Presentation on theme: "First President of U.S. Won unanimously in 1788 (69 Electoral Votes) and 1792 (132 votes). Only president to get all electoral votes No Designated Party."— Presentation transcript:
First President of U.S. Won unanimously in 1788 (69 Electoral Votes) and 1792 (132 votes). Only president to get all electoral votes No Designated Party Reluctant President Only 10 states participated in the 1788 election, N.Y. chose no electors, N.C. and R. I. hadnt ratified the Constitution. George Washington ( ) election of 1788/1792
Issues include: Starting a new country French Revolution
George Washington ( ) election of 1788/1792 As President: Starting a new country Hamilton had plans to establish a national credit and build a financially powerful nation – basis of Federalist Party. Jefferson is opposed to Hamilton – Jeffersonian Republicans. Washington held regular cabinet meetings to debate issues before making a final decision. Promoted neutrality for the country, until it grew stronger.
George Washington ( ) election of 1788/1792 As President: French Revolution Refused to accept recommendations from Secretary of State: Jefferson (pro-French) or Secretary of Treasury: Hamilton (pro-British). Insisted on neutral course until the U.S. was stronger.
George Washington ( ) election of 1788/1792 Set many precedents and customs of the presidency, such as serving max. of two terms Two parties were developing by the end of Washingtons second term. In his farewell speech, Washington warned against excessive party spirit, geographical distinctions, and long term alliances.
V.P. under G. Washington Election in 1796 as Federalist Strong central w/ weak states rights loose interpretationalist More electable than Hamilton Main support from New England Defeats T. Jefferson (Dem-Rep) by 3 e.v. (& Pinckney & Burr) John Adams ( ) election of 1796
Issues include: Federalist handling of Whiskey rebellion and.. Jays Treaty (too British-sympathetic) As President: XYZ Affair creates undeclared war w/ French 97 (Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute) Quasi-War required taxes --- John Fries revolt in Penn. Convention of 1800 leads to peaceful resolution w/ French and later the Louisiana Purchase And….
John Adams ( ) election of 1796 As President: Alien and Sedition Acts target Dem-Reps and their supporters Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions create nullification talk
John Adams ( ): election of 1796 Politics moves towards two declared parties Elections about personalities and ……..on sectional interests Adams avoided entangling alliances U.S. beginning to form an identity, but… Federalists mimic British culture (furniture/literature/art/etc) America must choose Feds or Dem-Reps in 1800!
1800 and 1804 Jefferson (dem-rep) vs. Adams (fed) Democratic-republicans: Strict interpreters States rightists Feared monarchy/dictatorship Federalists: Loose interpreters Valued strong central govt Feared anarchy Thomas Jefferson elected 162 electoral votes compared to 14 for his Federal opponent Federalists too radical for public, campaigns fizzled out,
The Men Jefferson Somewhat passive, weak voice Writer Appealed to middle class (farmers, artisans, etc.) Liberal Sympathized with downtrodden Favored agriculture Advocated rule of the people Minimal military French influence Adams Aggressive Strong speaker Appealed to upper class (North) Traditional Focused on National Bank Advocated rule of best people Strong military British influence
The Election Federalists angry with President John Adams Didnt allow war with France against Napoleon Resulted in increased taxes and higher public debt Loyal Federalists bash Jefferson Rumors of atheism: believed in separation of church and state Thief Adulterer Jefferson elected Southern states had more votes (slaves counted as 3/5) Aaron Burr helped swing important NY votes from Adams Jefferson and Burr tie, broken by House of Representatives (picked lesser of two evils) John Adams is last Federalist President of the USA
Whats going on USA adjusts to new Constitution US Expansion: Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark expedition World: Napoleon invades parts of Europe, Africa, and the Americas Hated Embargo Act of 1807
Elections 1808 and 1812 Election of James Madison (Dem. Rep.) -Charles Pinckney (Federalist) -Madison former Sec. of State and a friend of Jeffersons. (Virginian) -Pinckney ran against T-Jeff in Election of James Madison (Dem. Rep.) -Dewitt Clinton (Federalist) -Madison wartime president -Dewitt a Dem. Rep. chosen by Federalists as best chance to beat the Dem. Rep.s out of office. (He is also the Nephew of Madisons late V.P.)
Party platforms/strategy Election Dem. Rep. Madison had Jeffersons support and T-Jeff still popular. -Running as previous Sec. of State and a Virginian -Federalist Pinckney uses the embargo act and bad foreign politics with Britain and France against Madison and T-Jeff Election Dem. Rep. Madison running as a wartime president. -People dont want to switch power in the middle of a conflict. (First example of this) -Federalist Dewitt Clinton changed politics according to popular feeling and geography. (South W=pro war-Dewitt=Pro war, New England against-Dewitt=against) -Ran hoping to get people who did not want another term with a Virginian President.
Election Results Election Dem. Rep. Madison Wins by a lot. Pinckney loses. -Madison (122) Clinton (47) Election 1812 Dem. Rep. Madison Wins again by a lot (though not as much as before), Dewitt Loses. -Madison (128) Dewitt (89)
Brief History Embargo of Britain unpopular in New England. -Congress doesnt cooperate with Madison like it did with T- Jeff. -Divided feelings on seemingly unavoidable war. -Troubles with natives, belief that they had British assistance. -War to reestablish belief in republican system. -Madison asked congress to declare war on June 1, Madisons War -United States not really united -Some in New England helping the British. -U.S. not prepared, regular army scattered and ill trained. -American navy, shining example (Oliver Hazard Perry) -Francis Scott Key Star Spangled Banner. -Jackson Victory in New Orleans.
Under James Madison Secretary of State (1812) Secretary of War (1814) Elected in 1816 as Democratic- Republican Defeats Rufus King (Federalist) by landslide Federalist party weak due to War of 1812 James Monroe ( ) election of 1816
James Monroe As President: Era of Good Feelings Economic Panic of 1819 Missouri Compromise Prohibited Slavery in 36° 30 Parallel Florida ceded to United States by Spain
James Monroe Election of 1820 Ran for re-election unopposed Not elected unanimously by electoral college One elector voted for John Q. Adams As President: Andrew Jackson attacked Florida Monroe Doctrine
The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams (Mass) Secretary of State – (Mastermind of Monroe Doctrine) Andrew Jackson (Tenn) Military Hero (New Orleans/Indian Fighter) William Crawford (Geor) Henry Clay (Kent) Speaker of the House All candidates were Republicans John C. Calhoun ran as VP with Adams and Jackson
The Election Only 25% of eligible voters voted Voting by section Adams won New England Jackson won the South and West Election decided by Congress Clay did not have enough electoral votes to be considered
The Result Speaker of House Henry Clay promises victory to Adams Adams agreed with Clays American System Federal Bank, Tariffs, and Roads/Canals Jackson to military/states rightist Crawford finished by a stroke Adams becomes the first minority President
The Corrupt Bargain Adams becomes President Clay becomes Secretary of State 3 out of 4 last Secretaries of State became President Corruption unlikely because Adams was honest to a fault. Rumors of corruption plagued both Adams and Clays political careers
Adams as President Respect > Popularity A Failure at Baby kissing democracy. Only replaced 12 government officials No spoils lost Adams party support Unpopular policies American System Fair with Indians in Georgia (Cherokees) Adams=nationalist, America=sectionalist
The Elections of Andrew Jackson Truly the coolest President
Election of 1828 Criticized Adams National Republican administration Peoples Candidate on Democratic- Republican ticket. Rachel
Issues of Elections 1828 – against Pres. John Q. Adams Corrupt Bargain Mud-Slinging Tariff of Abominations 1832 – against Henry Clay Rechartering of the National Bank
Jackson as President Spoils System Veto! Veto! Veto! Weak Cabinet Reduction of National Debt Indian Removal
Legacy of Old Hickory No banking system until 1913 Appeal to common man Importance of personality in elections
Election of 1836 Democrats/Jacksonians Jackson ensured the nomination of Martin Van Buren (his yes man) in Van Buren promised to tread generally in the shoes of Andrew Jackson, but was not wildly supported by Jacksonians. Against tariffs and federally funded internal improvements. Mostly pro-slavery. Supported independent treasury. Supported by South and West.
Whig Party Chose favorite sons, each with regional appeals, hoping to split the vote and force it to the House of Representatives. Pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, pro-internal improvements. Supported moral reform. Based in New England. Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren, Democrat. General William Henry Harrison (Old Tippecanoe), Whigs leading favorite son. Hugh White, Whig Daniel Webster, Whig Willie Mangum, Independent Candidates
Election of 1836 Tariffs National Bank vs. Independent Treasury Slavery Internal Improvements (Federal or State funded) Major Issues
Election of 1836 Population is moving west. Women have more opportunities, but are still not equal. Blacks continue to have no rights, whether free or slave. The nation is beginning to be overcome by manifest destiny. America in 1836
The Election of 1836 Van Buren won with 170 to 124 electoral votes, but a much closer popular margin. The Whigs strategy failed, the election never made it to the House of Representatives. Martin Van Buren became the eighth U.S. president, and the first to have been born under the American flag. Results
Election of 1840 Martin Van Buren v. William H. Harrison
Election Results 1,274,624 1,127, Popular vote Electoral Vote William H. HarrisonMartin Van Buren
Demographics U.S. Population- 17,069,453 (1840 Census) White= 83.2% Black= 16.8% 89% rural 11% urban Average U.S. age= 18
Harrison Background Not best statesman on Whig ticket, but best Vote-getter Portrayed as poor Western Farmer living in log cabin (actually aristocrat) Resulting from inaugural address, died of pneumonia after 31 days in office 1840 Election firmly established 2 party system of government John Tyler was Vice President
Issues Debated Since there were no formal party platforms were established, characteristics of the candidates were the main issue of discussion Issues regarding the time were Mexico/Texas, Economic troubles, and relations with Britain in the Oregon region
Party Platforms Neither party had established platforms, but rather relied on mass- gathering campaigns designed to make their candidate appeal to the voters. One such example would be the Huzza-For-Harrison campaign
Election of 1848 (Zachary Taylor) Whig Presidential Candidate Zachary Taylor Whig Ran with Millard Fillmore for VP Mexican War General (received votes from both Whig and Democratic)
Election of 1848 Democratic Party Candidate Lewis Cass Served as Gov. and Senator of Michigan Secretary of War under Jackson!!!!! Silent on slavery (suspected of pro- slavery)
Election of 1848 Free Soil Party Nomination Van Buren Party formed for election to oppose slavery in western states
Election of 1848 Issues Slavery (division of Democrats over slavery gave Northeast to Taylor) Whether annexed Mexican lands should allow slavery Since candidates were being vague on slavery, some people voted on personality
Election of 1848 As President: California wrote constitution with no slavery Opposed Compromise of 1850 (after his death was passed) Mysterious death South spoke of succession, Taylor said he would Lead the Army
Election of 1848 The Results Electoral Votes: Taylor- 163 Cass- 127 Van Buren -0 (maybe next time!!) Popular Votes: Taylor- 47.3% Cass- 42.5% Van Buren- 10.1%
Candidates Franklin Pierce (William King)-Democratic Winfield Scott (William Graham)-Whig John P. Hale (George Julian)-Free Soil Marked the end of the Whig party Eclipse of national parties Rise of sectional parties Franklin Pierce ( ) election of 1852
Party Platforms Whig and Democratic platforms were almost indistinguishable No major issues were debated Campaign was reduced to personal attacks on the candidates. Pierce Mexican-American War brigadier general Served in the House of Representatives and the Senate Northerner (NH) with Southern sympathies
Franklin Pierce ( ) election of 1852 Scott War hero with a 50 year career Scott was anti-slavery which lost him support in the South Whigs were pro-slavery which lost him support in the North Hale Served in the House of Representatives and the Senate Lawyer Opponent of the Mexican-American War Anti-slavery
Franklin Pierce ( ) election of 1852 Election results: popular vote Pierce: 50.8% Scott: 43.9% Hale: 4.9% Election Results: Electoral vote Pierce: 254 Scott: 42 Hale: 0 Lowest voter turnout since 1836 Only president from NH
Franklin Pierce ( ) election of 1852 Pierce as president: Favored the Kansas- Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise Ostend Manifesto (plan to acquire Cuba from Spain) Widely criticized
Sources Consulted l_election,_1852 l_election,_1852 ml ml Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. 13th. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company,
James Buchanan ( ) Election of 1856 Representative from Pennsylvania, elected five times Served in the senate for ten years Secretary of State under Polk Served as both a minister to Russia and Great Britain Election 1856, ran as a democrat Despite not pulling in the majority of the popular votes Buchanan gets the presidency Defeats Fremont 174 to 117, with Fillmore at 8 E.V.
James Buchanan ( ) Election of 1856 Issues during election: - Kansas/Nebraska Uproar: Buchanan had served as minister to Great Britain at this time, thus he remained enemyless. Though of course the issue of slavery had yet to be resolved as a whole. - Immigration influx, mainly more from Ireland and Germany. As President: - Dred Scott decision opens up all territories to slavery, declaring the 1820 compromise unconstitutional. - Not forgetting ….
James Buchanan ( ) Election of 1856 As President: - Late during 1857 an economic plunge combined with the social turmoil of the times created much distress and anger. - Buchanans veto on the Homestead act in 1860, kept the power southerly, where his support flowed from.
James Buchanan ( ) Election of 1856 As a result of the turmoil economically, the north begins to demand free farms of 160 acres to be given to the public. Congress enacts tariff of 1857, reduces duties twenty percent on dutiable goods. Northern Manufactures blame the tariff for the hard times. Two issues emerge via Republicans: - Protection for the Unprotected - Farms for the farmless Senatorial Election of 1858 and the Lincoln-Douglas Debates; a prelude to the union split.