Presentation on theme: "A Comparison of: Japans Gagaku, and American Armenian Alan Hovhanesss Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints By Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, Period 6."— Presentation transcript:
A Comparison of: Japans Gagaku, and American Armenian Alan Hovhanesss Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints By Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, Period 6
Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, World Music Presentation Japans Demographics 127,078,679 (July 2009 est.) Ethnicities : Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6% Religions : Shintoism 83.9%, Buddhism 71.4%, Christianity 2%, other 7.8% Land Mass : 377,873 km² Geographical Influences : Influenced by Asia, Europe, North America Political Influences : Democratic Party of Japan and Liberal Democratic Party
Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, World Music Presentation Music Idiom : Folk Japanese Imperial Household Primary Instrument : Zithers, Wind Instruments, Strings, Drums Three Variants Yo Scale
Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, World Music Presentation Alan Hovhaness Born in Somerville, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston Began playing Piano from the age of four (his first lesson, at least!) Influenced by nature: he quite enjoyed long walks in the mountains and hills of New Englad as a child His first trip to Japan was in 1960, and in 1962 he returned to study the arts Ah-ak, Bunraku, and Gagaku
Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, World Music Presentation Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints Written as a Xylophone Concerto Inspired by the Gugaku elements: the Yo Scale, Tempo, and Dissonance Modal theory: based on ancient Chinese theory 12 pitches as a foundation for 7-note scales. two scale structures (ryo and ritsu); six modes. Rhythmic theory: rhythms based on 8, 4, and 2 beats 8 beats (nobebyoshi); 4 (hayabyoshi); 2 (osebyoshi) Mixed: 2 and 4 (tadabyoshi); 2 and 3 (yatarabyoshi) Form: Jo-ha-kyu (first appears in gagaku, applied to later Japanese music) Applied at all levels: structure of musical phrase, composition, concert Jo - introduction (slow or free rhythm) Ha - breaking apart; exposition (establishment of rhythm) Kyu - rushing to a finish (acceleration to a climax, return to Jo). Jo-ha-kyu in gagaku: Jo - free meter tuning piece (netori), instruments enter one at a time. Ha - main body of the composition begins, all instruments enter. Kyu - gradual increase in tempo until coda, return to free meter.
Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, World Music Presentation Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints Compared to Gagaku Similarities: Influences by Japanese Culture, and inherently Chinese and Korean culture At times some will play a Solo These solos may be heavily interpreted, or not at all… At many times improvisation will be asked of certain voices Dissonance creates an eerie tone Both have been written for group performance Use Rubato but still stay on tempo with the rest of the group At times it is pure chaos, but from it the melody emerges in that suddenly familiar Yo Scale Contrasts: Fantasy: More usage of western instruments Was made to tell of a certain feeling when looking at Woodprints Only instrumental, percussion does not find a major role Gagaku: Usage of traditional Japanese Instruments Percussion plays a greater role as accent Music of the Royal Family Includes dance
Clifford Wu, IB HL Music Year 1, World Music Presentation Works Cited Information Sources: On Hovaness: On Gagaku: On Japan: Pictures: Japanese Culture: Kamakur.jpg Gagaku Instruments: Hovhaness: gH3DxCfopkA/TsHjREmQ8AI/AAAAAAAACTQ/qVLv2XY7hI/s1600/Hovhaness.jpg