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The Civil War Part 1 (1861 & 1862).

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War Part 1 (1861 & 1862)."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War Part 1 (1861 & 1862)

2 Setting the Scene The first shots fired at Fort Sumter in April 1861 signaled the official start of the Civil War. Lincoln called for 35,000 Union volunteers to put down the rebellion. By May 1861 the Confederacy consisted of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, South Carolina, Georgia, Texas

3 The First Battle of Bull Run
General Irwin McDowell was named the first commanding general of the Union Army; he was reluctant to fight, and complained to Lincoln that men were poorly prepared. When McDowell finally marched to Virginia, he was accompanied by spectators and reporters. McDowell wanted to capture the town of Manassas, a town near Bull Run Creek.

4 The First Battle of Bull Run, (cont’d)
PT Beauregard was the Confederate General waiting for the Union Troops. McDowell finally attacked on July 21, 1861, but had waited so long that the Confederates were able to rush 11,000 more troops to the front. The Union had gained ground, until a Confederate officer, shouted, ”Look there is Jackson standing like a stonewall!”

5 The First Battle of Bull Run (cont’d)
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson had earned one of the most famous nicknames in history. The Union lost the first battle of the war. It would two years before the Union would win a major field battle in the Eastern Theater. Lincoln would fire numerous generals along the way, until he found his man.

6 Preparing for War – The Advantages
Union (Federals) 21.5 million people 21,7000 miles of railroad 110,000 factories Poor Leadership Fought most of war away from home Lack of Motivation Confederates (Rebels) 9 million people 9,000 miles of railroad 20,600 factories Great Leadership Fought most of the battles on Southern Soil Motivated to not lose

7 Strategies Lincoln immediately set up a naval Blockade to limit the south’s ability to trade its only resource. Lincoln had to win to be successful The Confederacy did not have to win outright, they simply had to NOT LOSE What does this mean?

8 Civil War Accouterments
Muskets were smooth-bore, while the new rifles had spiral grooves engraved into the barrel. Bullets used in rifles were more accurate and powerful than round musket balls

9 War in the West Lincoln replaced McDowell with General McClellan, known as Little Mac. Again this general took his time getting ready, however, in the West a little known general named Ulysses Sam Grant was slaughtering Confederates. He attacked Forts Donnellson & Henry on the Mississippi River by attaching cannon to small boats.

10 The Battle of Shiloh In late March 1862 Grant marched his men towards Corinth, Miss. Where Confederate General Al Sidney Johnston was waiting for him with 40,000 men. Grant knew the size of his enemy so he stopped to wait for reinforcements. Johnston attacked Grant who was camped at Shiloh Church.

11 The Battle of Shiloh (cont’d)
The Rebels pushed the Union back to Tennessee. Grant’s officers expected him to signal retreat, however, Grant insanely ordered an attack under the cover of darkness. At the same time Grant’s reinforcements arrived and helped defeat Johnston Union Casualties – 13,000 Confederate Casualties – 11,000

12 The Monitor and the Merrimack
The Monitor (Union) & the Merrimack (Confed) were iron clad steamships that fought each other in the Atlantic. Neither really helped their side; the south sank theirs, and the north lost the Monitor in a storm

13 The Peninsular Campaign
McClellan again was asked by Lincoln to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. McClellan refused to attack, and asked Lincoln for more troops. Lincoln responded by saying that you must act now. The south attacked him and they fought to a draw at the Battle of Seven Pines. Confederate Gen. Johnston dies and Robert E. Lee assumes complete command of the Army

14 The Seven Days’ Battle McClellan’s troops were still close to Richmond, so the Rebs attacked again. Union losses – 16,000 men. Confederate losses – 20,000.

15 The 2nd Battle of Bull Run
Lincoln fires McClellan and names John Pope commanding General of the Union Army. Lee sent Stonewall north to flank Pope’s new troops. When Pope’s troops counter-attacked, Lee hit him from the blind-side. This battle was on the same ground as the first Bull Run, and with the same results.

16 The Battle of Antietam Lincoln replaces Pope with McClellan, yes I said McClellan. Lee wants to invade the north, so he heads to the border state of Maryland which actually has Regiments in the north and the south. September 1862 Lee waltzed into western Maryland. McClellan had no idea they were there.

17 The Battle of Antietam, (cont’d)
McClellan met Lee at Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland. Lee had 40,000 troops, while McClellan had 100,000. McClellan attacked but suffered heavy casualties of nearly 12,000 men. Lee suffered 14,000 in casualties, 1/3 of his army. Lee retreated, but McClellan failed to pursue him and finish the enemy. Antietam is still the bloodiest day in American History.

18 The Need for Soldiers Gen. Lee recognized the South’s need for soldiers, so he recommended a draft. April 1862 the Confederacy passed a law requiring Southern men b/w the ages of to serve for 3 years. The Confederacy also authorized the army to confiscate slaves from farms to fight in battle.

19 European Help The South petitioned Britain and France to enter the war on their side. The world did not recognize the Confederate States of America as a sovereign nation. England did allow the south to use its naval ports. The Alabama captured more than 60 US merchant ships. England however was anti-slavery.

20 Financing the War In the North Congress passed the first income tax in order to raise war $. In 1862 the Internal Revenue Act created taxes on liquor, tobacco, & medicine. In 1862 the US created a national currency for the first time. Greenbacks - ________________________ ___________________________________

21 Anti-War Movements March 1863 Draft Riots broke out in NY; 100 died during the 4-day rage. The Copperheads were democrats opposed to the war. They feared that freed slaves would inundate the north, thus taking jobs away from whites.

22 Lincoln & Presidential Power
Lincoln shut down newspapers and arrested the Maryland State Legislature using the army. Suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus. Put his birth state, Kentucky, under Martial Law.


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