Presentation on theme: "1 World ReligionsWorld Religions. 2 World Religions: Christianity Founded - Jesus-born in Bethlehem over 2000 years ago Born to Jewish family in present-day."— Presentation transcript:
2 World Religions: Christianity Founded - Jesus-born in Bethlehem over 2000 years ago Born to Jewish family in present-day Israel Viewed as the Messiah…son of God Roamed countryside spreading message challenged Jewish authorities Crucified by Roman authorities…..resurrected & went to Heaven
3 World Religions: Christianity Location - Began in current country of Israel (located in Middle East) Currently worldwide esp. in areas of European influence Main sects are Orthodox, Catholic & Protestant Over 2 billion believers makes it worlds largest religion (@33% worlds pop.)
4 World Religions: Christianity Book - Holy Bible Old Testament (Jewish Tenakh/Islamic Quran) talks of Gods covenant w/ Jewish people through Abraham & Moses….about keeping laws New Testament: Since Jesus…stories of Apostles & salvation through Jesus
5 World Religions: Christianity Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Jesus was Gods son – human & divine Jesus died for mankinds sins…salvation is through belief in Jesus & following laws of God 10 Commandments (Jewish Torah) the basis of belief, including: - honor father / mother - thou shalt not kill - worship the 1 God only
6 World Religions: Christianity Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Advent – 4 weeks preparing for Christs birth Christmas – birth of Jesus Epiphany – wise men visit & spread the news Lent–pre-Easter 40 days Jesus spent fasting in desert Holy Week (includes Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, & Good Friday) Easter – Resurrection of Jesus
7 World Religions: Judaism Founded - 4000 years ago in Middle East w/ Abraham Abraham Isaac Jacob (Israel) Promised People = Israelites Moses led Hebrew people from Egypt to Promised Land Moses is given 10 Commandments
8 World Religions: Judaism Location - Promised Land = Canaan = modern day Israel Jewish people spread throughout world (Diaspora) After Holocaust, Jews are given modern Israel in 1948….…..land taken from Muslim Palestineans Currently 14 million (2 - 3% world) 50% in U.S. / 25% in Israel / 25% in Europe, etc.
9 World Religions: Judaism Book - Tenakh = Torah (laws) + Nev'im (prophets) + Ki'tuvim (histories/sayings/etc.) Talmud is collection of rules for reading the Tenakh Scrolls should be read w/ yad
10 World Religions: Judaism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Follow 10 Commandments (Torah) Orthodox / Conservative / Reform conservative/strict liberal/loose Synagogues are Jewish centers of life Shabbat is sundown Friday to dark on Saturday
11 World Religions: Judaism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Bar and Bat mitzvah to celebrate 13 th b-day Hanukkah is the festival of lights (Nov – Dec) Passover celebrates release from Egypt Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year (Sept-Oct) Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement (forgiveness) happens 10 days after R.H.
12 World Religions: Islam Founded - Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, etc all early prophets Muhammad most recent prophet around 600 AD Angel Gabriel reveals Allahs word to Muhammad
13 World Religions: Islam Location - Middle East is the birth place (Mecca, S.A.) Escapes to Medina (Hijrah) Subsequent caliphs help spread the word to….. Middle East & eventually to N.Africa, Spain, Portugal, and Turkey (Ottoman Empire) Worldwide today….1.2 billion including 7m in U.S. w/ majority in India & Indonesia Only 18% are Arabs in Middle East
14 World Religions: Islam Book - Quran (Koran): similar to Old Testament Sunnah is a record of Muhammads preachings 5 Pillars: 1. Shahadah (Allah only God) 2. Salat-5 daily prayers toward Mecca 3. Zakah-donate 2.5% of wealth to poor 4. Sawm-fast during daylight in Ramadan 5. Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca once in life
15 World Religions: Islam Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Belief in Allah, prophets, angels, Torah/Bible/Quran Heaven is reward for good deeds Id ul-Fitr – festival of thankfulness Sunnis (80%) Shiite(15%) power held by Ayatollahs Suffis(5%<) nomadic roaming holy men
16 World Religions: Hinduism Founded - Indus Valley (N. India) 3000 BC Various influences during development….no 1 founder Vedas (hymns) tell the story (passed on orally) Worlds oldest religion?
17 World Religions: Hinduism Location - Indus Valley between present-day India & Pakistan Over 1 billion people today: -India (750 million) -Nepal (19 million)
18 World Religions: Hinduism Book - Vedas – hymns, prayers and spells (3000+ years old) Upanishads – stories told about Hinduism from teachers to students Bhagavad Gita – poem/story about warring families
19 World Religions: Hinduism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Samsara-reincarnation wheel of life/death……this is difficult & you want to avoid it Moksha-release from samsara by replacing ignorance w/ wisdom Brahman-God / spirit…..everywhere Atman-individual souls (add up to make Brahman) Dharma-position in society (priests/teachers, rulers/military, merchants & workers)..DUTY
20 World Religions: Hinduism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Maya prevents people from Moksha…..they see things wrong (like an illusion) Karma-deeds bring us closer to salvation this is how well you live the life you have been given Yoga-way to link mind/body/Brahman Ganges river is sacred Diwali – Festival of Lights….5 days in Fall….also marks the financial new year
21 World Religions: Hinduism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Gods: -Vishnu the preserver -Shiva the destroyer -Rama/Sita = male/female exemplars -Krishna the playful one Avatars - incarnations of the gods (may be leaders of other religions like Buddha or Jesus)
22 World Religions: Buddhism Founded - 2500 years ago Siddhartha Gautama in Gaya, India saw….. Sick man- illness Old man-suffering Dead man-death Are All part of life! Monk-become a wandering holy man
23 World Religions: Buddhism Location - Originally India / Nepal Short-lived in India Moved north and East: -Tibet, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Korea, Japan, etc. Dalai Lama is leader of Vajrayana Buddhists Today 350 million (6% of world population)
24 World Religions: Buddhism Book - Ripitaka or Three Baskets is a collection of Buddhist sayings 3 Universal Truths (impermanence, suffering from desire, no eternal soul) 4 Noble Truths 5 Precepts 8-fold Path (wheel) Meditation is the way to Nirvana (enlightenment)
25 World Religions: Buddhism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - 4 Noble Truths: 1. Life is Suffering 2. Cause of suffering is greed 3. Suffering can be overcome 4.The Middle Path is the way to #3 Personal Responsibility will save you, not a god Eightfold path is how to live the Middle Way
26 World Religions: Buddhism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Right Concentration Right Views Right Mindfulness Right Effort Right Livelihood Right Thoughts Right Speech Right Action
27 World Religions: Buddhism Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Vesak – Celebration of Buddhas birth (April 8) Losar – Tibetan New Year Nirvana Day – Buddhas death
28 World Religions: Traditional Founded / Location- Shinto-Japan 1000 BC Taoisim-China 600 BC Janism-India 500 BC Native American-The Americas 40,000 years ago Rastafarianism-Jamaica 1930s Various local religions esp. Africa &Australia Many still survive today….<5% of population
29 World Religions: Traditional Book - Usually little written documentation Stories preserved through oral histories
30 World Religions: Traditional Practices / Beliefs / Holy Days - Many are animistic (spirits flow through things) Many teach harmony w/ nature Visions / dreams a way to communicate w/spirits Some rely on mind altering experiences: -marijuana / peyote -sensory deprivation -meditation -fasting, etc.