2George Washington (1732-1799) election of 1788/1792 First President of U.S.Won unanimously in 1788 (69 Electoral Votes) and 1792 (132 votes).Only president to get all electoral votesNo Designated Party“Reluctant President”Only 10 states participated in the 1788 election, N.Y. chose no electors, N.C. and R. I. hadn’t ratified the Constitution.
3George Washington (1732-1799) election of 1788/1792 Issues include:Starting a new countryFrench Revolution
4George Washington (1732-1799) election of 1788/1792 As President: Starting a new countryHamilton had plans to establish a national credit and build a financially powerful nation – basis of Federalist Party. Jefferson is opposed to Hamilton – Jeffersonian Republicans.Washington held regular cabinet meetings to debate issues before making a final decision.Promoted neutrality for the country, until it grew stronger.
5George Washington (1732-1799) election of 1788/1792 As President: French RevolutionRefused to accept recommendations from Secretary of State: Jefferson (pro-French) or Secretary of Treasury: Hamilton (pro-British).Insisted on neutral course until the U.S. was stronger.
6George Washington (1732-1799) election of 1788/1792 Set many precedents and customs of the presidency, such as serving max. of two termsTwo parties were developing by the end of Washington’s second term.In his farewell speech, Washington warned against excessive party spirit, geographical distinctions, and long term alliances.
8John Adams (1735-1826) election of 1796 V.P. under G. WashingtonElection in 1796 as FederalistStrong central w/ weak states rights“loose interpretationalist”More electable than HamiltonMain support from New EnglandDefeats T. Jefferson (Dem-Rep) by 3 e.v. (& Pinckney & Burr)
9John Adams (1735-1826) election of 1796 Issues include:Federalist handling of Whiskey rebellion and..Jay’s Treaty (too British-sympathetic)As President:XYZ Affair creates undeclared war w/ French ’97 (“Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute”)“Quasi-War” required taxes --- John Fries revolt in Penn.Convention of 1800 leads to peaceful resolution w/ French and later the Louisiana PurchaseAnd….
10John Adams (1735-1826) election of 1796 As President:Alien and Sedition Acts target Dem-Reps and their supportersVirginia and Kentucky Resolutions create “nullification talk”
11John Adams (1735-1826): election of 1796 Politics moves towards two declared partiesElections about personalities and……..on sectional interestsAdams avoided “entangling alliances”U.S. beginning to form “an identity”, but…Federalists mimic British culture (furniture/literature/art/etc)America must choose Feds or Dem-Reps in 1800!
121800 and 1804 Jefferson (dem-rep) vs. Adams (fed) Democratic-republicans:Strict interpretersStates’ rightistsFeared monarchy/dictatorshipFederalists:Loose interpretersValued strong central gov’tFeared anarchyThomas Jefferson elected162 electoral votes compared to 14 for his Federal opponentFederalists too radical for public, campaigns fizzled out,
13The Men Jefferson Adams Aggressive Somewhat passive, weak voice WriterAppealed to middle class (farmers, artisans, etc.)LiberalSympathized with downtroddenFavored agricultureAdvocated “rule of the people”Minimal militaryFrench influenceAdamsAggressiveStrong speakerAppealed to upper class (North)TraditionalFocused on National BankAdvocated “rule of best people”Strong militaryBritish influence
14The Election Federalists angry with President John Adams Didn’t allow war with France against NapoleonResulted in increased taxes and higher public debtLoyal Federalists bash JeffersonRumors of atheism: believed in separation of church and stateThiefAdultererJefferson electedSouthern states had more votes (slaves counted as 3/5)Aaron Burr helped swing important NY votes from AdamsJefferson and Burr tie, broken by House of Representatives (picked “lesser of two evils”)John Adams is last Federalist President of the USA
15What’s going on 00-04 USA adjusts to new Constitution US Expansion: Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark expeditionWorld: Napoleon invades parts of Europe, Africa, and the AmericasHated Embargo Act of 1807
16Elections 1808 and 1812 Election of 1812 Election of 1808 -James Madison (Dem. Rep.)-Dewitt Clinton (Federalist)-Madison wartime president-Dewitt a Dem. Rep. chosen by Federalists as best chance to beat the Dem. Rep.’s out of office. (He is also the Nephew of Madison’s late V.P.)Election of 1808-James Madison (Dem. Rep.)-Charles Pinckney (Federalist)-Madison former Sec. of State and a friend of Jefferson’s. (Virginian)-Pinckney ran against T-Jeff in 1804.
17Party platforms/strategy Election 1808-Dem. Rep. Madison had Jefferson’s support and T-Jeff still popular.-Running as previous Sec. of State and a Virginian-Federalist Pinckney uses the embargo act and bad foreign politics with Britain and France against Madison and T-JeffElection 1812-Dem. Rep. Madison running as a wartime president.-People don’t want to switch power in the middle of a conflict. (First example of this)-Federalist Dewitt Clinton changed politics according to popular feeling and geography. (South W=pro war-Dewitt=Pro war, New England against-Dewitt=against)-Ran hoping to get people who did not want another term with a Virginian President.
18Election Results Election 1808 Election 1812 -Dem. Rep. Madison Wins by a lot. Pinckney loses.-Madison (122) Clinton (47)Election 1812Dem. Rep. Madison Wins again by a lot (though not as much as before), Dewitt Loses.-Madison (128) Dewitt (89)
19Brief History 1808 1812 -Madison’s War -Embargo of Britain unpopular in New England.-Congress doesn’t cooperate with Madison like it did with T-Jeff.-Divided feelings on seemingly unavoidable war.-Troubles with natives, belief that they had British assistance.-War to reestablish belief in republican system.-Madison asked congress to declare war on June 1, 1812.1812 -Madison’s War-United States not really united-Some in New England helping the British.-U.S. not prepared, regular army scattered and ill trained.-American navy, shining example (Oliver Hazard Perry)-Francis Scott Key Star Spangled Banner.-Jackson Victory in New Orleans.
20James Monroe (1758-1831) election of 1816 Under James MadisonSecretary of State (1812)Secretary of War (1814)Elected in 1816 as Democratic-RepublicanDefeats Rufus King (Federalist) by landslideFederalist party weak due to War of 1812
21As President: James Monroe 1816-1819 “Era of Good Feelings” Economic “Panic of 1819”Missouri CompromiseProhibited Slavery in 36° 30’ ParallelFlorida ceded to United States by Spain
22James Monroe Election of 1820 Ran for re-election unopposedNot elected unanimously by electoral collegeOne elector voted for John Q. AdamsAs President:Andrew Jackson attacked FloridaMonroe Doctrine
23The Election of 1824 John Quincy Adams (Mass) Andrew Jackson (Tenn) Secretary of State – (Mastermind of Monroe Doctrine)Andrew Jackson (Tenn)Military Hero (New Orleans/Indian Fighter)William Crawford (Geor)Henry Clay (Kent)Speaker of the HouseAll candidates were “Republicans”John C. Calhoun ran as VP with Adams and Jackson
24The Election Only 25% of eligible voters voted Voting by section Adams won New EnglandJackson won the South and WestElection decided by CongressClay did not have enough electoral votes to be considered
25The Result Speaker of House Henry Clay promises victory to Adams Adams agreed with Clay’s American SystemFederal Bank, Tariffs, and Roads/CanalsJackson to military/states rightistCrawford finished by a strokeAdams becomes the first “minority President”
26The “Corrupt” Bargain Adams becomes President Clay becomes Secretary of State3 out of 4 last Secretaries of State became PresidentCorruption unlikely because Adams was honest to a fault.Rumors of corruption plagued both Adam’s and Clay’s political careers
27Adams as President Respect > Popularity Unpopular policies A Failure at “Baby kissing” democracy.Only replaced 12 government officialsNo spoils lost Adams party supportUnpopular policiesAmerican SystemFair with Indians in Georgia (Cherokees)Adams=nationalist, America=sectionalist
28The Elections of Andrew Jackson Truly the coolest President
29Election of 1828 Criticized Adams’ National Republican administration “People’s Candidate” on Democratic-Republican ticket.Rachel
30Issues of Elections 1828 – against Pres. John Q. Adams “Corrupt Bargain”Mud-SlingingTariff of Abominations1832 – against Henry ClayRechartering of the National Bank
33Jackson as President Spoils System Veto! Veto! Veto! Weak Cabinet Reduction of National DebtIndian Removal
34Legacy of “Old Hickory” No banking system until 1913Appeal to common manImportance of personality in elections
35Election of 1836 Democrats/Jacksonians Jackson ensured the nomination of Martin Van Buren (his “yes man”) in Van Buren promised to “tread generally” in the shoes of Andrew Jackson, but was not wildly supported by Jacksonians.Against tariffs and federally funded internal improvements.Mostly pro-slavery.Supported independent treasury.Supported by South and West.
36Election of 1836Whig PartyChose “favorite sons,” each with regional appeals, hoping to split the vote and force it to the House of Representatives.Pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, pro-internal improvements.Supported moral reform.Based in New England.
37Election of 1836 Candidates Martin Van Buren, Democrat. General William Henry Harrison (“Old Tippecanoe”), Whig’s leading “favorite son.”Hugh White, WhigDaniel Webster, WhigWillie Mangum, Independent
38Election of 1836 Major Issues Tariffs National Bank vs. Independent TreasurySlaveryInternal Improvements (Federal or State funded)
39Election of 1836 America in 1836 Population is moving west. Women have more opportunities, but are still not equal.Blacks continue to have no rights, whether free or slave.The nation is beginning to be overcome by “manifest destiny.”
40The Election of 1836 Results Van Buren won with 170 to 124 electoral votes, but a much closer popular margin.The Whig’s strategy failed, the election never made it to the House of Representatives.Martin Van Buren became the eighth U.S. president, and the first to have been born under the American flag.
41Martin Van Buren v. William H. Harrison Election of 1840Martin Van Burenv.William H. Harrison
42Election Results 1,274,624 1,127,781 234 60 William H. Harrison Martin Van Buren1,274, ,127,781Popular voteElectoral Vote
43Demographics U.S. Population- 17,069,453 (1840 Census) White= 83.2% Black= 16.8%89% rural 11% urbanAverage U.S. age= 18
44Harrison BackgroundNot best statesman on Whig ticket, but best “Vote-getter”Portrayed as poor Western Farmer living in log cabin (actually aristocrat)Resulting from inaugural address, died of pneumonia after 31 days in office1840 Election firmly established 2 party system of governmentJohn Tyler was Vice President
45Issues DebatedSince there were no formal party platforms were established, characteristics of the candidates were the main issue of discussionIssues regarding the time were Mexico/Texas, Economic troubles, and relations with Britain in the Oregon region
46Party PlatformsNeither party had established platforms, but rather relied on mass-gathering campaigns designed to make their candidate appeal to the voters.One such example would be the “Huzza-For-Harrison” campaign
47Election of 1848 (Zachary Taylor) Whig Presidential CandidateZachary TaylorWhigRan with Millard Fillmore for VPMexican War General (received votes from both Whig and Democratic)
48Election of 1848 Democratic Party Candidate Lewis Cass Served as Gov. and Senator of MichiganSecretary of War under Jackson!!!!!Silent on slavery (suspected of pro-slavery)
49Election of 1848 Free Soil Party Nomination Van Buren Party formed for election to oppose slavery in western states
50Election of 1848IssuesSlavery (division of Democrats over slavery gave Northeast to Taylor)Whether annexed Mexican lands should allow slaverySince candidates were being vague on slavery, some people voted on personality
51Election of 1848 As President: California wrote constitution with no slaveryOpposed Compromise of 1850 (after his death was passed)Mysterious deathSouth spoke of succession, Taylor said he would “Lead the Army”
52Election of 1848 The Results Electoral Votes: Taylor- 163 Cass- 127 Van Buren -0 (maybe next time!!)Popular Votes: Taylor- 47.3%Cass- 42.5%Van Buren- 10.1%
53Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) election of 1852 CandidatesFranklin Pierce (William King)-DemocraticWinfield Scott (William Graham)-WhigJohn P. Hale (George Julian)-Free SoilMarked the end of the Whig partyEclipse of national partiesRise of sectional parties
54Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) election of 1852 Party PlatformsWhig and Democratic platforms were almost indistinguishableNo major issues were debatedCampaign was reduced to personal attacks on the candidates.PierceMexican-American War brigadier generalServed in the House of Representatives and the SenateNortherner (NH) with Southern sympathies
55Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) election of 1852 ScottWar hero with a 50 year careerScott was anti-slavery which lost him support in the SouthWhigs were pro-slavery which lost him support in the NorthHaleServed in the House of Representatives and the SenateLawyerOpponent of the Mexican-American WarAnti-slavery
56Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) election of 1852 Election results: popular votePierce: 50.8%Scott: 43.9%Hale: 4.9%Election Results: Electoral votePierce: 254Scott: 42Hale: 0Lowest voter turnout since 1836Only president from NH
57Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) election of 1852 Pierce as president:Favored the Kansas-Nebraska ActRepealed the Missouri CompromiseOstend Manifesto (plan to acquire Cuba from Spain)Widely criticized
58Sources ConsultedKennedy, David M. , Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. 13th . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006.
59James Buchanan (1791-1868) Election of 1856 Representative from Pennsylvania, elected five timesServed in the senate for ten yearsSecretary of State under PolkServed as both a minister to Russia and Great BritainElection 1856, ran as a democratDespite not pulling in the majority of the popular votes Buchanan gets the presidencyDefeats Fremont 174 to 117, with Fillmore at 8 E.V.
60James Buchanan (1791-1868) Election of 1856 Issues during election:- Kansas/Nebraska Uproar: Buchanan had served as minister to Great Britain at this time, thus he remained enemyless. Though of course the issue of slavery had yet to be resolved as a whole.- Immigration influx, mainly more from Ireland and Germany.As President:- Dred Scott decision opens up all territories to slavery, declaring the 1820 compromise unconstitutional.- Not forgetting ….
61James Buchanan (1791-1868) Election of 1856 As President:- Late during 1857 an economic plunge combined with the social turmoil of the times created much distress and anger.- Buchanan’s veto on the Homestead act in 1860, kept the power southerly, where his support flowed from.
62James Buchanan (1791-1868) Election of 1856 As a result of the turmoil economically, the north begins to demand free farms of 160 acres to be given to the public.Congress enacts tariff of 1857, reduces duties twenty percent on dutiable goods.Northern Manufactures blame the tariff for the hard times.Two issues emerge via Republicans:- Protection for the Unprotected- Farms for the farmlessSenatorial Election of 1858 and the Lincoln-Douglas Debates; a prelude to the union split.