WHAT IS THE APA STYLE? APA - American Psychological Association A format / method of identifying sources used to write a paper. In-text citation also referred to as parenthetical documentation In the body of your work - a brief acknowledgement of what you derived from the source, and where in the work you found the material. Reference List At the end of the paper Lists only those sources referred to in the text of the paper, provides a way for others to find the original documents which you have cited. In-text citation must match exactly an entry in the reference list.
Format - Rules At least 1 margins on all sides Double space throughout (always) Do not right/full justify your text Each page must have header and page number Use separate title page
In-text Citation - Rules: Credit must be given! (regardless of direct quote or paraphrasing.) author's last name and the year of publication for the source Short Quotations: author, year, and the page number for citing a quotation (preceded by "p."). Example linklink Long Quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line indented five spaces omit quotation marks. Example linklink
Reference List - Rules Starts on a new page Place the list of references cited at the end of the paper. Indent subsequent lines five to seven spaces. Double space both within and between entries. Example link List in ABC (alphabetical) order by authors last name. If no author, use article/book title, and alphabetize the main title (if the title starts with A, An, or The, ignore it.) Italicize the title of books, magazines, etc. Do not put quotes ( ) for titles of articles. Format each entry with a hanging indent.
Reference List: Authors List alphabetically by the authors last name. The last name is spelled out. For first name and/or middle name, initials are used. Example: Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star trek chronology: The history of the future. New York: Pocket Books.
Reference List: No Authors If no author is given for a particular source, alphabetize using the title of the work, which will be listed in place of the author, and use a shortened version of the title in parenthetical citations. capitalize only the first word of the title. Example: Reference: The blood business. (1992, September 11). Time, 97, In-Text: ("The Blood Business," 1992)
Reference List: Book Book with one author. An entry in the Reference list: Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of book. City of publisher: Publisher. Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. In text citation: (Carter, 1998)
Reference List: CHAPTERS IN BOOKS CHAPTERS IN BOOKS Author(s) of chapter. (Date of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s), Title of book (page numbers). City of publisher: Publisher. Stern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990). The ocular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp ). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. In text citation: (Stern & Durham, 1990).
Reference List: Journals Give just the year. (vs. magazine – see next slide) No issue number is given for a journal with continuous pagination. continuous pagination – each issue continues the numbering of the pages to the end of the same volume. EXAMPLE: Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, * The commas between title and volume number are in italics.
Reference List Journals with Pagination by Issue: Each issue begins with page number 1. EXAMPLE: Sellard, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995). Administrative issues for use of nurse practitioners. Journal of Nursing Administration, 25(5), *The volume number is in italics. The issue number is not in italics. There is no space between the volume number and issue number. 25 is the volume number and 5 is the issue number.
Reference List: Magazines Magazines: Give the date shown on the publication. Include month and day after year and comma. Names of months are spelled out. Give the volume number, if given. Example: Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262,
Reference List: Newspapers Newspapers: If an article is not on continuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma. Example: Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Reference List: Electronic Sources What is included in a Reference list entry: Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Title of the periodical, volume number,(issue number), page number(s). Retrieved month day, year from name of database. *It is no longer necessary to give the web address for databases that the library has a subscription for. The name of the database is sufficient.
Reference List: Electronic sources Electronic Sources: Example from InfoTrac Velmans, M. (1999). When perception becomes conscious. British Journal of Psychology, 90, Retrieved May 25, 2001, from the Expanded Academic ASAP database.
Reference List: Web pages What is included in an entry: Author/editor. (Date of page creation or last revision). Full title of the web page. Retrieved date, from URL
Reference List: Web pages Example: Green, C. (2000, April 16). History & philosophy of psychology web resources. Retrieved May 22, 2001, from htm
Rules of Thumb What type of sources used in your paper? Books? article in book? Or article in journal? What category of examples in a handout or some APA websites applicable? Book examples … Internet examples? Compare the elements in your source with the corresponding elements in an applicable Replace all elements in the example with the elements you have in your source Double check all available elements in the source used by you
Common Elements Needed for an entry in the Reference List Author Date Title Publication information Date Retrieved URL
Tools in Databases / Useful Websites Tools (APA Manager) within Databases: ProQuest Search Results > select > Create your bibliography to , print, or download > APA > print or Create your bibliography Academic search Premier Search Results > added > Click the Icon for Save > Citation Format pull down menu > Save > Google Search Results: APA style citation > LinkLink In-text citation examples: Reference examples (at the end of the paper):