Presentation on theme: "Re-visioning Intervention: RtI 2 in Secondary Nancy Frey, Ph.D. San Diego State University PowerPoint available at www.fisherandfrey.com."— Presentation transcript:
Re-visioning Intervention: RtI 2 in Secondary Nancy Frey, Ph.D. San Diego State University PowerPoint available at
First, the bad news… Theres no magic in a box for RtI
Even worse… Everyone expects that youre a magician!
What is Response to Intervention? Required by IDEA, 2004 A multi-tiered approach to identifying learning disabilities in reading and mathematics Provides an alternative to discrepancy models Allows proactive intervention before identification Both a policy and a practice Allocates up to 15% of special education funding formula for proactive intervention Regulations went into effect October 2006
Problems with LD Identification Traditional approaches to identification through discrepancy models were inadequate Led to misdiagnosis of oral expression, listening comprehension, reading and math difficulties Large increases in students identified as having a learning disability
Two possible reasons for reading difficulties Cognitive processing factors Inherent limitations in reading related to cognitive difficulties that make it difficult for a student to acquire foundational reading skills Experiential and instructional factors Deficiencies in the students literacy skills and/or literacy instruction F. R. Vellutino, et al, 2003 RtI Symposium
Traditional approach Definition by discrepancy IQ/Achievement discrepancy (s/he should be doing better) Definition by exclusion use of exclusionary criteria (it cant be anything else)
Type I and Type II Errors Traditional approach failed to discriminate between experiential/instructional inadequacies and true disabilities Led to misidentification of students with learning disabilities (Type I: false negatives and Type II: false positives)
Making Instruction and Intervention Responsive
LEARNING Traditional View of Learning When time and instruction are held constant… … learning outcomes vary. Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, & Weber, 2009
LEARNING A New View of Learning When time and instruction are variable… … learning is held constant. Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, & Weber, 2009
Tears of intervention
Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI 2) Tier 1: Quality core instruction Tier 2: Supplemental intervention Tier 3: Intensive intervention Tier 1: 70+% Tier 2: 20-30% Tier 3: 5-15% Manipulate variables… Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instruction and intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
What Variables Can You Control? Frequency (time) Duration (time) Assessment (instruction) Group size (instruction) Access to expertise (instruction) Staff collaboration (instruction) Student Monitoring Team (instruction) Others?
Tier 1: Quality Core Instruction Tier 1: 70+% Tier 2: 20-30% Tier 3: 5-15% Manipulate variables… Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instruction and intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it You do it together Collaborative Independent You do it alone Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Red flags for Tier 1 Less than 70% of the school at or near grade level Too much whole-group instruction No evidence of flexible grouping Blaming students for failure This is how Ive always done it
Tier 2: Supplemental intervention Tier 1: 70+% Tier 2: 20-30% Tier 3: 5-15% Manipulate variables… Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instruction and intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
What does Tier 2 look like? PROGRAM Specialized instruction GROUPING Homogeneous small groups ASSESSMENT 1-2 times monthly WHO? General education teacher, reading specialist, S/LP WHERE? General education classroom DESIGNED TO ACCELERATE LEARNING
Examples of Tier 2 Supplemental Instruction and Intervention Additional guided instruction Lower group size (2-5 students) Afterschool tutorials Increased expertise (teacher, S/LP, reading specialist, etc.) Curriculum Based Measures (CBM) for progress monitoring Family involvement Student Monitoring Team feeds forward to improve instruction
Small group guided instruction Additive--done in addition to core program Frequency--should be daily* Intensity--specialized approaches targeted at specific areas of difficulty Duration--typically 20 weeks * Daily instruction can come from a team of Tier 2 interventionists
Red flags for Tier 2 Replacement instead of supplementary instruction Disconnected from curriculum No mechanism for communication between professionals Used as a Band-aid to fix other schoolwide woes
Tier 3: Intensive intervention Tier 1: 70+% Tier 2: 20-30% Tier 3: 5-15% Manipulate variables… Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (in press). Enhancing RTI: How to ensure success with effective classroom instruction and intervention. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
What does Tier 3 look like? PROGRAM Intensive intervention GROUPING individuals ASSESSMENT 1-2 times monthly WHO? General education teacher, reading specialist, S/LP, outside interventionist WHERE? Designated by school STUDENTS WHO ARE NON-RESPONSIVE MAY BE REFERRED FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION TESTING
Red flags for Tier 3 A rush to refer to special education Lack of patience Too much reliance on scripted programs Too much reliance on special education staff Cant support decisions with data
Examples of Tier 3 Intensive Instruction and Intervention One-to-one instruction Increased duration and frequency Frequent CBM for progress monitoring Experts provide instruction--every certificated adult on campus has students Specialized assessments Increased family involvement Student Monitoring Team feeds forward to improve programmatic efforts Teacher remains central figure in these efforts
RtI 2 in Action
RtI 2 in action California public charter high school with 450 students 62% free/reduced lunch 55% English language learners; 14% unredesignated 12 languages spoken Urban community 9% are students with disabilities Fully inclusive
The problem… How could students at risk be supported? How could we avoid the iatrogenic* effect?
Iatrogenic: The surgery was successful but the patient died.
Tier 1 in action Commitment to a gradual release of responsibility model of instruction in classrooms Scaffolds student learning Provides a means for Tier 2 interventions Grading based on competencies only, with 10% +/- for participation, etc.
Competencies for English 9 and 10 Fall Competencies Literacy letters Essential Question essay: What is Race and Does It Matter? Persuasive techniques Essential Question essay: Can You Buy Your Way to Happiness? Oral language (retelling and dramatic monologue) Spring Competencies Literacy letters Essential question essay: Who Am I? Why Do I Matter? Summarizing Poetry Essential Question presentation: Health Is…
Tier 2 in action Additional guided instruction in the classroom Classroom teacher, special education support teacher, English language learner support teacher Academic Recovery Student grades are monitored by the Academic Recovery coordinator Weekly 90 minute small group sessions scheduled for the entire grade level
Tier 3 in action One-to-one tutorials at lunch Lunch is 60 minutes; 30 minutes for Tier 3 intensive intervention General dismissal is at 3:00; 3:00-4:00 reserved for tutorials and Tier 3 intensive intervention Staffed by credentialed teachers Academic Recovery coordinator, reading specialist and math department chair oversee progress monitoring
Purposes of progress monitoring To determine whether the intervention is effective Standards-based Assess marker variables that have been demonstrated to lead to instructional target Sensitive to small incremental changes over time Comparable across students (NASDSE, 2005)
Analytic writing assessment CBM 1.Total words written (TWW) 2.Average number of words written per minute (AWPM) 3.Total words spelled correctly (TWSC) 4.Total number of complete sentences (TCS) 5.Average length of complete sentences (ALCS) 6.Correct punctuation marks (CPM) 7.Correct word sequences (CWS) 8.Incorrect word sequences (ICWS) 9.CWS – ICWS = Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Rothenberg, C. (in press).
Leading a Collaborative Effort for RtI 2
Reaching across the divide Opportunities for collaboration between general and special education in program design: Conducting professional development Assist in selecting screening measurements and scientifically-based intervention approaches Interpret schools progress in meeting intervention needs
Reaching across the divide Opportunities for collaboration between general and special education in program implementation: Fostering oral and written language development Working with small groups of students in the general education classroom Working with families to understand screening and progress assessments
Paradigm shifts through leadership From viewing the problem with the student … … to analyzing the teaching/learning interaction.
From a placement orientation … … to a teaching orientation. Paradigm shifts through leadership
Paradigm shifts through leadership From measurement … … to evaluation.
Paradigm shifts through leadership From special education as a place … … to special education as a service. Adapted from VanDerHayden & Kurns, 2006
The Takeaway Instruction and Intervention are linked Manipulate variables (time, assessment, expertise, instruction) to intensify intervention Build in a feed forward method so that RtI 2 results inform classroom instruction and programmatic improvements Keep the teacher and family at the center of communication
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