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UNDERSTANDING THE FUTURE scenario representations - future technology in context Gerrit C. van der Veer Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Faculty of Sciences;

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Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING THE FUTURE scenario representations - future technology in context Gerrit C. van der Veer Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Faculty of Sciences;"— Presentation transcript:

1 UNDERSTANDING THE FUTURE scenario representations - future technology in context Gerrit C. van der Veer Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Faculty of Sciences; Dept of Computer Sciences; Section Human-Computer Interaction, Multimedia and Culture

2 new technology - just another toy? Look back for a second: how would you communicate without mobile phone how would your department organize activities without fax and email? What came first - the mobile phone or mobility? How quickly did your (grand) parents learn, how quickly will your children learn?

3 New I.T. changes the world Understanding the future involves more than technology: the users – knowledge and expectations, needs the organization of people - their communications, their relations, and their work and procedures; the context of use and the culture So assess new IT before building it

4 Design and a changing world: A model of the dynamic relationship between the end-users cultures and system design The new system and the design process Existing/new End-users culture(s) Influence (do) fit (has to) change (do) initiate (do)

5 Fit (has to) cultures in short run are “stable”  the need for fit task analysis to know the organization, the context of use, and the culture When fit condition is not fulfilled design for the future world: Holtzblatt & Beyer (1998) - contextual design or the design will fail the early fax (early 20th century) IBM’s first in-house text processing system (‘70s) Pliskin (1993) - management information systems case study: failure of implementing an EES (Employee Evaluation System)

6 Change (do) culture is socially constructed and, consequently, it is subject to continuous change  need for envisioning the changes that lead to the “new culture of use” “envisioning design”

7 Initiate (do) create a new culture the need to envision “the (totally) new culture of use” initiate culture case: Apple Advanced Technologies is an example of a design company that on purpose not only tried to change but to initiate new cultures of use, e.g., for future education. Ways to support such a culture included stimulating the development of journals like “MacUser” intended to create an “elite” user culture with its own journals, discussion forums, etc.

8 The new system and the design process End-users culture(s) needed: 1. envisioning changes in culture and context of use or total new culture of use 2. aiming at usability without the duty to learn intuitively acceptable appreciated and useful

9 Tools for envisioning: scenarios Scenarios are “informal narrative descriptions” of the user’s activities when performing a specific task (Carroll, 2000) A well specified and sufficiently detailed description of individual instances of events, artefacts, procedures, situations described in full context of use from the point of view of actors (users, not the client of design) proposed as envisioning, not as finished design document

10 types of scenarios Formatted as: written story story board performed by actors (e.g., video “Star fire”, SUN; ‘95, HP) script to be acted, if needed with mock-ups of potential technology Main role is the user with motives, goals, knowledge, ….. prospective user can imagine themselves - “suppose you …” other stakeholders may imagine somebody else - a “persona”

11 levels of scenarios High level scenarios the overall motives that prospective users might have when they come to the system and the general kind of interaction they might experience In this type of scenarios detailed specification of dialogue or of look and feel is lacking Low level scenarios specify precisely the system’s functionality and the interactions between user and system”

12 high level scenarios –are suitable for situations where the main problem is the difference in cultures between the “current” situation and the envisioned context of use. –cultural aspects can be represented in: goals, values and needs of users in the future situation norms, habits, “fashion” low level scenarios –will be applied in later iterations of the design process –cultural aspects mostly represented in: dialogue and cultural symbols in the interface details of the context Scenarios and culture

13 Step 1: build, from initial requirements, a conceptual model of the new technology which problems / requirements does the design approach which (types of ) tasks may be delegated to technology or performed with the help of technology the cultural context (especially in high level scenarios): how will these tasks affect the culture of use (other roles, other value systems, other business processes) methodology to design for new cultures of use

14 Step 2: develop one or more scenarios two points of view (foci): actor (user): the “audience”, or “personas” (Cooper, 2000) goals and values in relation to use of the system (meanings assigned to the technology) meanings of the system’s representations and dialogue (low-level scenarios) situation needs and motives to use the proposed functionality allow the prospective user to imagine the actual situation

15 Step 3: confront the prospective users and other stakeholders with the scenarios and analyze the reactions (early assessment) mental models of prospective users as initiated by the scenario (in users’ mental models cultural aspects are reflected - Mantovani, 1996) claim analysis what is different from the current system & situation? what was the goal for this feature - is this goal reached? what are side effects and their valence (+ / -)? claims analysis participants: designers of relevant disciplines, client, prospective users, sceptical users and stakeholders

16 Step 4: feedback the results to the conceptual model Corrective feedback: the conceptual model is not understood as intended. would the design be needed, acceptable, in the envisioned culture of use. discovered in a very early state where not too much design effort is spend on dead ends. Creative feedback: end users and stakeholders interpret (project) their imagination and develop new ideas about the conceptual model an early and rich source for refinement and re-design.

17 Example of high-level scenario with multiple personas - SUN Starfire Claims of envisioning: task level: co-ordination; communication; efficiency; organisational simplicity functionality: representation of information; speed and availability interaction: dialogue styles; flexibility technology: efficiency of available technology In search of opinions of prospective users on usability: learnability, ease of use, affect

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19 Discuss the claims of SUN Starfire Claims of envisioning: task level: co-ordination; communication; efficiency; organisational simplicity functionality: representation of information; speed and availability interaction: dialogue styles; flexibility technology: efficiency of available technology usability: learnability, ease of use, affect

20 Another example Home technology: Digital scale - Ideo

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22 Example of high-level scenario - low budget student scripted and acted video A communication-device for regular guests of hotel chains original requirements: guest should feel “special” speed flexibility ease of use

23 Current situation: making reservations, check-in and check out - both for one time guests and frequent guests bothersome instructions (ease of use?) formalities (flexibility?) repeated info requests (special guest?) time consuming (speed?)

24 Envisioned situation for frequent guests: flexibility of location in the office in the air on the road of procedure go to desk use special device

25 frequent guest feels “special” relevant personal info known and extra facilities: e.g., info available - layout hotel - room number - local information and street plan - something nice (taxi on hotel bill)

26 speed no need to be in the queue, no need to find passport or credit card

27 ease of use no key, device is key

28 Example low level scenario (Xerox, CHI’98 short video) Digital Ink (DI) a “universal” communication device scenario with “persona” details of dialogue

29 “I discover a small garden yesterday, it was warm and dry and there was almost nobody around. And it was really the most relaxing place I had been to in months…”

30 “So I sat down, I did some writing and drawing and thinking that it was months that I communicated with my friends’ back home… I decided that I should send them some of my garden sketches by e-mail.” record

31 “So, in order to send the e-mails: I pressed the mode button on the side of the DI.” record

32 “That changes the mode from record my drawing and hand writing... To command mode which allows me to tell DI what I wanted to do next.” command record

33 “While in command mode the elliptical screen slowly scrolls through the command words reminding me of what option I want to use.” send

34 “In this case I wanted to send e-mails to my friends so I simply write: the word send followed by their e-mail addresses. The “->” terminates the command and sends the message Once the send command has been written and read, the screen displays the progress of the command Now my sketches are on their computers.” Send to luisa@vu.nl-> Send to pepe@vu.nl-> sending

35 Claims analysis For each new feature in the design Identify the feature - what is the actual novelty Ask what is the aim - and will this be successful? Ask for side effects that could be considered bad / dangerous / intrusive - in what context?

36 How to assess future users’ mental models Ask them to “externalize” - teach back Interpret the protocol - hermeneutics Feed back to designers: corrective creative

37 Some examples of protocols and their interpretation

38 Well understood, but rather conservative regarding the dialogue possibilities

39 Extrapolation based on intuition and consistency

40 Reliability in interpreting visual protocols ? requires training

41 User created verbal command mode

42 User supposed restrictions in dialogue - why ??

43 A wish list of functionality and with context specifically referred to

44 The pen “does understand”

45 Exploring an envisioning scenario - a “quick and dirty (?)” analysis Domain: Department of international association of Musicologists, a world wide society of professionals and music libraries department: libraries of original manuscripts and old prints entrance on appointment, for registered members Requirements for new system: safety ease of use multi-lingual (international membership)

46 Scenario description, to go with the mock-up General story: Musicologist (M) has made reservations to study old print M is at the entrance of the build, and has not registered yet M has not been here before “Suppose You are M” Alternative global ideas for access system a.Individual personal pocket device, to be used world wide in buildings of associated libraries (members carry their device) b.Automatic registration device in hall of each associated library c.“Smart” jewel, to make automatic connection to registration-desk in each associated building (with desk operator)

47 Scenario a: Pocket device display area “soft” buttons sensors International Musicologist Pass

48 M(usicologist) enters building building of Salzburg Mozarteum, and takes his device from his pocket Geef je keuze aan International Musicologist Pass locale bibliotheek functies overige Please note: my personal device speaks in my own language (Dutch) to me What shall I do?

49 Welkom bij Mozarteum Salzburg International Musicologist Pass toegang tot reservering check reservering cancel reservering

50 Geef vingerafdruk voor identificatie International Musicologist Pass

51 Welkom Gerrit. Mozart, Le Nozze, B&H, 1812, ligt klaar in kamer 23. Onthoud je kamernummer International Musicologist Pass 23

52 Welkom Gerrit. Mozart, Le Nozze, B&H, 1812, ligt klaar in kamer 23. Onthoud je kamernummer International Musicologist Pass 23

53 Welkom Gerrit. Mozart, Le Nozze, B&H, 1812, ligt klaar in kamer 23. Onthoud je kamernummer International Musicologist Pass 23

54 Welkom Gerrit. Mozart, La Nozze, B&H, 1812, ligt klaar in kamer 23. Onthoud je kamernummer International Musicologist Pass 23

55 Dit device is nu je kamersleutel International Musicologist Pass 23

56 Dit device is nu je kamersleutel International Musicologist Pass

57 M is now registered and “inside”. International Musicologist Pass Suppose you (M) want to have an electronic facsimile of some of the pages studied.... overige Geef je keuze aan locale bibliotheek functies

58 Scenario b: registration device in hall

59 Details front panel screen sensors printer Mozarteum Salzburg

60 Default system state Only for members Int. Music. Association If you made a reservation for the library: please, provide fingerprint for identification Mozarteum Salzburg English as default language

61 M is now registered and “inside” Welkom bij de originele oude drukken afdeling van het Mozarteum Salzburg. Geef je keuze aan Mozarteum Salzburg toegang tot reservering check reservering cancel reservering Speaks now my language (Dutch)

62 Condities: M is geregistreerd, boek is gereserveerd. Het kamernummer en de details van de reservering staan aan de achterkant van de print. De deur gaat open door het paneel naast de deur met de wijsvinger aan te raken. Veel succes met de studie. Mozarteum Salzburg

63 Scenario c: “smart” jewel (this is a pin) The individual pin of each member communicates to a computer at the desk, as soon as M is in the region of 1 meter to the desk

64 Screen at the desk, visible to the desk operator D who is another type of IT user with another specific role for this system

65 As soon as M approaches the desk, the task of desk operator D is temporarily interrupted: What will D do? Dass ist Dr. Gerrit C. van der Veer, Ruffname “Gerrit” - Er ist nog nicht eingeschrieben Bevorzugte Sprachen: 1. Niederlandisch; 2. English; 3. Deutsch Reservierung: Mozart, La Nozze, B&H, 1812 ID OK? Y/N Speaks D’s language (German)

66 D has identified M (the system will continue to speak D’s language to D: Gerrit’s Reservation is in room 23, till 19:00 hours Gerrit has never been in the Mozarteum before, Please show him to the elevator. Tell him the door will open automatically. “return” if ready

67 opgave In groepen van 2: werk uit een scenario voor de volgende situatie: M ontdekt een aantekening in de partituur waaruit blijkt dat hij in feite de baspartij zou moeten bestuderen. voor scenario 1, 2, resp 3

68 conclusion Envisioning design of future technology needs to be based on insight in organisation, procedures, and mental models as well as culture and context of use Scenarios provide an early way to represent envisioning and allow “cheap” assessment of stakeholder understanding and acceptance Claims analysis and mental models techniques are relevant, simple, and easy to use


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