2Setting the SceneThe first shots fired at Fort Sumter in April 1861 signaled the official start of the Civil War.Lincoln called for 35,000 Union volunteers to put down the rebellion.By May 1861 the Confederacy consisted of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, South Carolina, Georgia, Texas
3The First Battle of Bull Run General Irwin McDowell was named the first commanding general of the Union Army; he was reluctant to fight, and complained to Lincoln that men were poorly prepared.When McDowell finally marched to Virginia, he was accompanied by spectators and reporters.McDowell wanted to capture the town of Manassas, a town near Bull Run Creek.
4The First Battle of Bull Run, (cont’d) PT Beauregard was the Confederate General waiting for the Union Troops.McDowell finally attacked on July 21, 1861, but had waited so long that the Confederates were able to rush 11,000 more troops to the front.The Union had gained ground, until a Confederate officer, shouted, ”Look there is Jackson standing like a stonewall!”
5The First Battle of Bull Run (cont’d) Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson had earned one of the most famous nicknames in history.The Union lost the first battle of the war. It would two years before the Union would win a major field battle in the Eastern Theater.Lincoln would fire numerous generals along the way, until he found his man.
6Preparing for War – The Advantages Union (Federals)21.5 million people21,7000 miles of railroad110,000 factoriesPoor LeadershipFought most of war away from homeLack of MotivationConfederates (Rebels)9 million people9,000 miles of railroad20,600 factoriesGreat LeadershipFought most of the battles on Southern SoilMotivated to not lose
7StrategiesLincoln immediately set up a naval Blockade to limit the south’s ability to trade its only resource.Lincoln had to win to be successfulThe Confederacy did not have to win outright, they simply had to NOT LOSEWhat does this mean?
8Civil War Accouterments Muskets were smooth-bore, while the new rifles had spiral grooves engraved into the barrel.Bullets used in rifles were more accurate and powerful than round musket balls
9War in the WestLincoln replaced McDowell with General McClellan, known as Little Mac.Again this general took his time getting ready, however, in the West a little known general named Ulysses Sam Grant was slaughtering Confederates.He attacked Forts Donnellson & Henry on the Mississippi River by attaching cannon to small boats.
10The Battle of ShilohIn late March 1862 Grant marched his men towards Corinth, Miss. Where Confederate General Al Sidney Johnston was waiting for him with 40,000 men.Grant knew the size of his enemy so he stopped to wait for reinforcements.Johnston attacked Grant who was camped at Shiloh Church.
11The Battle of Shiloh (cont’d) The Rebels pushed the Union back to Tennessee.Grant’s officers expected him to signal retreat, however, Grant insanely ordered an attack under the cover of darkness.At the same time Grant’s reinforcements arrived and helped defeat JohnstonUnion Casualties – 13,000Confederate Casualties – 11,000
12The Monitor and the Merrimack The Monitor (Union) & the Merrimack (Confed) were iron clad steamships that fought each other in the Atlantic.Neither really helped their side; the south sank theirs, and the north lost the Monitor in a storm
13The Peninsular Campaign McClellan again was asked by Lincoln to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.McClellan refused to attack, and asked Lincoln for more troops. Lincoln responded by saying that you must act now.The south attacked him and they fought to a draw at the Battle of Seven Pines.Confederate Gen. Johnston dies and Robert E. Lee assumes complete command of the Army
14The Seven Days’ BattleMcClellan’s troops were still close to Richmond, so the Rebs attacked again.Union losses – 16,000 men.Confederate losses – 20,000.
15The 2nd Battle of Bull Run Lincoln fires McClellan and names John Pope commanding General of the Union Army.Lee sent Stonewall north to flank Pope’s new troops. When Pope’s troops counter-attacked, Lee hit him from the blind-side.This battle was on the same ground as the first Bull Run, and with the same results.
16The Battle of AntietamLincoln replaces Pope with McClellan, yes I said McClellan.Lee wants to invade the north, so he heads to the border state of Maryland which actually has Regiments in the north and the south.September 1862 Lee waltzed into western Maryland. McClellan had no idea they were there.
17The Battle of Antietam, (cont’d) McClellan met Lee at Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland. Lee had 40,000 troops, while McClellan had 100,000.McClellan attacked but suffered heavy casualties of nearly 12,000 men. Lee suffered 14,000 in casualties, 1/3 of his army.Lee retreated, but McClellan failed to pursue him and finish the enemy.Antietam is still the bloodiest day in American History.
18The Need for SoldiersGen. Lee recognized the South’s need for soldiers, so he recommended a draft.April 1862 the Confederacy passed a law requiring Southern men b/w the ages of to serve for 3 years.The Confederacy also authorized the army to confiscate slaves from farms to fight in battle.
19European HelpThe South petitioned Britain and France to enter the war on their side.The world did not recognize the Confederate States of America as a sovereign nation.England did allow the south to use its naval ports.The Alabama captured more than 60 US merchant ships.England however was anti-slavery.
20Financing the WarIn the North Congress passed the first income tax in order to raise war $.In 1862 the Internal Revenue Act created taxes on liquor, tobacco, & medicine.In 1862 the US created a national currency for the first time.Greenbacks - ___________________________________________________________
21Anti-War MovementsMarch 1863 Draft Riots broke out in NY; 100 died during the 4-day rage.The Copperheads were democrats opposed to the war.They feared that freed slaves would inundate the north, thus taking jobs away from whites.
22Lincoln & Presidential Power Lincoln shut down newspapers and arrested the Maryland State Legislature using the army.Suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus.Put his birth state, Kentucky, under Martial Law.