at lunch Lunch is 60 minutes; 30 minutes for Tier 3 intensive interventionGeneral dismissal is at 3:00; 3:00-4:00 reserved for tutorials and Tier 3 intensive interventionStaffed by credentialed teachersAcademic Recovery coordinator, reading specialist and math department chair oversee progress monitoring
37Purposes of progress monitoring To determine whether the intervention is effectiveStandards-basedAssess marker variables that have been demonstrated to lead to instructional targetSensitive to small incremental changes over timeComparable across students (NASDSE, 2005)
39Analytic writing assessment CBM 1. Total words written (TWW)2. Average number of words written per minute (AWPM)3. Total words spelled correctly (TWSC)4. Total number of complete sentences (TCS)5. Average length of complete sentences (ALCS)6. Correct punctuation marks (CPM)7. Correct word sequences (CWS)8. Incorrect word sequences (ICWS)9. CWS – ICWS =Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Rothenberg, C. (in press).
41Reaching across the divide Opportunities for collaboration between general and special education in program design:Conducting professional developmentAssist in selecting screening measurements and scientifically-based intervention approachesInterpret school’s progress in meeting intervention needs
42Reaching across the divide Opportunities for collaboration between general and special education in program implementation:Fostering oral and written language developmentWorking with small groups of students in the general education classroomWorking with families to understand screening and progress assessments
43Paradigm shifts through leadership From viewing the problem with the student …… to analyzing the teaching/learning interaction.
44Paradigm shifts through leadership From a placement orientation … … to a teaching orientation.
45Paradigm shifts through leadership From measurement …… to evaluation.
46Paradigm shifts through leadership From special education as a place …… to special education as a service.Adapted from VanDerHayden & Kurns, 2006
47The Takeaway Instruction and Intervention are linked Manipulate variables (time, assessment, expertise, instruction) to intensify interventionBuild in a feed forward method so that RtI2 results inform classroom instruction and programmatic improvementsKeep the teacher and family at the center of communication