Presentation on theme: "Rhetorical Elements: Analysis Strategies"— Presentation transcript:
1Rhetorical Elements: Analysis Strategies Exigence, Persona,SOAPStone and DIDLS
2ExigenceWhy did the author write this? What was “getting under his/her skin”? What was he/she thinking about? What emotional reaction was the author having?Shakespeare and Macbeth: New Scottish/English king who believed in the supernatural as elements of the devil. In addition, this king also happened to be the patron of Shakespeare’s acting company.
3Exigence continued:Martin Luther King and “I Have a Dream”: He wanted to inspire the people in the civil rights movement; he also wanted to present the idea of a country without prejudice to the US as a wholeMark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: He had a successful “boys’ book” in Tom Sawyer; as the writing of the book continued, he became disgusted with certain aspects of society, including violence, gullibility, and greed. Later part of the book reflects this.
4PersonaThe role the author chooses to play. Not the same as the author.Similar to point of view in fictionTo Kill a Mockingbird: Scout’s roleThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Huck’s roleA Modest Proposal: Swift is playing the role of a well educated, thoughtful Irish politician who believes he has a practical solution to poverty in Ireland.The author can “be” him/her self yet still play a role. Parents can “play” dumb, tough, etc. Politicians can “play” family person, hero, villain, common person,etc.
6S--Speaker The individual or collective voice of the text: Is it the author’s own voice?Is it a certain persona the author chooses?Is it reflecting a group?Is it reflecting a governmental body? (“We the people……”)Most likely it is a combination of all or some of these
7O--OccasionThe event or catalyst causing the writing of the text to occur“The Declaration of Independence” by Thomas Jefferson“Second Inaugural Address” by Abraham Lincoln“The Gettysburg Address” by Abraham Lincoln“Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King, Jr.“We Have Nothing to Fear….” by Franklin Delano Roosevelt
8A---AudienceThe specific group of readers to whom the text is directedMarc Antony and Brutus: Roman citizensMacbeth’s letter: Lady MacbethAtticus’s closing argument: the jury –but a specific juryThomas Paine, “The Crisis”—Revolutionary War SoldiersPatrick Henry, “Speech to the Virginia Convention”—a colony largely opposed to war
9P--Purpose The reason behind the text What the author wants us to do with the exigence placed before usA certain verb…..To free the prisonersTo find the defendant not guiltyTo kill DuncanTo mutiny against Brutus, Cassius, and the other conspirators
10S--Subject The general topic and/or main idea: Today’s campaign messages: our candidate and why he/she is the best choiceNFL Sunday Football: Football is cool, great, exciting, fun, etc.Gary Larson Cartoons: Life’s more interesting through a unique perspectiveBrutus and Antony: Caesar is dead; what are we going to do about it?
11T--Tone The attitude of the author/persona toward his or her subject: Lincoln: somber—Gettysburg AddressP. Henry: urgent---Speech to the Virginia ConventionLady Macbeth: disgusted—her husband is a coward if he doesn’t kill DuncanMarc Antony: hesitant at first; then strongAtticus: practical—it makes sense to believe Tom’s version of things
13Diction What words does the author use? “The evil that men do lives after them, the good is oft interred with their bones.”“The question before the house is one of awful moment to this country.”“Yesterday, December 7, 1941: a day that will live in infamy.”
14Images What images does the author create? Visual, olfactory, auditory, tactile, gustatory, kinestheticHow do these images imbue (permeate) the piece with sensory images?“I would, while it was smiling in my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this.”
15Details Which details does the author include and omit? Lady Macbeth mentions he had made a promise (which he had not)….Atticus points out Tom can only use his right hand, while Mr. Ewell writes left handedLincoln mentions “four score and seven years ago”
16Language What type of language does the author use? “All right, then, I’ll go to Hell.”“Ask Not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country….”“We are apt to listen to that siren till she turns us into beasts…..”“You are not wood, you are not stones, but men…….”
17Sentence Structure Simple, compound, complex, compound-complex Use of phrasesSentence varietyVivid verbs, etc.Active or passive voice
18Additional element: Design Dictionary definitions:verb (used with object)to prepare the preliminary sketch or the plans for (a work to be executed), especially to plan the form and structure of: to design a new bridge.nounthe combination of details or features of a picture, building, etc.; the pattern or motif of artistic work: the design on a bracelet.
19Design: as it applies to media The overall look, feel, and sound of the piece:Color?Camera angles?Use of pausing?Music and/or sound effects? (soundtrack)Special effects?Key question: what design choices did the director make to convey certain ideas?Example: Shindler’s List—the girl in the red dress
20DesignExample: Schindler’s List—the girl in the red dress